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Full text of "History of the George Washington bicentennial celebration .."

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G E ORGE mSIIINGTON 
lli.CENTEN.NlAL CELEBRATION 



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THE UNIVERSITY 

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Digitized by the Internet Archive 

in 2012 with funding from 

University of Illinois Urbana-Champaign 



http://archive.org/details/historyofgeorgew04geor 



The "Athenaeum" Portrait of 

George Washington 

By Gilbert Stuart 

(Reproduced on opposite page) 

This was the last of three original portraits of George 
Washington by Gilbert Stuart, and was painted in 1796. 
It was not finished and Stuart refused to dispose of it, 
using it for making many copies. It is generally accepted 
as the standard portrait, and a reproduction of this por- 
trait in poster size was placed in every school room in the 
United States and in many schools and libraries abroad 
by the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission. This portrait of George Washington and 
the companion portrait of Martha Washington are 
owned by the Boston Athenaeum, and are exhibited in 
the Museum of Fine Arts at Boston. 




■ 






■ 






■ 









The "Athenaeum" Portrait of George Washington 



T> /"< * 1 1 



LIBRARY 
OF THE 
UNIVERSITY OF ILL 



HISTORY 



OF THE 



George Washington 
Bicentennial Celebration 



JUL ** Z * 



'Hti/ry 



Of 



Foreign Participation 



19 3 2 

United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission 

washington, d. c. 



Ill 



United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission 

President of the United States 
Chairman 

Vice President of the United States 

Speaker of the House of Representatives 



United States Senate 

Simeon D. Fess, Vice Chairman 
Ohio 

Arthur Capper 
Kansas 

Carter Glass 

Virginia 

Millard E. Tydings 
Maryland 



House of Representatives 

Willis C. Hawley 
Oregon 

John Q. Tilson 
Connecticut 

Joseph W. Byrns 
Tennessee 

R. Walton Moore 
Virginia 



Presidential Com missioners 



Mrs. Anthony Wayne Cook 
Pennsylvania 

Mrs. John Dickinson Sherman 
Colorado 

Henry Ford 
Michigan 

C. Bascom Slemp 
Virginia 



Wallace McCamant 
Oregon 

Albert Bushnell Hart 
Historian 

Massachusetts 

Joseph Scott 
California 



Director 

Representative Sol Bloom 

New York 



IV 



j 97X 4/ 

%/2lWunk 



THE WHITE HOUSE 

WAS H I NGTON 



June 1, 1933 



My dear Mr. Bloom: 

It is most gratifying to learn that 
the Celebration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary 
of the Birth of George Washington was observed 
during 1932 in 259 cities in 81 countries out- 
side the boundaries of the United States. This 
event was without precedent as a spontaneous ex- 
pression of international courtesy and good will. 

I have been impressed by the signifi- 
cance of this unusual tribute. People of other 
nations have learned much of the philosophy of 
our government in a way that was clear and ef- 
fective. It was, I believe, probably the 
greatest lesson in history and political develop- 
ment ever given the peoples of the world by any 
one government. 

We are deeply indebted to our neighbors 
for this gracious and magnanimous foreign parti- 
cipation in our Bicentennial Celebration. 

Very sincerely yours, 



-^iitrviJclt'rt Ur\c^t^^cP^yf^ 



Hon. Sol Bloom, Director, 
United States George Washington 

Bicentennial Commission, 
Washington, D. C. 



843529 



Preface 



r I 'HIS volume of the general report of the United States George 
-*■ Washington Bicentennial Commission, which contains the accounts 
of Foreign Participation in the Celebration of the Two Hundredth Anni- 
versary of the Birth of George Washington, is in some respects the most 
interesting and important publication ever issued by this Commission. 
In it are found references to Bicentennial observances and events taking 
place in 81 countries and 2 59 cities outside the boundaries of the United 
States during the Bicentennial Year of 1932. As stated by President 
Franklin D. Roosevelt in his letter, reproduced on another page, "This 
event was without precedent as a spontaneous expression of international 
courtesy and good will," and, "People of other nations have learned much 
of the philosophy of our government in a way that was clear and 
effective." 

It must be understood that neither the Congress nor the Commission 
asked or directly invited foreign participation in the great Celebration. 
All that was intended was to call attention to the event and give other 
nations and peoples of other lands the opportunity to join with us in 
such manner and to the extent they, desired. This accounts for the in- 
teresting variety of celebrations abroad. 

Rulers, parliaments, heads of government, statesmen and leaders of 
thought and culture in all parts of the world, joined with generous en- 
thusiasm in honoring the memory of the Father of our Country. As 
George Washington was the chief exponent of the theory of political 
liberty in a world then filled with tyranny and oppression, it seemed 
appropriate in 1932, after a century and a half of the operation of 
George Washington's plan of government, that an account should be 
taken of his influence upon the world of today. This was the keynote of 
the scholarly and dignified addresses of statesmen and students of history 
in other nations. And the greatness of George Washington as it now 
shines upon mankind, finds reflection in the liberty and political enlight- 
enment that encircle the earth. 



Included in this volume are certain selections from the general 
literary material published by the Commission, in order that added value 
be given it in its use by statesmen and students of foreign countries. 
Indeed, the number of inquiries from abroad that have come to the Com- 
mission for more historical material on George Washington and his time, 
has been greatly appreciated, and it was largely in response to these many 
requests from other countries that the additional material already in 
print was given a place in the book. 

On behalf of this Commission I want to express our sincere grati- 
tude to all who have so unselfishly joined in this inspiring world tribute. 
We are especially appreciative of the generous help we have received 
from Foreign Diplomatic representatives in the United States, our own 
State Department and Diplomatic representatives abroad, as well as many 
other officials of our government, foreign governments and citizens of 
this and other lands. 

The effect of our happy mutual cooperation, leading to a clearer 
understanding among nations of the principles of human relationship 
laid down by the founders of our own Republic, will continue through 
succeeding centuries to encourage peace and good will among men. 

Sol Bloom, 

Director, 

United States George Washington 

Bicentennial Commission 



vm 



Contents 



Page 

The "Athenaeum" Portrait of George Washington by Gilbert Stuart Frontispiece 

United States George Washington Bicentennial Commission iv 

Letter from The Honorable Franklin D. Roosevelt, President of the United States v 

Preface vii 

Foreign Participation ix 

Maps showing the number of Celebrations in Honor of the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington Held in 1932: 

Plate No. 1, North, Central and South America xxxv 

Plate No. 2, Europe, Africa, and Part of Asia xxxvi 

Plate No. 3, Eastern Asia and Australasia xxxvii 

Maps indicating the Locations of Features named for and Statues of George 
Washington outside of Continental United States: 

Plate No. 4 xxxviii 

Plate No. J xxxix 



Page 

ITALY 9 

His Majesty, Victor Emanuel III, King of Italy — Message 

to President Hoover, February 22, 1932 9 

Mussolini, H. E. Premier Benito — Message to President 

Hoover 9 

Fani, H. E. Amedeo, Italian Undersecretary of State for 

Foreign Affairs — Address on George Washington 9 

Italian Bicentennial Committee created 9 

Potenziani, H. E. Prince Ludovico Spada, made Chair- 
man of the Italian Bicentennial Committee 9 

Personnel of Italian Bicentennial Committee named 9 

Rome 

Opening Celebration 10 

Italo-American Society, Reception 10 

Volpi, H. E. Count Giuseppe, Address 11-14 

Garrett, The Honorable John W., American Am- 
bassador, Address 14 

George Washington Boulevard Dedicated 14 

Reception and Radio Broadcast 14 

Martino, H. E. Giacomo de, Italian Ambassador at 
Washington, transmits message to the Honorable 

Sol Bloom, Director 14-15 

The Royal Academy of Italy, Bicentennial Meeting . . 15 
Marconi, H. E. Guglielmo, President of the Acad- 
emy, Presided 15 

Potenziani, H. E. Prince L. S., Address 15 

Formichi, Dr. Carlo, Address 15 

Messages to President Hoover and Honorable Franklin 

D. Roosevelt 16 

Washington Study Course in Italian Schools 16 

Guiliano, H. E. Signor Balbino, Minister of National 

Education in Italy, Issues Bulletin 16 

National Fascist Institute of Culture, Lectures on 

Washington 16 

Giannini, Professor Torquato Carlo, Article 16 



Page 



Florence 



Dedication of Boulevard and Monument to George 

Washington 17 

Official Presentation of Monument 17 

Gherardesca, H. E. Count Giuseppe della, Mayor, 

Accepts Monument 17 

Ojetti, H. E. Signor Dott. Ugo, Royal Academy, 

Address 17-19 

Reception by the City of Florence 19 

Haven, The Honorable John Emerson, United States 
Consul, and Mrs. Haven, Garden Party and 

Reception 19 

Gherardesca, H. E. Count Giuseppe della, Mayor of 
Florence, Presents Old Map of New York to the 
United States Ambassador 19 

Genoa 

University of Genoa George Washington Bicentennial 

Celebration 20 

Giannini, Professor Torquato Carlo, Royal Coun- 
selor of Emigration, Address on George 
Washington 20 

Moresco, Professor Mattia, Rector of the University, 

Presided 20 

Message from the United States George Washington 

Bicentennial Commission 21 

Broccardi, The Honorable E., Mayor of Genoa, 

Address 21 

Leghorn 

Giovara, H. E. Cesare, Prefect of Leghorn, Telegram . . 22 
Olivares, The Honorable Jose de, and Mrs. Olivares, 

Reception 22 



ix 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 
Milan 

Reception and Dance in honor of George Washington. 22 
Brett, The Honorable Homer, American Counsel, 

Address 23-24 

Commemorative Exercises by the Italo-American 

Society 24 

Gallavresi, Professor Giuseppe, Historian of the 

Royal University of Milan, Address 24 

Philology Club, George Washington Program 24 

Fani, H. E. Amedeo, Undersecretary of State, 

Address 24-27 

Thanksgiving Day Bicentennial Celebration 27 

Naples 

George Washington Celebration by the Italo-American 

Union 27 

Salazar, Contessa Fanny Zampini — Bicentennial 

Reading 27 

Borselli, Avvocato Edgardo — Principal address . . 27-28 
Barbagallo, Professor Corrado, Lectures on George 

Washington 28 

July 4th Celebration on the Island of Capri 28 

Thanksgiving Day Bicentennial Celebration in Naples 28 
Nocerino, Cavalier Avvocato Giulio, Principal 

Address 28 

du Bois, The Honorable Coert, Consul General, Mes- 
sage to Honorable Sol Bloom 29 

Palermo 

Bicentennial Tea at the American Consulate 29 

Commemorative Lecture at the Royal University of 

Palermo 29 

Ambrosini, Professor Gaspare, of the Faculty of 

Political Science, of the University — Lecture . 29 

Trieste 

Bicentennial Reception by United States Consul, The 
Honorable Rollin R. Winslow, and Mrs. Winslow, 
at their home 29 

Foschini, Professor Antonio, Editor of Popolo d'ltalia, 

Lecture 29 

Franchini, Professor Vittorio, University of Trieste, 

Lecture 30 

Thanksgiving Day Bicentennial Tea at the home of 

the United States Consul 30 

Turin 

George Washington Birthday Dinner and Dance 30 

Heard, The Honorable William W., American Consul 

at Turin, Address 31 

Reply to the above address by the Prefect of Turin 3 1 

Dedication of George Washington Bridge 32 

Revel, H. E. Count Paolo Thaon di, Mayor of Turin, 

Address on George Washington 3 2 

Address of Appreciation by United States Consul 

Heard 32 



Page 
Telegram from the Honorable Sol Bloom, Director 
of the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission 32 

George Washington Lecture Series 34 

Proclamation by Minister of Education 34 

Historical Documents Published 3 5 

Assistance from Italian Embassy 3 5 

CUBA 

Ferrara, H. E. Dr. Orestes, Ambassador of Cuba, 

Tribute to Washington 36 

Machado, H. E. Gerardo, President of the Republic 
of Cuba, Message to the President of the United 
States < 36 

Havana 

Opening Celebration by Daughters of the American 

Revolution 36 

Burham, Rev. Dewey, Pastor of Union Church, 

Address 37 

White, Miss Clara, Regent of the D. A. R. Havana 
Chapter, issues invitation to all resident 

Americans 37 

Blankingship, Dean Hugo, of Holy Trinity Cathe- 
dral, Invocation 37 

Service in Cathedral 38 

Hulse, Bishop H. R., Sermon 38 

Guggenheim, The Llonorable Harry F., American Am- 
bassador and Mrs. Guggenheim, Reception at the 

Embassy 38 

Ybor, Dr. Rafael Martinez, Director of the National 
Press Bureau, Radio Broadcast on George 

Washington 39 

George Washington Day at Oriental Park, Havana's 
famous racing track, featuring the "George 

Washington Race" 39 

American Legion — Havana Post No. 1 — George Wash- 
ington Birthday Dinner Dance — National Hotel 39 
The George Washington School — Gift Portrait Un- 
veiled 40 

Guerra, Dr. Ramiro, General Superintendent of 

Schools, Presided 40 

Marrero, Dr. Rodriguez, Principal, Address 40 

Galan, Dr. Garcia, Administrator, Address 40 

ClENFUEGOS 

Alexander, The Honorable Knox, American Consul, 

and Mrs. Alexander, Reception 40 

Bello, H. E. Senor Juan Antonio Vasquez, Governor 
of the Province of Santa Clara, Presented with 
Portrait of George Washington 41 



Preston 

School Children Celebrate 



41 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 

Bayate, Oriente 

American Pioneer Society of Cuba — Old-style picnic 

and dance 41 

Dickinson, The Honorable Horace J., American Consul 

at Antilla, Message 41 

Palmarito — Pioneer Picnic and Dance 42 

Banes 

Women's Welfare Association — George Washington 

Celebration 42 

Malaret, Dr. Peter S., Superintendent of Hospital, 

Master of Ceremonies 42 

Santiago 

Cuban Veterans of the Cuban War — Tribute to 

Washington 44 

Schoenrich, The Honorable Edwin, American Consul, 
Letter to United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission 44 

Isle of Pines 

School Board — Bicentennial Excursion 45 

Hibiscus Club — George Washington Program with 

Tableaux 45 

Ferrara, H. E. Dr. Orestes, Secretary of State of Cuba — 

Tribute 45 

Press of Cuba honors Washington 45 

Machado, H. E. Gerardo, President of Cuba, Message 

on Pan-American Day ' 45 

FRANCE 

Doumer, H. E. M. Paul, President of the French 

Republic, Tribute 49 

Claudel, H. E. M. Paul, French Ambassador in Wash- 
ington, Communication 49 

Edge, The Honorable Walter E., United States Ambas- 
sador to France, Dispatch 49 

Bicentennial Medal Struck 50 

Cooperating Organizations 50 

Taylor, Colonel William N., President of the American 
Chamber of Commerce in France, made Chair- 
man of Bicentennial Committee of Paris 50 

Resolution adopted 51 

Paris 

Program of events — February 20-21-22 52-53 

American Legion — Official Inauguration of Celebration 53 

Wreath-laying Ceremonies 5 3-54 

Peck, Commander Sedley, Department of France of 
the American Legion, Placing of wreath at 

Washington Statue 54 

Societe de Croix de Guerre — Banquet at Cercle 

Militaire 5 5 



Page 

Service at the American Cathedral Church of the Holy 

Trinity $ * 

Beekman, Rev. Francis W., Sermon on George 

Washington 5 5 

American Church of Paris, Washington Services 56 

Cochran, Dr. Joseph Wilson, Sermon 56 

Students Atelier Reunion 57 

Williams, Rev. Clayton E., Student Director, Wash- 
ington Address 57 

Sorbonne, Bicentennial Ceremony 57 

Cestre, Dr. Charles, Professor of American Literature 

of the Universite de Paris, Address 57-58 

Roz, H. E. Firmin, of the Comite France-Amerique, 

Eulogy 58-60 

Rollin, H. E. Louis, Minister of Commerce, for the 

French Government 60 

Gouraud, General, Military Governor of Paris, for the 

French Army 60-62 

Copeau, M. Jacques, Noted French Author — Letters to 

Lafayette 63 

Souza-Dantas, H. E. Senhor de, Ambassador of Brazil, 

Eulogy of Washington 63 

Armour, The Honorable Norman, Charge d'Affaires 

of American Embassy, Address 63-64 

Garde Republicaine Band — Washington Music 64 

American Veterans of Foreign Wars of Paris — Led con- 
tingent to George Washington Monument 65 

Beaumont, Charles, Commander of Veterans of For- 
eign Wars of Paris, Tribute to Washington ... 66 

Neveu, M. de, Address 66 

Chilly, Comtesse de, received gift for Daughters of 

the American Revolution in Paris 66 

American Women's Club Bicentennial Luncheon. ... 66 

Embassy Luncheon 67 

Edge, The Honorable Walter E., United States Am- 
bassador, Address read by: 
Armour, The Honorable Norman, Charge d'Affaires 

American Embassy 67 

Souza-Dantas, H. E. Senhor de, Brazilian Ambas- 
sador, Address 67 

Guani, H. E. Senor, Minister of Uruguay, Address 67-68 

American Club Bicentennial Banquet 68 

Doumer, H. E. M. Paul, President of the French 

Republic, Address 69 

Edge, The Honorable Walter E., Address at Ban- 
quet 70-71 

Hills, Mr. Lawrence, President of the American 

Club, Address 71-72 

Delsol, M., President of the Association Amicale des 
Anciens Officiers de Liaison pres del'Armee 

Americaine, Address 72 

Maison des Nations Americaines — Unveiling of Busts 73 

Public Square renamed 74 

Fontenay, M. de, President of Municipal Council, 

Address 74 

July 4th Bicentennial Ceremonies 75 

Palace of Legion of Honor — Bicentennial Reception. . 76 
American University Women's Club — Reception .... 76 



XI 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 

American Students in Paris lay cornerstone 76 

Paris Post American Legion — Placed Wreath 76 

American Chamber of Commerce in France — Bicen- 
tennial Banquet 76 

Herriot, H. E. Premier Edouard, represented at Ban- 
quet by: 

Renoult, H. E. M., Address 78 

Loeb, Mr. Charles G., President American Chamber 

of Commerce in France, Address 78-79 

Armour, The Honorable Norman, Address 79-80 

Kellogg, The Honorable Frank B., Former Secre- 
tary of State, Address 80-82 

Reception at Hotel de Ville 8 3 

Presentation of Painting 84 

Hanotaux, M. Gabriel, President of French-Amer- 
ican Committee, Address 85-86 

Opera Stars sing in Concert 86 

Bicentennial helpful in world crisis 87 

Thanksgiving Day Bicentennial Ceremonies 88 

American Church 88 

Statue of George Washington — Veterans of Foreign 

Wars conducting 88 

Cochran, Rev. Joseph Wilson, Sermon 88-90 

Nice 

Palais de la Mediterranee — Washington Birthday 

Dinner 91 

Bicentennial Concert in Public Park 91 

Strasbourg 

Bicentennial participation 91 

Calais 

Groupe d'Interpretes Benevoles — Bicentennial Cele- 
bration 92 

Carter, The Honorable James G., American Consul, 

Address 92 



Nantes 



i > : 



Amities Internationales — Bicentennial Celebratiorf" 
Craven, Professor R. W., of the Ecole Normale de 

Savenay, Address 93 

Bordeaux 

American Consulate and Bordeaux American Legion 

Post, Reception 93 

Dramatic Panorama by Sacha Guitry 93 

French Archives yield Historical Data 9 5 

American College given stone from Pasteur's Birthplace 97 

Franco- American Radio Program 97 

Bloom, The Honorable Sol, Director of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion, Radio Address 97-99 

Henry, H. E. Jules, Charge dAffaires ad interim of 
France, Address 99 



Page 
ALGERIA 

Algiers 

Hotel St. George, Bicentennial reception 100 

Fresnel, H. E. Dollin du, Consul of Honduras — Special 

article on George Washington 100 

Gala Washington Dinner at Hotel Aletti 100 

FRENCH INDO-CHINA 

Saigon 

Dedication of Square in honor of Washington 101 

Presentation of Bronze Bust by the American Colony 101 
Waterman, The Honorable Henry S., American 

Consul, Address 102-3 

Eutrope, H. E. E., Governor of Cochin-China, 

Address 103-4 

American Colony Reception 105 

Bicentennial Banquet given by Governor Eutrope. ... 105 
Pasquier, H. E. Governor General, Message to Amer- 
ican Consul 106 

MADAGASCAR 
Tananarive 

Kemp, The Honorable Percy G., American Vice Consul 

— Washington Dinner Party at the Consulate . . 107 

Ivory, Fianarantsoa 

American Mission, Bicentennial Tea 107 

Fort Dauphin 

Dysland, Miss Clara, of the American School, Report 107-8 
Torvik, Miss Agnes, Prize Winning Essay 108-9 

SOCIETY ISLANDS 

Island of Tahiti, Papeete 

Garrety, The Honorable William P., American Consul 
— Reception and Program at the American 
Consulate 109 

Bureau of the Consulate — Portrait of Washington 

hung 109 

TURKEY 

Kemal, H. E. Gazi Mustafa, President of Turkey, 

Message HI 

Bicentennial Commitee for Turkey named Ill 

Grew, The Honorable Joseph C, American Ambas- 
sador, made Chairman Ill 

Istanbul 

Robert College Participation 111-12 

Grew, The Honorable Joseph C, American Ambas- 
sador, Address 112 



xn 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 

Women's College Participation 111-12 

American Embassy, Bicentennial Reception 112 

Community George Washington Luncheon 112 

Izmir 

Consulate, Bicentennial Reception 113 

Reed, Dr. Cass A., President International College, 

Address 113 

MacFarlane, Mr. Archibald, Washington Entertain- 
ment at his home 113 



GERMANY 

von Hindenburg, H. E. Paul, President of the Reich, 

Message 115 

von Prittwitz, H. E. Herr Friedrich W., Message ... 115 

Deutsche Akademie, Bicentennial project 115 

Wittke, Dr. Carl, Professor of History, Ohio State 

University 115 

German Bicentennial Committee named — Personnel . . 116 

Wirth, Dr. Frederick, named Chairman 116 

Sub-committees appointed 116 

Berlin 

American Church in Berlin, Commemorative services 116 
Messersmith, The Honorable George S., American 

Consul General, Address 116-19 

Public Square named for Washington 119 

Carl Schurz Society — sponsor of Bicentennial Cere- 
monies 119 

Draeger, Dr. Hans, President Carl Schurz Society, 

Address 120 

Loebe, H. E. Dr. Paul, President of the Reichstag, 

Address 120 

Wiley, The Honorable John S., Charge d'Affaires, 

American Embassy, Response 120 

Marble Hall, Berlin, Bicentennial Celebration 120 

Sackett, The Honorable Frederic M., United States 

Ambassador, Presided, Address 120-21 

Woodbridge, Dr. Frederick J. E., Columbia Uni- 
versity Professor, Address 121-23 

Bonn, Dr. M. J., Address 124-2 5 

American Chamber of Commerce — Washington Cele- 
bration 125 

Suedekum, Dr., Former Minister of Finance, Address 12 5 

Reichstag Bicentennial Ceremony 126 

Bruening, H. E., Dr. Heinrich, Chancellor of the 

German Reich, Address 126-27 

Sackett, The Honorable Frederic M., Address 128 

Wildelband, Professor Wolfgang, University of Ber- 
lin, Address 129-3 1 

Bloom, The Honorable Sol., Director United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 

Message 131 

Bicentennial Pageant — Hotel Esplanade 131-32 



Page 

American Club of Berlin — Bicentennial Dinner Dance 132 

Exhibition of Old Newspapers — Hotel Esplanade 133 

Thanksgiving Day Bicentennial Celebration 134 

Wirth, Dr. Frederick, Chairman Bicentennial Com- 
mittee, Message 135 

Bremen 

Bremen City Hall — Community Bicentennial Cere- 
monies 135 

Schecker, Dr., Educator, Address 135 

Leonard, The Honorable W. A., American Consul, 

Presided 136 

Breslau 

Bradford, The Honorable Robert R., United States 

Consul, Bicentennial Tea 136 

German Academy, University of Breslau, Technical 
High School, Silesian Group for Native Culture, 

Sponsored Lecture 136 

Wittke, Dr. Carl, Lecture on George Washington. . . 137 

Cologne 

Bicentennial Banquet, Hotel Excelsior 137 

Brandt, The Honorable George L., American Consul, 

Remarks 137 

Kuske, Dr., Rector of the University of Cologne, 

Address 137 

American School, Bicentennial program 137 

Anglo-American Church in Cologne, Commemorative 

Service 137-38 

Dresden 

"George Washington Week" 138 

New City Hall — opening Bicentennial Celebration 138 
Haeberle, The Honorable A. T., American Consul 

General, Report 138-39 

Schieck, H. E. Dr. Walther, Minister President, State 

of Saxony, Address 139 

Ku'lz, The Honorable Dr. Wilhelm, Lord Mayor of 

Dresden, Address 139-40 

Kuhn, Dr. Johannes, Professor of History, Uni- 
versity of Dresden, Address 141-43 

Church of St. John, Bicentennial Service 144 

Bruce, Rev. Edward M., Sermon on George Wash- 
ington 144 

Patriotic performance honoring George Washington — 

Albert Theatre 144 

Exposition Building in Dresden — Bicentennial Cele- 
bration 144 

Mannsfeld, Dr. Karl, Minister of Justice for Saxony, 

Address 145 

Koppen, Mr. George, City Councillor, Remarks. ... 146 
Altaffer, The Honorable Maurice W., United States 

Consul, Remarks 146 

Bruce, Rev. E. M., Principal Address 146-47 



xin 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 

Kulz, The Honorable Dr. Wilhelm, Lord Mayor, 

Message 148 

Humboldt Club of Dresden, Bicentennial Celebration 149 

Bicentennial Reception and Musical Tea, Bellevue Hotel 149 

Thanksgiving Day Ceremonies 151 

Street named for Washington 152 

Frankfort 

Bicentennial Celebration in the Palmengarten 152 

Lowrie, The Honorable W. L., American Consul 

General, Presided 152 

Landmann, The Honorable Dr., Mayor of Frankfort, 

Address 152 

Grote, Professor Louis R., of the von Noorden- 

Klinik, Address 152-53 

Darmstadt 

City Square named for "Washington 153 

Muller, The Honorable Mayor, Speech 153-54 

Hamburg 

Washington's Birthday Celebration in the City Hall. . 154 

Peterson, Dr. Carl, Burgomaster, Presided 154 

Rein, Dr. Adolph, University of Hamburg, Address 1 54 

Bicentennial Banquet and Ball 155 

Street named for Washington 155 

Society of Friends of the United States, the Institute of 
Foreign Politics and Bicentennial Committee 

sponsor Celebration 155 

Thanksgiving Day Bicentennial Celebration 155 

Miller, Mr. Charles B., American Club, Address . 15 5-56 

Leipzig 

Bicentennial Celebration in the Rathaus 156 

Busser, The Honorable Ralph C, American Consul, 

Speech of Welcome 157-58 

Loeser, The Honorable Edward, Mayor, Address . . . 15 8 
Brandenburg, Dr. Erich, University of Leipzig, 

Address 158 

Munich 

Municipal Bicentennial Celebration 159 

Gurtner, H. E. Dr., Bavarian Minister of Justice, 

Address 159 

Scharnagl, The Honorable Dr. Karl, Mayor of 

Munich, Address 159 

Wittke, Dr. Carl F., Address 159-60 

Bicentennial Banquet, Hotel Bayerischer Hof 160 

Hathaway, The Honorable Charles M., United States 

Consul General 160 

Goldenberger, Dr. Franz, Address 160 

Stuttgart 

George Washington Memorial Library Founded 161 



Page 
Dominian, The Honorable Leon, American Consul 

General, Message 161 

Presentation Ceremonies 161 

Rothmund, Dr., Rector of the Technische Hoch- 

schule, Address 161-62 

Sakmann, Dr. Paul, Address 162-63 

Dominian, The Honorable Leon, Address of Pre- 
sentation 163-64 

Rothmund, Dr., Address of Acceptance 164-65 

JAPAN 
Tokyo 

Bicentennial Committee of Japan 

Frazar, Mr. E. W., Chairman 167 

Forbes, the Honorable W. Cameron, American Ambas- 
sador — Report 167 

George Washington Bicentennial Celebration at Hibiya 

Kokaido, or Public Hall 167 

Supper 167 

Motion Picture — "George Washington, His Life and 

Times" 167 

Evening Program — Hibiya Kokaido, or Public Hall . 167 

Supper 167 

Osaka Troupe — Marionette Show for Children 167 

Frazar, Mr. E. W— Address 167 

Forbes, The Honorable W. Cameron, American Am- 
bassador — Address 168 

Tokukawa, H. E. Prince — Address 169 

American School — Celebration at Hibiya Kokaido — 
Series of four living pictures given by the school 

children 169 

Wakaba-Kai — Japanese Performance — Hanami Odori 
which depicted a cherry blossom dance of 200 

years ago 169 

Washington Takes the Risk — historical play 170 

Frazar, Mr. E. W.— Letter 172 

Yomiuri Shimbun — Japanese newspaper — four-page 
children's section devoted to life of George Wash- 
ington and the celebration of his 200th birthday 173 

Kobe, Osaka and Kyoto 

George Washington Bicentennial Committee 

Dickover, The Honorable E. R., American Consul, 

Chairman 173 

Dickover, The Honorable E. R. — Radio Address . 173-175 
Tree Planting Exercises — Kobe Recreation Grounds. . 175 
Japan American Society — Dinner 176 

Forbes, The Honorable W. Cameron, American Am- 
bassador — Address 176 

Motion Picture 176 

Tree Planting Exercises — Okazaki Park, Kyoto 176 

Donovan, The Honorable Howard, American Consul 

— Address 176 

Essay Contest 176 

Donovan, The Honorable Howard — Address . . 176-179 
Donovan, The Honorable Howard — Letter 179 



xiv 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 
Nagasaki 

American Association of Nagasaki — George Washing- 
ton Birthday Party 179 

Japan Advertiser — Description of above event..., 179 
George Washington Bicentennial Committee in 
Nagasaki 

Hitchcock, Mrs. Henry B., Chairman 180 

Martin, Captain Truman F., Member of Committee — 

Letter 180 

Nagoya 

Chapman, The Honorable J. Holbrook, American Con- 
sul — Report 180 

Chapman, The Honorable J. Holbrook, American Con- 
sul — Letter 180 

Debuchi, H. E. Katsuji, Japanese Ambassador — Article 

in Washington Times 180 

American Foreign Service Journal — Article, "Amer- 
icanization of Japan" 181 

Grew, The Honorable Joseph W., American Ambas- 
sador — Letter 182 

CHOSEN 
Seoul 

Davis, The Honorable John K., American Consul 

General — Dispatch 182 

Religious Ceremony at Morris Hall 182 

Flag Raising Ceremony at American Consulate Gen- 
eral, Feb. 22, 1932 182 

Davis, The Honorable John K., American Consul 

General — Address 182-183 

Invitational gathering in Post Chapel of John D. 

Wells School 183 

Box luncheon 183 

Seoul Press — Article 183 

Essay Contest Winners announced by the Honorable 

John K. Davis 183 

Davis, The Honorable John K., American Consul 

General — Report 183 

Koshu 

Okasaki, H. E. Tetsuro, Governor of the South Chusei 

Province of Chosen — Address 184 

Pyengyang 

Davis, The Honorable John K., American Consul 

General — Presentation of portrait 184 

Foreign School — Pageant, "America Must Not Fail". . 184 
Community Church — Sermon, "George Washington 

as a Christian Gentleman" 184 

JvWANGJU 

Boyce, Miss Flora McNeill, teacher in Kwangju School 

for American Children — Letter 184 



Page 



SOONCHUN 



Southern Presbyterian Church — Play, "When Martha 

and George Return" 184 



POLAND 
Warsaw 

Moscicki, H. E. Ignace, President of Poland — Cable- 
gram 185 

Kotnowski, The Honorable Leopold, Chairman George 
Washington Bicentennial Committee in Poland — 

Cablegrams 185 

Schaetzel, H. E. Acting Minister of Foreign Affairs — 

Cablegram 185 

Polish-American Society — George Washington Ball. . 187 

Central Committee — Meeting in Town Hall 188 

Kotnowski, The Honorable Leopold — Address 188 

Raczkiewicz, H. E. Wladyslaw, President of the 

Senate of Poland — Address 188-190 

Slominski, The Honorable Zygmunt, Mayor of War- 
saw — Address 190 

Askenazy, Professor Szymon — Address 190-192 

Flack, The Honorable Joseph, Charge d'Affaires ad 

interim of the United States — Address . 192-193 
Poland's National Holiday, May 3, Dedicated to Wash- 
ington 194 

Important thoroughfare named "George Washington 

Avenue" 194 

Washington Oak planted in Paderewski Park 194 

Commemorative postage stamp issued 195 

Celebration in Paderewski Park 197 

Religious services in American Methodist Church, 

Thanksgiving Day 198 

Huddle, The Honorable J. Klahr, Consul General — 

Excerpt from Address 198 

Polish-American Radio Broadcast on 15 3d anniversary 

of the death of Casimir Pulaski, October 11, 1932 198 
Bloom, The Honorable Sol, Director, United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 

Radio Address 198-199 

Sokolowski, The Honorable Wladyslaw, Charge d'Af- 
faires ad interim of Poland — Address 199-200 

Gdynia 

Catholic Church of the Virgin Mary — Religious 

exercises 193 

Evangelic Church of the Naval Commercial Institute 193 

Principal Street renamed "George Washington Street" 193 
Central Committee — booklet on the life of George 

Washington 193 

Cracow 

Motion Picture, "America," shown at the Municipal 

Industrial Museum 196 

Piotrowski, Colonel Tadeusz — Lecture 196 



xv 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 
Public gathering in Cracow City Hall on Washington's 

birthday 196 

Belina-Prazmowski, The Honorable Wladyslaw, Mayor 

of Cracow — Message 196 

WlLNO 

Commemorative program presented in City Hall, 

February 28, 1932 196 

Folejewski, The Honorable, Mayor of Wilno — Message 197 

POZNAN 

Bicentennial Program Presented in Polish Theater 

March 6, 1932 197 



ENGLAND 
Liverpool 

Liverpool Post and Mercury — Editorial tribute 203 

Manchester 

Manchester Guardian — Editorial tribute 203 

Churchill, The Honorable Winston — Excerpt from 

address 203 

Lindsay, H. E. Sir Ronald, British Ambassador to the 

United States — Article in the Washington Times 203 

Newcastle-on-Tyne 

Barnes, Rev. Herbert, Church of Divine Unity — 

Address 204 

London 

Religious Services in Churches, February 21, 1932. . 204 

American Chamber of Commerce and American 
Legion in England placed wreaths upon statue of 
Washington in famous Trafalgar Square, and upon 
the bust of Washington in the crypt at St. Paul's 

Cathedral 204 

Halstead, The Honorable Albert, American Consul 

General — Address 204 

The American Circle of the Lyceum Club — Dinner, 

February 22, 1932 205 

Atherton, The Honorable Ray, American Charge 
d'Affaires and Mrs. Atherton, American Em- 
bassy — Reception 205 

The American Women's Club and the Walter Hines 
Page Chapter of the Daughters of the American 

Revolution — Celebration 205 

The American Women's Club Magazine — Account 

of above event 205 

The Times — Article, "Washington, the Man and His 
Fame; A Planter with a Plain Creed," by S. E. 
Morison, Harmsworth Professor of American His- 
tory, Oxford University 205-207 

The Daily Telegraph — Article, "Unfair to Wash- 
ington" 207-208 



Page 
American Society in London — Independence Day ban- 
quet, Hotel Savoy 208 

The Pilgrims of Great Britain — Dinner, Hotel Victoria 208 
Derby, K. G., The Right Honorable Earl of — Address 208 
Churchill, The Honorable Winston— Address 209-210 
Butler, Dr. Nicholas Murray, President of Columbia 

University, New York City — Address . . . 210-211 
Derby, K. G., The Right Honorable Earl of — Closing 

Remarks 211-212 

American Society in London — Thanksgiving Dinner 

and Ball, Hotel Savoy 212 

Mellon, The Honorable Andrew W., American 

Ambassador — Address 212-213 

Frazer, The Honorable Robert, American Consul 

General — Address 213 

Cabell, Mr. Robert Hervey, Chairman of the 

American Society in London — Address 214 

Bristol 

Tablet unveiled in honor of Col. Henry Washington, 

December 4, 1931 215 

Wrench, Mr. Evelyn — Excerpt from address 215 

Lennard, Col. E. W., Chairman of the Council of 
the Royal Empire Society — Brief outline in con- 
nection with the marking of the spot 216 

The Times and Mirror — Comment on above event . 216 

Liverpool 

Post and Mercury — Editorial 216-217 

Manchester 

The Manchester Public Library — George Washington 

Display 217 

The Manchester City Neivs — Article on above dis- 
play 217-218 

Thompson, The Honorable A. R., American Consul 

and Mrs. Thompson — Reception, Midland Hotel . 218 
Thompson, The Honorable A. R., American Consul — 

Dispatch 218 

Manchester Guardian — Editorial 218 

Durham and Northumberland 

Tyneside Sunday Lecture Society — George Washington 

Service 219 

Barnes, Rev. Herbert, Church of the Divine Unity — 

Address 220 

Doty, The Honorable William F., American Con- 
sul — Address 220-222 

Explanation of various forms of the name "Washing- 
ton" " 222-223 

Washington Parish Church — Religious service, Feb- 
ruary 21, 1932 223 

Washington Parish Magazine — Report of above 

event 223 



xvi 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 
Anglican Parochial Church Council — "American Tea," 

July 4, 1932 224 

Kellett, Mr. M. H., Managing Director of the 

Washington Coal Co. — Address 224 

Doty, The Honorable William F., American Con- 
sul — Address 224-226 

Efforts to save Washington Old Hall 226 

Sunday Sun — Article "Durham's Wonder Town is 

Washington" 226-227 

Schools Lead in Celebration 227 

Dedication of Washington genealogical tablet, Feb- 
ruary, 1932 228 

Inscription on above tablet 228 

School Children Exchange Flags 228 

The Evening Star, Washington, D. C. — Article on 

above 228 

Pouch, Mrs. William H., Vice President, Daughters 

of the American Revolution — Message 229 

Hurder, Miss Gabrielle, Organizer, America's Creed 

Crusaders — Message 229 

Evening Star, Washington, D. C. — Article on inter- 
change of flags 229 

Doty, The Honorable William F., American 

Consul — Letter 229 

Flags sent to school children of Washington, Eng- 
land, by public schools of Washington, D. C. 229 
Bloom, The Honorable Sol, Director, United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 

Presentation of Flags 230-231 

Flags presented to school children in Washington, 

England 231-232 

Squire, The Honorable Paul C, American Consul — 

Address 232-234 

Local Advertiser and Monthly Record — Article "The 

Washington Bicentenary" 234-23 J 

Lancashire 

Pilgrimage to Parish Church at Warton-in-Lonsdale 23 5-236 

Description of the Washington House 236-237 

Ancestry of Washington 237-239 

Northampton 

Scott, The Honorable Charles R., Mayor of the County 

Borough of Northampton — Letter 239 

SULGRAVE 

Pilgrimage to Sulgrave Manor, July 14, 1932 239-240 

Short history of the Manor 240 

Mellon, The Honorable Andrew W., American Am- 
bassador — Address 241-242 

Fisher, Mr. H. A. L. — Address 242-243 

Rowe, Mrs. Nicholas, Walter Hines Page Chapter, 
Daughters of the American Revolution — 
Address 243 



Page 
SCOTLAND 

Grahame, Dr. James — Epitome 244 

Edinburgh 

George Washington Commemorative Program held at 

the Royal Arch Halls, February 22, 1932 244 

Brady, The Honorable Austin C, American Con- 
sul — Address 245 

The Scotsman — Report of other addresses delivered 

at above celebration 245 

Dinner of international character held at a prominent 

Edinburgh Hotel, November 23, 1932 246 

Brady, The Honorable Austin C, American Con- 
sul — Address 246 

American Theological Students — Dinner 246 

American medical students in Edinburgh convened at a 

banquet on November 2 5 246 

Glasgow 

Honaker, The Honorable Samuel W., American Con- 
sul General — Letter 246 

Kerr, Mrs., descendant of surgeon in Washington's 

army, displays revolutionary treasures 246 

Glasgoiv Herald — Article "The Father of His Coun- 
try 246-248 

Watson, The Honorable John J. C, American Consul — 
presentation of Athenaeum portrait of George 
Washington to the universities at St. Andrews 
and Aberdeen 248 

Dundee Rotary Club — Thanksgiving Dinner 248 

The Aberdeen Press and Journal — Article "George 
Washington's Famous Cherry Tree Really Grew 
in a Garden in Aberdeen" 248-249 

Northern Ireland 

Memminger, The Honorable Lucien, American Consul 

General — Reception 249 

Memminger, The Honorable Lucien, American Con- 
sul General — Address 249 

Belfast Telegraph — Editorial 250 

AUSTRALIA 

The Daily Telegraph — Articles 251 

The Advertiser — Article 251 

Adelaide, South Australia 

Reception at American Consulate 251 

Symon, H. E., Sir Josiah — Address 251-252 

Wolcott, The Honorable Henry M., American Con- 
sul — Address 252-253 

Sydney 

Streets named for Washington 253 



CONTENTS 

Page 



Melbourne 



Series of Editorial Tributes 2 53 

Bureau of Social and International Affairs, Bicentennial 

Celebration 253 

Brookes, The Honorable Herbert, Australian Commis- 
sioner General, Address 2 54-58 

Bicentenary Ball, English Speaking Union 258 

Collection of Original Letters 258 

Dye, The Honorable John W., American Consul, Letter 2 58 

Brisbane 

The Courier, Washington Editorial 258 

Perth 

The West Australian, George Washington Article . . 2 59 

NEW ZEALAND 
Auckland 

Boyle, The Honorable W. F., American Consul, Bicen- 
tennial Luncheon 260 

Hutchinson, The Honorable G. W., Mayor of Auck- 
land, Address 260 

Boyle, The Honorable W. F., Statement in the Press 260 

Wellington 

Bicentennial Celebrations 261 

The Evening Post, Editorial 261 



INDIA 

General Bicentennial participation 



261 



Calcutta 

Frost, The Honorable A. C, American Consul General, 

Message 262 

American Consulate, George Washington Dinner. . . 262 

Washington Society formed 262 

Resolution 262 

Bicentennial Press Reports 262-63 

Tagore, Rabindranath, Article on Washington 264 

India and the World, Special George Washington 

Edition 264-66 

Karachi 

Groeninger, The Honorable J. G., American Consul, 

Report 266 

Washington Birthday Celebration 266 

Howard, Mr. and Mrs. H., Reception and Garden Party 266 

Independence Day Bicentennial Celebration 266 

Bombay 

Bicentennial Committee formed 267 

Washington's Birthday Celebration 267 



-Continued 

Page 
McDonough, The Honorable Dayle C, American Con- 
sul, Report 267 

Willingdon Sports Club, Bicentennial Dinner 267 

Rangoon 

Scott, The Honorable Winfield H., American Consul, 

Tribute 267 

Washington picnic, American Association 268 

Burma 

American Association of Burma, Washington Dinner 268 

American School at Taunggyi, Bicentennial Celebration 268 
Methodist English Church, Bicentennial Service, 

Rangoon 268 

THE STRAITS SETTLEMENTS 
Singapore 

Maynard, The Honorable Lester, American Consul, 

Festival 268 

Malaya Tribune, Article 268 

BERMUDA 
Hamilton 

Kemper, The Honorable Graham H., American Consul, 

and Mrs. Kemper, Reception 269 

Cubitt, His Excellency, Governor, and Lady Cubitt, 

Attended 269 

JAMAICA 
Kingston 

Pilgrim Club of America, Bicentennial Celebration. . . 269 
Squire, The Honorable Paul C, American Consul, 

Address 269 

Lisser, Mr. Herbert G. de, Eulogy 270 

TRINIDAD 

Demorest, The Honorable Alfredo L., American Consul, 

Report 279 

Thanksgiving Day Celebration 271 

GIBRALTAR 

Sprague, The Honorable Richard Louis, American Consul, 

Bicentennial Reception 271 

Corcoran, The Honorable William W., Report 271 

MALTA 

Turner, The Honorable Mason, American Consul, and 
Mrs. Turner, Reception 271 

PERU 

Cerro, H. E., Luis M., President of Peru, Message 272 



xvin 



contents- 



page 



Lima 



Plaza Washington, Bicentennial Ceremonies 272 

Rossell, H. E., Dr. Alejandro Freundt, Minister of 
Foreign Affairs, Placed Wreath on Washington 

Statue 272 

Dearing, The Honorable Fred Morris, American 

Ambassador, Tribute 272 

Embassy Reception 273 

Thanksgiving Day Bicentennial Dinner 274 

Press Articles 275 

Pan American Day Message from the President of Peru 275 

BELGIUM 

May, H. E. Paul, Belgian Ambassador to the United 
States, Eulogy 276 

Antwerp 

American Club of Antwerp, George Washington Din- 
ner and Ball 277 

Mayer, The Honorable F., American Charge 

d'Affaires, Address 277-278 

American Church, Bicentennial Services 278 

Woodward, Rev. F. C, Sermon on Washington 278-279 

BRAZIL 

Franco, H. E. Afranio Mello, Minister of Foreign Affairs, 
Message 280 

Rio de Janeiro 

American Friendship Monument, Wreath Laying Cere- 
mony 280 

Jordao, Dr. Edmundo de Miranda, Address . . . 280-282 
Fitzpatrick, Mr. Philip, President of American 

Chamber of Commerce, Address 282-283 

Jackson, Mr. Carlton, American Commercial 

Attache, Address 283-284 

Momsen, Dr. Richard P., Address 284 

Brazilian Educational Association, Pan American Day 

Ceremonies 285 

Brazilian Society of International Law, Washington 

Celebration 285 

Franco, H. E., Dr. Mello, Minister of Foreign Affairs, 

Address 286 

Fernandes, Dr. Raul, Address 286-287 

United States School, Bicentennial program 287 

American Embassy, Presentation of Washington Por- 
trait 287 

Thurston, The Honorable Walter C, Charge 

d'Affairs, Address 288 

Press Articles on Washington 288-289 

Sao Paulo 

Cameron, The Honorable C. R., Bicentennial Recep- 



tion 



-Continued 

Page 

American School Bicentennial Celebration 290 

Rotary Club Washington Program 290 

Santos 

Parsloe, The Honorable Arthur G., Vice Consul, Bi- 
centennial Reception 290 

Bahia 

Briggs, Mr. Lawrence P., Presentation of Washington 

Portraits 290 

American School Bicentennial participation 290 

Recife 

Arend, The Honorable F. van den, American Consul, 

Report 290 

George Washington Dinner 290 

Bicentennial Reception at the American Consulate. 290 

Porto Alegre 

American Luncheon Club, Commemorative Banquet 

and Dance 290 

Castleman, The Honorable Reginald S., American Con- 
sul, Report 291 

Macrae, The Honorable G. C, British Consul, 

Address 291-292 

Magnitzky, The Honorable A. Whidden, Vice Con- 
sul, Address 293-294 

Brazilian Business, Editorial 293-294 

Vargas, H. E. Getulio, President of the Republic, Mes- 
sage 294 

SPAIN 
Alicante 

Codoner, The Honorable Manuel J., American Vice 

Consul, Letter 295 

American Consulate, Bicentennial Reception 295 

Mitchell, The Honorable W. M. Parker, American 
Consul, Presented Portrait of George Washington 
to the Mayor of Alicante 295 

Madrid 

Laughlin, The Honorable Irwin B., American Ambas- 
sador, and Mrs. Laughlin, Reception at Embassy. . 295 

Bicentennial Services in the British Chapel 295 

American Embassy, Tea Dance 296 

Malaga 

Ferrin, The Honorable Augustin W., American Consul, 

Bicentennial Tea 296 

Bicentennial Reception on July 4th 296 

Seville 

American Consulate Garden, Washington Tree Plant- 
ing Ceremonies 296 

Thanksgiving Day Ceremonies 297 

Ford, The Honorable Richard, American Consul, Letter 297 



xix 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 
Barcelona 

American Chamber of Commerce, Bicentennial Ban- 
quet and Dance 297 

Dawson, The Honorable Claude I., Address 298 

H. E., President Macia, Address 298-299 

Press Articles on George Washington and the Bicenten- 
nial Celebration 300-301 

CANARY ISLANDS 

American Consulate, Bicentennial Celebration 302 

Wharton, The Honorable Clifton R., American 

Consul, Remarks 302 

Molina, H. E. Senor Perez, Governor of the Province, 

Address 302 

ARGENTINA 

Justo, H. E. Agustin P., President of Argentina, 

Message 302 

Buenos Aires 

Washington Monument Ceremonies 303 

Bosch, H. E. Dr. Ernesto, Minister of Foreign Af- 
fairs, Address 3 04 

White, The Honorable John Campbell, American 

Charge d'Aff aires, Address 304 

American Club, Bicentennial Luncheon 304 

Argentine Institute of North American Culture 304 

Browning, Dr. Webster E., Address 305 

Rotary Club Bicentennial Celebration 306 

Pan American Day Ceremonies 306 

American Grammar and High School, Bicentennial 

Pageant 306-7-8 

American Club, Children's Party 309 

Washington Portrait Unveiled 310 

Radio Broadcast of President Justo 311 

Independence Day Bicentennial Banquet 312 

Bliss, The Honorable Robert Woods, American Am- 
bassador -, Address 312 

Editorial Tributes 312-313 

CHILE 
Santiago 

American Society of Chile — George Washington 

Luncheon 314 

Culbertson, The Honorable William S., American 

Ambassador, Address 314 

Participation of the Press 315 

Embassy Garden, Tree planting ceremonies 316 

Culbertson, The Honorable fra. S., Remarks — 

Article 316-317 

Valparaiso 

George Washington Birthday Luncheon 317 

Personnel of George Washington Bicentennial Com- 
mittee 317 



Page 
Henry, The Honorable Frank A., American Consul, 

Address 317 

George Washington Radio Broadcast 317 

Washington Editorials 318 

Antofagasta 

Loren, The Honorable Odin G., American Consul, and 

Mrs. Loren, Dinner 319 

American Consulate — Reception and Supper 319 

CONCEPCION 

George Washington Bicentennial Celebrations 319 

Montero, H. E. Juan Esteban, President of the Re- 
public, Message 319 

MEXICO 

Rubio, H. E. Sr. Pascual Ortiz, President of the Republic 
of Mexico, Message 320 

Tellez, H. E., Manuel C, Secretary of Foreign Affairs, 
Message 320 

Mexico City 

Opening Bicentennial Ceremonies .320 

George Washington Tree Planting 320 

Clark, The Honorable J. Reuben, American Am- 
bassador, Address 321 

Embassy Reception 321 

American Legion — Placing of Wreath 321 

Bolivar, H. E., Simon, Home of, Concert Recital 322 

Sala, The Honorable Antenor, Address of Welcome 322 
Herrasti, Lie. Francisco de P., Address 323-325 

Richardson, Mr. William B., American Chamber of 

Commerce, Letter 326 

Chihuahua 

Women's Club Bicentennial Celebration 326 

Styles, The Honorable Francis H., American Consul, 

Address 326 

Thanksgiving Day Ceremonies .... 327 

Fox, Miss Lillie, Reading of Paper 327 

Nuevo Laredo 

Bicentennial Fiesta 327 

Bull Fight 327 

Salute of Guns ... 327 

Martin, The Honorable Albert, Mayor, Address of 

Welcome 328 

Palacios, The Honorable Amada Gonzalez, Mayor, 

Response 328 

Camacho, General Miguel Orozco, Address 3 28 

Wormuth, The Honorable Romeyn, American Con- 
sul, Address 329 

Netzer; Mr. Joseph, Recollections 329-330 



CONTENTS— Continued 

Page 



Juarez 

Bicentennial Celebration 330 

Ciudad Juarez Rotary Club Celebration 331 

Blocker, The Honorable William P., American Con- 
sul, Report 331 

Vera Cruz 

Combination Masonic Lodge and American Consulate 

Celebration 331 

Karnes, The Honorable William, American Vice 

Consul, Address 331 

DURANGO 

Bicentennial Tea 331 

Unveiling of Washington Portrait, Instituto MacDon- 

nell School 331 

Monterrey 

Rotary Club Bicentennial Celebration 332 

Tampico 

American School in Tampico Bicentennial Program. . . 332 
McConaughy, The Honorable Walter P., American 

Vice Consul, Report 332 

Masonic Lodge Memorial Service 332 

Guadalajara 

Gibson, The Honorable Raleigh A., American Consul, 

Report 332 

English Speaking Club, Bicentennial Observance .... 332 

PORTUGAL 
Lisbon 

South, The Honorable J. G., American Minister, and 

Mrs. South, Legation Reception 333 

Silva, Dr. Jose Bonifacio de Andrada e, Letter 333 

Jornal Do Commercio, Article 333-34 

MADEIRA 

FUNCHAL 

Huddleston, The Honorable J. F., American Consul, 

and Mrs. Huddleston, Bicentennial Reception. ... 335 

Diario Da Noticias, Article 335 

Diario Da Madeira, Article 335 

MOZAMBIQUE 

Cameron, The Honorable Alfred D., American Consul, 

Washington Reception 335 

Washington Banquet, Thanksgiving Day 335 

URUGUAY 

General Participation 336 



Page 



Montevideo 



Estados Unidos de American School, Bicentennial 

Exercises 336 

Blanco, H. E. Dr. Juan Carlos, Uruguayan Minister 

for Foreign Affairs, Bicentennial Luncheon 336 

Wright, The Honorable J. Butler, American Min- 
ister, Address 336 

George Washington Radio Broadcasts 336-37 

Muse, Mr. Benjamin, First Secretary United States 

Legation, Address 337 

American Legation Reception 338 

Varela, H. E. Sr. Dr. Jacobo, Uruguayan Minister 

to Washington, Address 338 

American Association of Uruguay, Bicentennial 

Luncheon 338 

Ceremonies at Artigas Monument in Plaza Indepen- 

dencia 339 

Bolivarian Society of Uruguay, Bicentennial Cere- 
monies 339 

Terra, H. E. Gabriel, President of the Republic of 

Uruguay, Tribute 340 

SWITZERLAND 

Motta, H. E. Dr. Giuseppe, President of the Swiss 

Confederation, Message 341 

General Bicentennial Participation 341 

Geneva 

Bicentennial Dinner, Hotel des Bergues 341 

Gibson, The Honorable Hugh S., American Ambas- 
sador to Belgium, Address 341-42 

Swanson, The Honorable Claude A., United States 

Senator, Address 542-43 

Fribourg 

Columbia Society University of Fribourg, Bicentennial 

Celebration. 343 

Carroll, Mr. Walter S., Presided 343 

Doyle, The Honorable Michael Francis, Address . . . 343 

Thorning, Rev. Joseph F., Address 343 

Berne 

Official Washington Reception 343 

Greene, Mr. Winthrop S., Secretary American Lega- 
tion, Report 343 

Wilson, The Honorable Hugh R., American Min- 
ister, present 343 

Macgowan, The Honorable David B., American 
Consul in Berne, Placed Bust of Washington in 
Consulate 343 

Lugano 

Haskell, The Honorable Lewis W., American Consul- 

General in Zurich, Message 344 

Monument to George Washington 344 



xxi 



CONTENTS 

Page 



Lausanne 



George Washington Reception, Palace Hotel 344 

Baldwin, The Honorable Frederick W., American 

Consul, Address 344 

Rector of the University of Lausanne, Response . . 344 

Zurich 

American Colony and Swiss Organizations, Bicenten- 

tennial Celebration 345 

Hukill, The Honorable George R., American Con- 
sul, Address 345 

Neue Zuricher-Zeitung — Article 346 

Swiss American Review — Article 346-47 

HUNGARY 

Horthy, His Serene Highness Admiral Nicholas de, 

Regent of the Kingdom of Hungary, Message . . . 348 
Organization of the Hungarian Bicentennial Com- 
mittee 348 

Apponyi, H. E. Count Albert, made Chairman 348 

Royal Hungarian Academy of Science, Opening Bicen- 
tennial Exercises 348 

Berzeviczy, Dr. Albert, President Royal Academy, 

Address 349 

Hegedus, Dr., Address 349 

Roosevelt, The Honorable Nicholas, American Min- 
ister, Address 349-5 1 

Kordogh, Mr. Virgil, Director of Bicentennial Com- 
mittee, Report 352 

Budapest 

Bicentennial Ceremonies at the Washington Monument, 3 52 

Perenyi, H. E. Baron Sigmund, Address 353 

Bicentennial Tree Planting 353 

Osborne, The Honorable John Ball, American Consul 

General, Address 3 54-5 

Hungarian World Association, Message 355 

Ceremony at the Washington Monument 356 

George Washington Bicentennial Committee, Cable- 
gram 356 

FINLAND 

Svinhufvud, H. E., P. E., President of the Republic 

of Finland, Cablegram 356 

Helsingfors 

Brodie, The Honorable Edward E., American Minister, 

Reception 356 

Press articles on George Washington 357 

GREECE 

Zaimis, H. E. Alexandre, President of the Hellenic 

Republic, Message 3 57 

Sofoulis, H. E. Themistocles, President of the Hellenic 

Chamber, Message 3 57 



-Continued 

Page 
Athens 

American Legion, Gala Bicentennial Reception and 

Ball 3 57 

Maynard, The Honorable Lester, American Consul- 
General, Report 3 57 

Bassett, Professor Samuel Elliott, Address 3 58-60 

Greek Archeological Society — Bicentennial Celebration, 360 
Plitt, The Honorable Edwin A., American Consul, 

Address 360-61 

Saloniki 

Public Bicentennial Celebration at Anatolia College . 361 

Pisar, The Honorable Charles, American Consul. . 361-65 

American Consulate — Washington Reception 36 5 

AUSTRIA 

Miklas, H. E. Wilhelm, President of the Republic of 

Austria, Cablegram 366 

Prochnik, H. E. Edgar L. G., Austrian Minister to 
the United States, presents gift 366 

Vienna 

George Washington Bicentennial Celebration, under 
auspices of the American Women's Club and 

American Medical Association of Vienna 366 

Stockton, The Honorable Gilchrist B., American 

Minister, Address 166-69 

Municipal Apartment House named for George Wash- 
ington 369 

Seitz, The Honorable Karl, Mayor, Address 369 

Souvenir program of the Dedication 371-72 

BULGARIA 

Sofia 

His Majesty, Boris the Third, King of the Bulgarians, 

Cablegram 373 

Principal Bicentennial Events — resume 373 

Bulgarian Academy of Sciences — Bicentennial Cere- 
monies 374 

Shoemaker, The Honorable Henry W., American 

Minister, Dispatch 374 

Chacaroff, Dr. C. D., Editor Bulgarian British Re- 
view, Article 374-77 

English Speaking League of Sofia — Washington 

Meeting 377 

Masonic Lodges of Sofia — George Washington Pro- 
gram 378 

King Boris dispatched official envoys 378 

Special Instructions to Schools 378-79 

SWEDEN 

His Majesty, Gustav V, King of Sweden, Cablegram . 380 
Bostrom, H. E. W., Swedish Minister, Cablegram. ... 380 

Bicentennial Celebration in Town Hall 380 

George Washington Bicentennial Committee formed, 380 



CONTENTS— Con tin ued 



Page 
Morehead, The Honorable John Motley, named 

Chairman (American Minister) 380 

Adolph, H. E. Crown Prince, Address 3 80-82 

Morehead, The Honorable John Motley, Address 382-84 
Thanksgiving Day Bicentennial Exercises 385 

ALBANIA 

Newspaper article on Bicentennial participation 386 

His Majesty, Zog I, King of the Albanians, Message 3 86 

Vrioni, H. E. H., Minister of Foreign Affairs, Message, 386 

Visit of Council of Ministers to American Legation 386 
Bernstein, The Honorable Herman, American Minister, 

Reception at Legation 386 

Kuqali, Mr. Kol, Translation 387 

Message to the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission 388 

Chekrezi, H. E. Constantine A., Member Council of 

State, Tribute 388 

Frasheri, H. E. Mehdi, President, Council of State, 

Tribute 3 88-89 

Toci, H. E. Dr. Terenc, Secretary-General, Tribute . . 3 89 

Press Reports 389 

NETHERLANDS 

General Bicentennial Participation 390-92 

The Hague 

Bicentennial Reception at the American Legation . . 392 
Swenson, The Honorable Laurits S., American Min- 
ister, Report 392 

Exhibition of George Washington Relics . . 392 

American Women's Club — Two Bicentennial Events . 393 

People's University — George Washington Program... 393 

Sleeswijk, Dr. J. G., Technical University, Address 393 

Philatelic Display 394 

Amsterdam 

Floover, The Honorable Charles L., American Consul- 
General, Letter 394 

University of Amsterdam, Bicentennial Celebration . . 394 
van Raalte, Dr. E., Professor of Law, Address . 394-95 

Presentation of Portrait to the President of the United 

States 395 

JAVA 

Patton, The Honorable K. S., American Consul- 
General, Report 396 

Bicentennial Reception at American Consulate . . . 396 

NORWAY 

Braadland, H. E. Birger, Foreign Minister, Cablegram 397 
Stimson, The Honorable Henry L., United States 

Secretary of State, Reply 397 

Press report 397 



Page 



Bergen 



Bicentennial Radio Program 397 

Smith, The Honorable E. Talbot, American Consul, 

Address 397 

Visted, Konservator Kristofer, Biographical Sketch . 398 

Street named for Washington 398 

GUATEMALA 

Ubico, H. E. Jorge, President of the Republic of Guate- 
mala, Message 398 

Official Decree 399 

Pan-American Day Tribute 399 

CZECHOSLOVAKIA 
Prague 

Masaryk, H. E., T. G., President of Czechoslovakia, 

Message 400 

Hibbard, The Honorable Frederick P., United States 

Charge d'Affaires, Message 400 

Nemec, Professor B., President American Institute, 

Message 400 

American Institute, Bicentennial Celebration 400 

Hibbard, The Honorable Frederick P., Address 400-03 
Stloukal, Dr. Karel, Historian of Charles University, 

Address 403-05 

Radio Broadcast by H. E. President Masaryk 405-06 

Spolecensky Club, Bicentennial Reception 406 

Street named for George Washington 406 

IRISH FREE STATE 

MacWhite, The Flonorable M., Message 407 

Cork Agricultural and Industrial Fair, American Day. . 407 

Dublin 

Bicentennial Banquet 408 

Sterling, The Honorable F. A., American Minister, 

Report 408 

Doyle, Mr. W. B., Article 408-09 

Independence Day Bicentennial Celebration 409 

Sterling, The Honorable F. A., Address 410 

Woods, The Honorable Leslie, American Consul at 

Cobh, Response 410 

NICARAGUA 

Moncada, H. E., J. M., President of Nicaragua, Message, 411 
Somoza, H. E., A., Minister of Foreign Relations, Mes- 
sage 411 

Ramires, H. E. L., President of the Congress; Jiminez, 
Pablo J., Secretary; Astacio, Alejandro, Secretary; 
Message 411 

Managua 

Military Bicentennial Parade and Celebration 411 

Reception at the Colony Club 411 



CONTENTS— Co n tin ued 



Page 

Press notices 412 

Tropical Club of Bluefields — Bicentennial Dance 412 

Pan-American Day Message 412 

Hanna, The Honorable Matthew E., American Min- 
ister, Bicentennial Reception 413 

Thanksgiving Day Celebration 413 

YUGOSLAVIA 

Kumanudi, H. E. Kosta, President of Chamber of Depu- 
ties, Message 414 

Pavelitch, H. E. Ante, President of the Senate, Message, 414 

Streets named for Washington 414 

Pitamic, Dr. Leonide, Report 414-15 

Prince, Dr. John Dyneley, Address 416 

Belgrade 

Vashich, H. E. Milan, Mayor of Belgrade, Message. . . . 417 

American Legation Reception 417 

Remarks of the American Minister 417 

Replies of the Foreign Minister 418 

Anglo-American Yugoslav Club — Bicentennial Obesrv- 

ance 418 

Gibbs, The Honorable J. Barnard, Ass't Agricultural 

Commissioner of the United States, Address . . 418 

Kekich, The Honorable Emil A., Address 419 

Grand Lodge of Yugoslav Masons, Bicentennial Meeting, 419 

Zagreb 

City Square named for George Washington 420 

Bicentennial Meeting by City Council 420 

Tresckow, The Honorable Egmont C. von, and Mrs. 

Tresckow, Reception and Tea 420 

Report by the Foreign Minister of Yugoslavia 420 

RUMANIA 

George Washington Essay Contest 421 

Establishment of University George Washington Schol- 
arship 421 

Her Majesty, Queen Marie, Message 421 

Bucharest 

Bicentennial Celebration, National Auditorium 422 

Oromolu, The Honorable Mihail, President Society 

Friends of the United States, Address 422-23 

Iorga, H. E. Nicolae, Prime Minister of Rumania, 

Eulogy 423 

Sussdorff, The Honorable Louis, United States 

Charge d'Affaires, Reply 423-24 

Press Reports 424 

George Washington Tree Planting 42 5 

THE UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA 

General participation 42 5 



Page 
Johannesburg 

George Washington Tree planting 42 5 

Corlett, The Honorable D. F., Mayor of Johannes- 
burg, Presentation 426 

Moorhead, The Honorable M. K., American Consul- 
General, Acceptance 426 

American Consulate, Bicentennial Reception 426 

Rotary Club, Bicentennial Meeting 426 

Independence Day Celebration 427 

Martha Washington Club Bicentennial Program 427 

Capetown 

Bicentennial Reception, American Legation 428 

Totten, The Honorable Ralph J., American Minister, 

Report 428 

Port Elizabeth 

Dick, The Honorable H. H., American Consul, Report, 428 
Eastern Province Herald, Press Report 428 

Pretoria 

Naming of the City's First Boulevard "George Wash- 
ington Boulevard" 428 

George Washington Tree Planting 428 

Malherbe, Mrs. M. C, Mayor of Pretoria, Address 428 
Ives, The Honorable Ernest L., Secretary American 

Legation, Reply 428 

Gala Bicentennial Reception 429 

VENEZUELA 

Gomez, H. E., J. V., President of Venezuela, Message . 430 
Caracas 

Opening Bicentennial ceremonies at the Washington 

Monument 430 

Dolge, The Honorable Rudolph, Dean of North 

American Colony, Address 430-32 

Fortoul, H. E. Dr. Jose Gil, Former President of the 

Republic, Tribute 432 

Bicentennial Committee formed 433 

Summerlin, The Honorable George T., American Min- 
ister, Reception 433 

Official Decree 433-34 

Army, Navy, and Aeronautical Revieiv — Bicentennial 

Articles 43 5 

Bolivar Medallion of Washington 43 5 

American Tributes 436 

Thanksgiving Day Ceremonies 437 

Reynolds, Rev. C. H., Sermon 437 

Maracaibo 

Press Reports 438 



CONTENTS 

Page 



La Guaira 



Matthews, The Honorable Ben C, American Vice Con- 
sul, Report 438 

DENMARK 

His Majesty, Christian X, King of Denmark, Message 43 9 
Wansted, The Honorable Otto, Danish Minister to 

the United States, Message 439 

Copenhagen 

American Club, Opening Bicentennial Ceremonies . . . 439 
Coleman, The Honorable F. W. B., American Min- 
ister, Address 439-40 

Danish Brotherhood of America, George Washington 

Program 440 

Radio Broadcast 440 

Munch, H. E. Dr. P., Danish Foreign Minister, 

Address 440 

North Jutland 

American Park, George Washington Celebration 440 

Coleman, The Honorable F. W. B., Address 440-42 

Thanksgiving Day Celebration in Copenhagen 442 

Dreyfus, The Honorable Louis G., American Consul- 

General 442 

Tributes in Danish Press 442-44 



HAITI 

Port au Prince 

His Excellency, Stenio Vincent, President of Haiti, 

Message 444 

Leger, H. E. Abel, Minister of Foreign Affairs, Message 444 
Bellegarde, H. E. Dantes, Minister from Haiti, 

Article 445-46 

Executive Decree 446 

Opening Bicentennial Observance 446 

Holy Trinity Cathedral, Bicentennial Services 446 

Polo and Jockey Club, George Washington Race Meet 446 

Military ceremonies 446 

Lespinasse, Mr. Edmond de, Address 446-47 

Wadsworth, The Honorable James, United States 

Senator, Address 447 

Petionville Club, Washington Reception 447 

Press Reports 447-48 

Pan-American Day Tribute to Washington 449 

COLOMBIA 

Press Reports 449-50 

American Vice-Consul in Buenaventura, Report 451 

Lozano, H. E. Dr. Fabio, Minister of Colombia, Bicen- 
tennial Greetings 451 

Herrera, H. E. Enrique Olaya, President of Colombia, 

Tributes 451-52 



-Continued 

Page 
CANADA 

General Bicentennial Participation 45 3-54 

Montreal 

The Montreal Gazette, Washington Editorial ... . 454-55 
American Women's Club, Bicentennial Luncheon ... 457 
American Legion, Canadian Post No. 1, Bicentennial 

Celebration 457 

Thanksgiving Day Banquet 457 

Austin, The Honorable Warren R., U. S. Senator, 

Address 457-58 

Toronto 

American Women's Club of Toronto, Bicentennial 

Banquet 458 

Woods, The Honorable Damon C, United States 

Consul, Toast 458 

Sauer, The Honorable Emil, Consul-General of the 

United States, Address 459-60 

American Legion, Toronto Post, Bicentennial Celebra- 
tion 460 

Thanksgiving Day Ceremonies 460 

McAree, Mr. J. V., Editorial on Washington 461 

Barrie, Ontario 

Kiwanis Club, Bicentennial Celebration 461 

Woods, The Honorable Damon C, American Con- 
sul, Address 462-63 

Calgary, Alberta 

Reat, The Honorable Samuel C, American Consul, 

Bicentennial Reception 463 

George Washington Dinner 463 

American Women's Club, Bicentennial Meeting 464 

Port William and Port Arthur, Ontario 

St. Andrews Presbyterian Church, Bicentennial Services 464 
Grant, Rev. Hugh R., George Washington 

Sermon 464-67 

Hamilton, Ontario 

Johnson, The Honorable John D., American Consul 

Report 467 

Kingston, Ontario 

Series of Bicentennial Celebrations 467 

Fuller, The Honorable George G., American Consul, 

Report 468 

Bicentennial Church Services 468 

Craig, Very Rev. Wm. W., M.A., D.D., Dean at St. 
George's Cathedral, Sermon on George Wash- 
ington 469-70 

Naughton, Rev. J. D. MacKenzie, St. James Church, 

Sermon 470-71 



XXV 



CONTENTS 

Page 

Green, Rev. Dr. Thomas, Queen Street Church, 

Sermon 471-72 

Brown, Rev. George A., Sermon 473-74 

American Women's Club, Reception and Entertainment 474 

Frost, Hon. Wesley, American Consul-General, Ad- 
dress 474-75 

Trotter, Professor R. G., Queen's University, Ad- 
dress 475-77 

Fuller, The Honorable George G., Notes, Report 478-80 

North Bay, Ontario 

Radio Broadcasts 480 

Chapman, The Honorable William E., Radio Ad- 
dress 481-82 

Peterborough, Ontario 

Kiwanis Club Bicentennial Luncheon 482 

Sauer, The Honorable Emil, American Consul Gen- 
eral, Address 483-87 

Quebec 

Randolph, The Honorable John, American Consul, 

Bicentennial Meeting at the American Consulate 487 

Regina 

American Women's Club, George Washington Program 487 
Calvert, The Honorable John S., Address 488-89 

Sault Ste. Marie 

Series of Bicentennial Teas 489 

Bowman, The Honorable Howard A., American Con- 
sul, Report 489 

St. Johns, Newfoundland 

Memorial University College, Essay Contest 489 

Paton, Dr. J. \V., President, Address 490 

Winnipeg 

American Women's Club, Reception and Colonial Tea 491 

Vancouver 

Tree Planting Ceremonies 491 

Kiwanis Club Bicentennial Meetings 491 

Participation in Seattle, Washington's, Bridge Dedi- 
cation 491 

American Women's Club Bicentennial Birthday 

Luncheon 492 

Palmer, The Honorable Ely E., American Consul, 

Address 492-93 

Dedication Ceremonies 493-94 

DOMINICAN REPUBLIC 
Santo Domingo 

Urena, H. E. Max Henriquez, Secretary for Foreign 

Relations, Cablegram 494 



-Continued 

Page 
Cabral, H. E. Mario Fermin, President of the Senate, 
and Roca, H. E. Miguel A., President Chamber of 

Deputies, Cablegram 494 

Penha, Lopez, Souvereign Grand Master of Masons, 

Message 495 

Joint Session of Senate and Chamber of Deputies 495 

Cabral, H. E. Mario Fermin, George Washington 

Address 495-96 

Schoenfeld, The Honorable H. F. Arthur, American 

Minister, Reply 496-97 

Bicentennial Tree Planting Ceremonies 497 

Logrono, Sr. Lie. Arturo, Speech 497-98 

United States Legation, Bicentennial Reception 498 

Commemorative Exercises by the Schools 498 

Washington's Birthday Ceremonies 498 

Trujillo, H. E. Rafael L., President of the Republic, 

Message 499 

American Legation, Reception 499 

Thanksgiving Day Services in the Episcopal Church. . 499 

HONDURAS 

Colindres, H. E. Vicente Mejia, President of the Repub- 
lic, Message 499 

Tegucigalpa 

Bicentennial Ceremonies in Public Park 499 

Lay, The Honorable Julius G., American Minister, and 

Mrs. Lay, Reception 499 

Press Articles 500-01 

La Ceiba 

Bicentennial Dance and Festival 501 

Stewart, The Honorable Warren C, Report 501 

Puerto Castilla 

School Participation 501 

Schraud, The Honorable Lyon H., American Vice 

Consul, Report 501 

Outdoor Washington Festival 501 

EGYPT 

Pasha, H. E. Sesostris Sidarouss, Minister of Egypt, 

Message 502 

Jardine, The Honorable W. M., American Minister in 

Cairo, Report 5 02 

Cairo 

American Legation, Bicentennial Reception 502 

Alexandria 

Henry, Judge Robert L., American Representative, 

Reception 502 

American Men and Women's Clubs, Bicentennial Dinner 5 03 

Study Course, American Women's Club of Egypt . 503 



xxvi 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 

EL SALVADOR 

Martinez, H. E. Maximiliano Hernandez, President of 

the Republic, Message 503 

BOLIVIA 
La Paz 

Feely, The Honorable Edward, United States Minister, 

Reception 503- 

School Participation 503 

Tejada S., H. E. Dr. Jose Luis, Vice President Repub- 
lic, Eulogy 504 

Washington Tributes 505 

Chamber of Deputies, Bicentennial Ceremony . . . 505-06 

Pan American Day Tribute 506 

ECUADOR 
Quito 

Opening Bicentennial Celebration at the Mission Chapel 5 06 
Dawson, The Honorable Wm., United States Minister, 

and Mrs. Dawson, Bicentennial Reception 506-7 

Larrea, H. E. Carlos Manuel, Foreign Affairs Minister, 

Radio Address 507-8 

Avenue Named for George Washington 5 09 

University of Quito, Bicentennial Exercises 509 

Flor, Professor Carlos Salazar, Address 5 09-10 

Bolivar Society Honors George Washington 510 

Vaca, H. E. Dr. Manuel Cabeza de, Minister of 

Public Education 511-14 

Dawson, The Honorable Wm., Address 514 

Guayaquil 

Bicentennial Reception, Grand Hotel 515 

Presentation of Washington Portrait, Municipal 

Library 515 

Clum, The Honorable Harold D., American Consul 

General, Address 515 

Jara, Senor Carlos Matamoros, Director of the Li- 
brary, Address 515 

Martinez, Dr. Alberto Guerrero, President of Bolivar 

Society 516 

Wreath Placed at Bolivar Monument 516 

American Colony holds Bicentennial Reception 517 

Pan American Day Message 518 

SIAM 
Bangkok 

American Legation, Bicentennial Reception 518 

Kaufman, The Honorable David E., American Min- 
ister, Dispatch and Address 518 

His Royal Highness Prince Svasti, Address 520 

Bangkok Christian College, Washington Program ... 521 

PANAMA AND THE CANAL ZONE 
Panama City 

Opening Concert in Panama City 521 



Page 

National Institute, Bicentennial Meeting 522 

Alfaro, H. E. Dr. Ricardo J., President of Panama, 

Principal Speaker 522 

Davis, Mr. Roy Tasco, Jr., Address 522 

James, Dr. Wm. McCulley, Address 522 

Schley, Lieut. Col. J. L., Address 523 

Brown, Major General Preston, Address 523 

Willard, Vice Admiral Arthur L., Address 523 

Alfaro, H. E. Dr. Ricardo J., Principal Address . 523-24 

Presentation of Washington Portrait 5 24 

Pan American Day Message 524 

Colon 

Bicentennial Celebration under auspices of the Ameri- 
can Society 525 

Press Report 525 

Thanksgiving Day Bicentennial Services 525 

Tributes to George Washington 525-26 

Canal Zone 

General Participation 526 

Pedro Miguel 

Community Bicentennial Celebration 526 

Groeser, Chaplain C. F., Address 5 26 

Christobal 

American Legion, Auxiliary, Essay Contest 527 

School Bicentennial Programs 527 

Woman's Club, "George Washington Program" 527 

Balboa 

Union Church, Special Bicentennial Services 5 27 

Civic Entertainment J 27 

Wahl, The Honorable Charles F., Address 527 

Catholic Daughters Bicentennial Ceremonies 5 28 

Girl Scouts of Balboa, Tree Planting 528 

Williams, The Honorable Ben M., Address 528 

Ancon 

Bicentennial Community Gathering 529 

Williams, The Honorable H. O., American Consul, 

Address 529-3 

Gatun 

Bicentennial Tree Planting 530 

Gridder, Dr. James A., Address on George 

Washington 531 

CHINA 

Shanghai 

Memorial Day Bicentennial Exercises 532 

Cunningham, The Honorable Edwin S., Consul Gen- 
eral, Address 532 



xxvn 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 

Thanksgiving Day Services 533 

Bicentennial Tree Planting S33 

Canton 

American Association of South China, Reception 5 34 

Rankin, Dr. M. T., President of the Association, 

Address 534 

Canton Club, George Washington Ball 534 

United States Consulate, Commemorative Services... 534 
Ballantine, The Honorable J. W., American Consul 

General, Reception 534 

Thanksgiving Day Celebration 534 

Amoy 

Franklin, The Honorable Lynn W., United States Con- 
sul and Mrs. Franklin, Bicentennial Reception 53 5 

Memorial Day Tree Planting Exercises 535 

Union Church Services 536 

Other Chinese cities Celebrate 536 

Hankow 

George Washington Ball at the Race Club 537 

Hua Chung College 537 

Harbin 

Thanksgiving Day Bicentennial Exercises 537 

Hanson, The Honorable G. C, United States Consul 

General, Fancy Dress Ball at the Consulate 53 8 

Hong Kong 

Gun Salute in the Harbor 538 

Bicentennial Dinner Dance 538 

Mukden 

Bicentennial Supper Dance 538 

Myers, The Honorable M. S., United States Consul 
General, Remarks 539 

Peiping 

American Colony, George Washington Dinner and 

Dance 539 

Breckenridge, Brigadier General James E., Speaker. . 5 39 

George Washington Portraits presented to the Schools 5 39 

SWATOW 

Green, The Honorable Leonard N., United States Con- 
sul, Bicentennial Tea 539 

TsiNAN 

Tsinan Club, American Community Bicentennial Cele- 
bration 540 

Tientsin 

American Association of Tientsin, Celebration 540 

Washington Paintings, Display 540 

School Entertainment 540-41 



Page 

GRAND DUCHY OF LUXEMBURG 
Luxemburg 

Official Washington Reception, American Legation . . 541 
Waller, The Honorable George Piatt, American 

Charge d Affaires, Report 541 

Washington Concert in Public Square 542 

Newspaper report 542 

PERSIA 
Teheran 

George Washington Tree Planting Exercises at the 

American College 542 

Hart, The Honorable Charles O, American Minis- 
ter to Persia, Report 542 

PARAGUAY 

Asuncion 

Washington Editorial 543 

School Unveils Washington Portrait 543 

Wheeler, The Honorable Post, United States Minister, 

Statement 543 

United States School, Pageant 544 

Colegio Internacial, Bicentennial Exercises 544 

Guggiari, H. E. Jose P., President of the Republic, 

Message 544 

COSTA RICA 

Viquez, H. E. Cleto Gonzalez, President of Costa Rica, 

Tribute 544 

Zionist Organization of America, Bicentennial Meeting 544 

LATVIA 

General Bicentennial Participation 545 

Latvian Society of Friends of America, Bicentennial 

Meeting 545 

Butuls, Dr. A., President of the Society, Address . . 546 

Tentelis, Dr. A., University of Latvia, Address 546 

Skinner, The Honorable Robert E., American Min- 
ister, Address 546-47 

Washington Square Named 548 

Stoics, The Honorable Hugo, Mayor of the city of Jel- 

gava, Letter 549-50 

ESTONIA 

Bicentennial Celebration in Tartu 550 

Oras, The Honorable Ants, President Anglo-Estonian 

Academical Society, Address 5 50-51 

Carlson, The Honorable Harry E., American Charge 

d Affaires, Remarks 551 

Piip, Professor Ants, University of Tartu, Address 5 52 

Uluots, Professor Jun, Estonian Educator, Article . 5 53 



xxviu 



CONTENTS— Continued 



Page 

ETHIOPIA 

George Washington Tree Planting by the American 

Colony 553 

IRAQ 

George Washington Bicentennial Celebration at the 

American Legation in Bagdad 554 

Sloan, The Honorable Alexander K., American 

Charge d'Affaires, Report 5 54 

ARABIA 

American Consulate, Bicentennial Reception 554 

Walmsley, The Honorable W. N., Jr., American 

Consul, Report 5 54 

LIBERIA 

Bicentennial Committee Personnel 555 

George Washington Celebration in Public Square .... 555 

Saunders, Dr. Ottawa J., Introductory Address 55 5 
Dennis, The Honorable Gabriel, Secretary of Liberian 

Treasury, Eulogy 555 

FREE CITY OF DANZIG 

Heisler, The Honorable Charles H., American Consul, 

Bicentennial Reception 556 

MOROCCO 

Bicentennial Tree Planting at the American Legation 5 56 
Letter written in the year 1800 556 

PALESTINE 

George Washington Tree Planting on the Plain of 

Esdraelon 557 

Expressions of Prominent Americans 558 

Commentaries on the Washington Forest in Palestine 5 59 

Status of project 560 

The Washington Forest 562 

SYRIA 

Steger, The Honorable Christian T., American Consul, 

Bicentennial Reception at the American Consulate 562 



SELECTIONS FROM "HONOR TO GEORGE 
WASHINGTON" AND "READING 
ABOUT GEORGE WASHINGTON" 563 

Frontier Background of Washington's Career, by 

David M. Matteson 567 

Part I, Period of Washington's Youth 5 67 

Part II, Washington's Contact with the Indians 573 

Selected Authorities 577 

Tributes to Washington, by Albert Bushnell Hart . . 5 79 

Part I, Personal Appearance (1759-1799) 579 

Part II, Character and Service 581 

Part III, World Status 5 8 5 



Page 

Part IV, Principal Official Appointments (1749-1799) 588 

Selected Authorities 5 89 

Washington as a Religious Man, by John C. Fitz- 

patrick 590 

Part I, George Washington and Religion 590 

Part II, Washington's Own Words on Religion 595 

Selected Authorities 599 

Washington the Colonial and National States- 
man, by David M. Matteson 600 

Part I, Washington in Colonial Politics (175 5-1775) . . 600 
Part II, Washington's Relation to Congress (1775- 

1786) 603 

Selected Authorities ' 610 

Washington and the Constitution, by David M. 

Matteson 612 

Part I, Preliminaries of the Convention 612 

Part II, Results of the Convention 616 

Selected Authorities 622 

Washington as President, by Albert Bushnell Hart. . 623 

Part I, Washington's Domestic Policy (1789-1797) . . . 623 

Part II, Washington's Foreign Policy (1789-1797) ... 626 
Part III, Significant Events in the Public Life of George 

Washington (1749-1799) 631 

Selected Authorities 634 

Washington Proprietor of Mount Vernon, by 

James Hosmer Penniman 63 5 

Part I, The Estate 63 5 

Part II, Ownership of Mount Vernon 644 

Selected Authorities 645 

Washington the Business Man, by The Honorable Sol 

Bloom 646 

Part I, Conditions of Colonial Business 646 

Part II, Washington's Business Records 647 

Part III, The Promoter and Planter 650 

Part IV, The Business Organizer 655 

Part V, Washington and Public Business 657 

Selected Authorities 660 

Washington's Home and Fraternal Life, by Carl H. 

Claudy 661 

Part I, Family Life and Friends 661 

Part II, Fraternal Life 667 

Part III, Genealogical Table 677 

Selected Authorities 67% 

HIGHLIGHTS OF THE WRITINGS OF 
GENERAL GEORGE WASHINGTON 

compiled by David M. Matteson 679 

Washington and the Constitution of the United 

States 707 

The "Olive Branch" Petition to King George III 
From the Second Continental Congress July 
8, 1775 713 

WASHINGTON THE NATION-BUILDER, 
BICENTENNIAL POEM BY EDWIN 
MARKHAM 726 



List of Illustrations 

Title Page 

George Washington Bookplate 8 

II Duce and American Ambassador Attend George Washington Celebration in 

Rome, Italy 10 

Dedication of a Washington Street in Rome, Italy 11 

New George Washington Boulevard in Rome, Italy 13 

George Washington Memorial Erected in Florence, Italy 18 

George Washington Bicentennial Celebrated at Genoa, Italy 20 

Turin Names Bridge for Washington 31 

New George Washington Memorial Bridge at Turin, Italy 33 

Marble Bust of George Washington made by Guiseppe Cerracchi 3 5 

Washington Portrait Unveiled at the George Washington School, Havana, Cuba . . 37 

Children in Colonial Costumes, Celebrating Bicentennial at Preston, Cuba 41 

Young People Told About George Washington at Gaza Bendig Ranch, Cuba 43 

Participants in George Washington Bicentennial Play at Banes, Cuba 44 

George Washington Bicentennial Ceremony Before the Famous Statue of Wash- 
ington in Paris, France 48 

Comtesse de Chilly Speaking at George Washington Celebration in Paris, France . . 52 

Lafayette Remembered on Washington Anniversary in Paris, France 53 

Ceremony at Rochambeau Residence at Paris, France 53 

George Washington Bicentennial Program at the Statue of de Grasse in Paris, France 54 

Bicentennial Ceremony before Statue of Benjamin Franklin in Paris, France 5 5 

Americans Marching Through Streets of Paris, France, to the Statue of George 

Washington 56 

French Notables Participate in Bicentennial Celebration at Paris, France 61 

George Washington Honored in Celebration at Sorbonne, Paris, France 6 5 

Bicentennial Banquet of the American Club in Paris, France 69 

American Nation Group Dedicates Busts in Paris, France 73 

Flowers on Tomb of Lafayette in Paris, France 75 

American Chamber of Commerce in France Honors George Washington 77 

"The City of Paris," Flagship of Admiral de Grasse 8 5 

Place D'lena, Paris, France 86 

American Veterans of Foreign Wars and Representatives of Veterans Organizations 

of the Allied Nations Hold Joint Celebration in Paris 89 

Scene from George Washington Pageant in Paris, France 93 

Yvonne Printemps and Sacha Guitry 94 

French Medal in Honor of George Washington 96 

Washington Monument Erected at Saigon, French Indo-China 102 

XXX 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS— Continued 

Title Page 

George Washington Honored in French Indo-China 103 

American Consul Henry S. Waterman Speaking at Saigon, French Indo-China 105 

Mount Vernon, Virginia — The Home of George Washington 106 

American School Children in Madagascar Hold George Washington Bicentennial 

Celebration 108 

Four Portraits of George Washington Painted by Different Artists 110 

Final Inaugural Address of George Washington 113 

Reichstag Honors Memory of George Washington 114 

Bicentennial Banquet of the American Club of Berlin, Germany 118 

New George Washington Platz in Berlin, Germany 119 

American Flag Raised in the New Washington Platz in Berlin, Germany 122 

Notable Bicentennial Banquet in Berlin, Germany 125 

German Newspapers of Washington's Time 127 

President Washington's Inauguration Reenacted in Berlin, Germany 129 

"George Washington Takes the Oath of Office" in Berlin, Germany 131 

Thanksgiving Day in Berlin, Germany 134 

Washingtonstrasse in Dresden, Germany 13g 

George Washington Bicentennial Banquet at Exposition Hall, Dresden, Germany. . . 143 

George Washington Bicentennial Reception in Dresden, Germany 148 

Three Views of Dedication of Washington Platz at Darmstadt, Germany 154 

Street in Hamburg, Germany, Named for Washington 155 

George Washington Celebration at Leipzig, Germany s 157 

Book Plate Used in Books Comprising George Washington Memorial Library at 

Stuttgart, Germany 161 

Opening Bicentennial Celebration at Tokyo, Japan 166 

George Washington Bicentennial Pageant in Tokyo, Japan 168 

George Washington Bicentennial Edition of the Yomiuri Shimbun 171 

George Washington Bicentennial Poster in Tokyo, Japan 172 

Participants in Celebration at Nagasaki, Japan . 178 

American Colonial Minuet at Nagasaki, Japan 179 

Children at Bicentennial Party of the American Association, Nagasaki, Japan 181 

Meeting in Town Hall at Warsaw, Poland 186 

Some Members of the Polish Central George Washington Bicentennial Committee . 187 

Ignace Moscicki, President of Poland, Attends Meeting in Town Hall, Warsaw, 

Poland 189 

Washington Street, Gdynia, Poland 193 

Planting of George Washington Oak in Paderewski Park, Warsaw, Poland 194 

Leopold Kotnowski and Joseph Flack Attend Dedication of George Washington 

Avenue, Warsaw, Poland 195 

xxxi 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS— Continued 

Title Page 

Marker with Inscription "George Washington Avenue" in Polish 196 

Brigadier General Casimir Pulaski 200 

American Ambassador Andrew W. Mellon, Speaking at Sulgrave Manor, England 204 

American Society Dinner on July 4, 1932, in London, England 206 

Prominent Guests at the Banquet of the Pilgrims of Great Britain 209 

George Washington Bicentennial Dinner in London, England 212 

Tablet in Memory of Col. Henry Washington Unveiled at Bristol, England 215 

Washington Coat of Arms Quartered with Those of Capt. Miles Standish 219 

Washington Avenue in the Village of Washington, Durham County, England 223 

Frederick Hill, Headmaster of the Biddick School, Washington, Durham County, 

England 224 

British Flags Presented to Schools of Washington, D. C 230 

American Flags Presented to Schools of Washington in Durham County, England . 232 

The Village of Washington in Durham County, England 234 

Washington Crest Decorated 23 6 

Bicentennial Celebration at Sulgrave Manor, England 241 

Washington Coat of Arms on the Parish Church, Warton, England 242 

George Washington, From the Bust of Joseph Nollekens 243 

George Washington Monument in Lima, Peru 272 

George Washington Bicentennial Celebration at American Embassy, Lima, Peru. . . . 274 

United States Ambassador Edwin V. Morgan and School Children at Bicentennial 

Celebration in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 281 

Brazilian Society of International Law Honor Memory of George Washington in 

Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 285 

George Washington Bicentennial Ceremony in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil 289 

Senor Don Atenor Sala Delivering Address in Mexico City, Mexico 323 

Margarita Garcia, as Pocahontas in the George Washington Celebration at Nuevo 

Laredo, Mexico 328 

Mrs. J. N. Goddard, as "Martha Washington," and Mr. William Poole, as "George 

Washington" 3 31 

George Washington Monument at Lugano, Switzerland 344 

Guests at the George Washington Bicentennial Dinner at Zurich, Switzerland 345 

Washington Promenade in the Municipal Park, Budapest, Hungary 353 

Formal Opening of the Washington Promenade, Budapest, Hungary 3 54 

Visiting Hungarian-Americans at the Washington Monument, Budapest, Hungary 3 5 5 

George Washington Celebration at Salonica, Greece 358 

"George Washington Hof" Dedicated in Vienna, Austria 367 

Notables at Dedication Ceremony in Vienna, Austria 3 69 

xxxii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS— Continued 

Title Page 

Statue of George Washington Presented to President Hoover by the Austrian 

Government 370 

An Unusual View of Mount Vernon from the Air 372 

Washington Tree Planted at American College at Simeonovo, near Sofia, Bulgaria . 375 

Honoring George Washington in Bulgaria 377 

His Royal Highness Crown Prince Gustaf Adolph of Sweden, Delivering an Address 

on George Washington 381 

American Minister Morehead Speaking at the Stockholm Celebration 383 

Thanksgiving Day, 193 2, in Stockholm, Sweden 3 84 

Netherlands Minister Roijen presents portrait to President Hoover 391 

Ex-Premier Colijn and American Minister Swenson at The Hague 392 

George Washington Bicentennial Celebration in Prague, Czechoslovakia 401 

American Consul Woods Planting Tree at Cork, Ireland 407 

A portion of George Washington Square in Zagreb, Yugoslavia 415 

Representatives of eight nations participate in Belgrade 417 

Lord Mayor Neshich, of Belgrade, delivering a Bicentennial Address 419 

Entrance to the Bourse in Zagreb, Yugoslavia 420 

George Washington Bicentennial Celebration at the Rumanian Athenaeum, 

Bucharest, Rumania 422 

American Boy Scouts send George Washington Tree to Crown Prince Michael of 

Rumania 424 

Tree Planting Ceremony at Joubert Park, Johannesburg, Union of South Africa 427 

Venezuelan Government Pays Honor to George Washington 431 

Venezuelan Children in Front of Statue of George Washington, Caracas 434 

Washington Medallion Presented to Bolivar 436 

American Children in Front of the Pantheon, Caracas 437 

George Washington Bicentennial Celebration in Copenhagen, Denmark 440 

Dr. Dana G. Munro, American Minister, Delivering a George Washington Address 

in Port Au Prince, Haiti 445 

Bicentennial Ceremony at Vancouver, Canada 454 

George Washington Bicentennial Celebrated in Toronto, Canada 456 

Bicentennial Celebration in Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic 494 

George Washington Bicentennial Celebrated at Foochow, China 533 

Trees from Washington's Home Planted in China 536 

Mount Vernon Tree Planted in Shanghai, China 538 

George Washington Pageant at the United States School in Asuncion, Paraguay . . 543 

Washington Square, before its laying out, in Jelgava, Latvia 545 

The New Washington Avenue, near the River Svete, in Jelgave, Latvia 546 

George Washington's Portrait in the Old Hall of the University of Latvia 547 

xxxiii 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS— Continued 

Title Page 

Meeting of the Society of Latvians of Latvia 549 

Facsimile of George Washington Palestine Forest Certificate 558 

Children Carrying Saplings to be Planted in the George Washington Palestine Forest 561 

Houdon Bust of George Washington 564 

George Washington from a portrait by Saint Memin 566 

George Washington from a portrait by Charles Willson Peale 567 

The Indian Frontier in Washington's Youth 574 

Washington as a Surveyor 578 

George Washington from a portrait by Wertmueller 579 

George Washington on his Farm 589 

George Washington from a Contemporary silhouette 590 

The Day's Beginning 599 

George Washington portrait known as the Gibbs-Channing portrait by Gilbert 

Stuart 600 

Washington Resigning His Commission 611 

George Washington from the Gilbert Stuart "Athenaeum" portrait 612 

George Washington from the Edward Savage Portrait 623 

First in Peace 634 

George Washington from a painting by Charles Willson Peale 635 

Map of Mt. Vernon 638 

George Washington from a painting by Gilbert Stuart 646 

The Williams Masonic Portrait of George Washington 661 

Masonic Procession (1793 ) 671 

Washington the President-Mason 673 

The Lafayette Masonic Apron 675 



XXXIV 




Plate No. 1 



XXXV 




Plate No. 2 



XXXVI 




Plate No. 3 



xxxvn 



WASHINGTON CREEK 



WASHINGTON CREEK 



WASHINGTON CREEK 
WASHINGTON GULCH 
WASHINGTON CREEK 
Seward Peninsula. Alaska 




WASHINGTON STI . 

VNyoLaredo*w ASH | NGTON BEACH Matamoros. Mexico 

N^\ WASHINGTON STREET IL/.&aXirrnu aurMiir 
WASHINGTON CREEK* Monterrey ^JWA^IN^JON AVENUE 

Aguascalientes ' \ f~), * >J\ ,Habana.Cuba 

WASHINGTON_stATUE» \^J J ' ^ JfWASHINGTOI 



1 England 

WASHINGTON STREET. London 
WASHINGTON AVENUE. London 
WASHINGTON ROAD.London 
WASHINGTON STATUE. London 

» WASHINGTON PLACE. Plymouth 
WASHINGTON ROAD. Portsmouth 

. WASHINGTON TERRACE. Southampton 
WASHINGTON GROVE. Bentley-with-Arksey 
WASHINGTON ROAD, Sheffield 
WASHINGTON STREET. Bootle 
WASHINGTON STREET.Accrington 
WASHINGTON ROAD. Worcester Park 
WASHINGTON STREET.Northampton 
WASHINGTON STREET.Birmingham 
WASHINGTON STREET.Hull 
WASHINGTON STREET.Liverpool 
WASHINGTON BUST. Liverpool 
HOME OF WASHINGTON'S ANCESTORS. 
Sulgrave Manor, Northamptonshire 

2 Scotland 

WASHINGTON STREET.Glasgow 

3 Ireland 

WASHINGTON STREET. Belfast 

WASHINGTON STREET.Dublin 

WASHINGTON VILLAS.Bray 

WASHINGTON STREET.Cobh 

WASHINGTON TERRACE. Limerick 

WASHINGTON STREET.Cork 



4 Belgium 

WASHINGTON STREET.Brussela 
6 Germany 



WASHINGTON 
WASHINGTON 
WASHINGTON 
WASHINGTON 
WASHINGTON 
WASHINGTON 
WASHINGTON 

6 Switzerland 
WASHINGTON 
WASHINGTON 

7 Yugoslavia 
WASHINGTON 
WASHINGTON 
WASHINGTON 
WASHINGTON 



VILLAGE, near Mulh. 
STATUE. Munich 
STREET. Munich 
SQUARE. Berlin 
STREET. Dresden 
STREET. Hamburg 
SQUARE. Darmstadt 

STREET. Rorschach 
BUST. Lugano 

STREET. Belgrade 
STREET. Ljubljana 
STREET. Novi Sad 
SQUARE. Zagreb 



WASHINGTON STREET/ 
*\ Lisbon, Portugal m 

MT WASHINGTON. near Tangie^j- 

WASHINGTON SOUARE Rabat* 

WASHINGTON STREET,/ 
Agadir. Morocco^ 



Mexico, D. F. 

WASHINGTON AVENUEf j£™t 
CilyofGuatei 



"Port au Prince, Haiti 



WASHINGTON BUST 
Rivas. Nicaragua 



EORGE WASHINGTON FARM 
'Rio Blanquito, Honduras 



♦ WASHINGTON ISLAND 
FanningGroup 



'••WASHINGTON ISLAND 
Marquesas 




»GEORGE WASHINGTON STREET 
* Le Moule. Guadeloupe 



K^jkWASHINGTON STATUE 
Caracas, Venezuela 



GEORGE WASHINGTON AVENUE 
• Quito. Ecuador 



WASHINGTON STREET. Callao 
WASHINGTON PLAZA. Lima 
WASHINGTON STREET.Lima 
WASHINGTON STATUE.LIma" 
WASHINGTON STREET.LaPerla.PenT 



WASHINGTON STREET 
Antofagasta.Chile 





WASHINGTON AVENUE 
Santiago 
WASHINGTON AVENUE) 
Valparaiso 



There are 25 mountains, rivers, islands, capes, and 
arms of the sea. 18 statues and monuments, more 
than 100 streets and plazas, and 11 villages and mis- 
cellaneous features named for George Washington 



WASHINGTON STREET.Oruro 
WASHINGTON CAMP.BeniRiv.. 
• WASHINGTON CAMP. Maron* River. Bolivia 

.WASHINGTON MEDALLION 
'Riode Janeiro 

■GEORGE WASHINGTON PLAZA 
Santos. Brazil 

WASHINGTON PLAZA -Montevideo 
WASHINGTON STREET.Montevideo 
WASHINGTON STREET. Durazno 
WASHINGTON STREET.Colonia 
WASHINGTON STREET. Paysandii. Uruguay 
WASHINGTON AVENUE. Buenos Aires 
WASHINGTON STATUE. Buenos Aires 
WASHINGTON VILLAGE. Cordoba Province 
WASHINGTON STREET.Rosario 
WASHINGTON STREET. Bahia Blanca. Argentina 



••WASHINGTON STRAITS 
SouthOrkneys 





Plate No. 4 



The name of Washington is familiar to people living in the far places 
of the earth. Monuments, streets, squares, buildings and geographical 
features bear the patriot's name. From Cape Washington on the bleak 
coast of Greenland within the Arctic Circle, to Washington Straits of 
the South Orkneys almost within the Antarctic Circle, on the Western 
Hemisphere, the name of Washington dots the maps of two continents. 
From Bergin, Norway, to Nelson, New Zealand, are scores of similar 



XXXVlll 




TON STREET 



EORGE WASHINGTON SQUARE. Riga 
GEORGE WASHINGTON PROSPECT.Jelgava 
GEORGE WASHINGTON PLACE. Jelgava 
QO) GEORGE WASHINGTON BOULEVAR0.Libau.Lat> 

^WASHINGTON STREET Prague.Czechoslovakia 
# GEORGE WASHINGTON COURT. Vienna. Austria 

© WASHINGTON PROSPECT 
(ft ^WASHINGTON STREET. Bucharest. Rumania 
J^f »GEORGE WASHINGTON BOULEVARD. Sofia. Bulgarj, 
0N ) J^C WASHTnGTONSTReET. Korcha 

^WASHINGTON STREET. Scutari. Albania 



8 lUI^ 
WASHINGTON STREET.Rome 
WASHINGTON STATUE. Treviso 
WASHINGTON STREET. Milan 
WASHINGTON STATUE. Possagno 
WASHINGTON STREET.Ciarre. Catania 
WASHINGTON BRIDGE. Turin 
GEORGE WASHINGTON AVENUE. Florence 
WASHINGTON MONUMENT.FIorence 

9 France 
WASHINGTON STREET.Paris 
WASHINGTON STATUE. Pans 
WASHINGTON LAFAYETTE MONUMENT.Paris 
WASHINGTON AVENUE. St Maurdes Fosses 
WASHINGTON BOULEVARD.Suresnes 
WASHINGTON STREET.Le Havre 
WASHINGTON STREET. Sanvic 
WASHINGTON BOULEVARD. Saint Cloud 
WASHINGTON ISLAND.Six Fours la Plage 
WASHINGTON STREET.Les Sables d'Olonne 
WASHINGTON SQUARE. Collioure 



9 France — continued 

WASHINGTON STREET.Cerbere 
WASHINGTON BOULEVARD.Nice 
WASHINGTON SQUARE. St.Jeannet 
WASHINGTON SQUARE. Clans 
WASHINGTON STREET.Drap 
WASHINGTON STREET.Chateauneuf-Crasse 
WASHINGTON SOUARE.Gorbio 
WASHINGTON STREET.Broc 
WASHINGTON STREET. Narbonne 
WASHINGTON AVENUE. Marseille 
WASHINGTON STREET. Montpellier 
WASHINGTON AVENUE. Braye-sous-Faye 
WASHINGTON AVENUE. Huismes 
WASHINGTON AVENUE. Agen 
WASHINGTON STREET.Charency Vezin 
WASHINGTON STREET. Berbnchamps 
WASHINGTON STREET.Crenoble 

10 Poland 

WASHINGTON PLAZA. Poznan 
WASHINGTON BOULEVARD. Cracow 
WASHINGTON STREET.Cdynia 
WASHINGTON STREET. Warsaw 

11 Hungary 
WASHINGTON STREET. Budapest 
WASHINGTON STATUE. Budapest 
WASHINGTON PARK.Sopron 




f^ V 



M 



VASHINGTON ROAD 
Cape Town 



WASHINGTON CAPE* 
MT WASHINGTON 
Fiii Islands 



WASHINGTON STREET 
WASHINGTON LANE 
WASHINGTON PLACE. Sydney 

WASHINGTON STREET 0. 
Bexley 



FEATURES NAMED FOR AND STATUES OF 

GEORGE WASHINGTON 

OUTSIDE OF 
CONTINENTAL UNITED STATES 



WASHINGTON STREE 



;tree'tS 

Hobart^ 



A 



*WA! 



WASHINGTON 

AVENUE 

Wellington 



WASHINGTON VALLEY 
WASHINGTON ROAD 
WASHINGTON TERRACE 
Nelson. N.Z. 



PUBLISHED BY THE UNITED STATES GEORGE WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION 



Plate No. 5 



reminders of the love which all humanity bears our First President. Some 
of these memorials are old, but many are new. The hundreds of George 
Washington Bicentennial Celebrations in foreign countries reawakened 
interest in the great American and as the years pass no doubt many addi- 
tional memorials will be established to show world tribute to the man his 
countrymen have so signally honored during the Two Hundredth Anni- 
versary year of his birth. 



XXXIX 



:-10T 



Foreign Participation 

IN THE 

George Washington Bicentennial 

Celebration 




iS A RECORD of universal acclaim for 
one man two hundred years after his 
birth this book is unique. It stands 
alone and unparalleled. 

The Celebration of the Two Hundredth Anni- 
versary of the Birth of George "Washington was 
world-wide. Never before have so many nations, 
so many millions of people everywhere, joined with 
spontaneous enthusiasm in paying honor to the 
memory of one man. 

In every part of the world it was evident that 
the people of other lands and American residents 
abroad welcomed the opportunity to give public 
expression to the sentiments inspired by the name 
of Washington. 

Interest was sustained in an unprecedented 
manner from February 22 until Thanksgiving Day, 
November 24, 1932. Bicentennial ceremonies 
were continued at intervals throughout the entire 
period, breaking all records for such observances. 

Congress in the Act of December 2, 1924, creat- 
ing the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission, authorized the Commission, 
"if the participation of other nations in the com- 
memoration be deemed advisable, to communicate 
with Governments of such nations." Foreign 
participation in the celebration became the subject 
of conferences between representatives of the 
Commission and the Department of State early 
in 1931, and it was decided that the Government 
of the United States would issue no invitations to 
any other government to join in the observance, 
but would supply informally to all governments 
and all peoples information concerning the plans 
of the United States Government and people to 
observe this anniversary in 1932. In supplying 
this information the Department of State and other 
branches of the Federal Government cooperated 
with the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission. 

Manv channels were employed to transmit 



information concerning the plans for the celebra- 
tion to foreign governments and peoples and to 
Americans residing abroad. Printed material issued 
by the Commission — historical articles relating to 
George Washington and his contemporaries, sug- 
gested programs for local bicentennial ceremonies 
in the cities and towns of the United States, pic- 
tures and similar material — was sent, through the 
State Department and directly by the Commission, 
to all diplomatic representatives of foreign govern- 
ments in Washington, to all American diplomatic 
and consular officers abroad, to American clubs, 
chambers of commerce and other groups in foreign 
countries, to American missionaries and educational 
institutions abroad, to American business concerns 
maintaining foreign branches, to individuals in 
many parts of the world, and, in fact, to any person 
or organization — American or foreign — showing 
interest in the plans for the celebration. The 
Department of Commerce gave valuable assistance 
by sending information and printed material, fur- 
nished by the Commission, to its representatives in 
foreign countries, who in turn distributed it to 
foreigners and Americans residing abroad. 

Long before his death George Washington was 
recognized as a man whose fame would extend 
beyond his own country. In other countries in 
1932 he was hailed as a citizen of the world, whose 
fame had increased with the passing years. All 
peoples recognized in him their own ideals of un- 
selfish patriotism, love of freedom and nobility 
of character. 

The honor paid to the memory of George 
Washington in 1932 reflected honor upon the 
country which produced him. American diplo- 
mats in their official reports to the Department of 
State and to the Commission repeatedly declared 
that the bonds of international friendship had been 
greatly strengthened by the Bicentennial Celebra- 
tions in the countries to which they were accredited. 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Compiled From Official Reports 

The accounts in this volume of George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Celebrations in foreign coun- 
tries have been compiled from official reports 
received by the Department of State and the Com- 
mission from American Ambassadors, Ministers and 
Consuls, from foreign diplomatic missions in 
Washington, from American and foreign organiza- 
tions and individuals in other lands, and from 
currently published accounts in foreign newspapers 
and magazines. 

The order in which the reports are arranged in 
this volume is in accordance with the order in 
which the diplomatic representatives accredited to 
the United States were officially received as pub- 
lished in the official Diplomatic List of February 22, 
1932. Reports from countries and political divi- 
sions in the category of colonies or dependencies 
follow the reports from the nations with which 
they are associated. Reports from independent 
countries, or political divisions which do not fall 
into either of the above classifications, are printed 
next in order. 

Although the Commission has made every 
possible effort to see that these reports are complete, 
in some instances they represent inadequately the 
extent of the Bicentennial observances abroad. It 
is known that celebrations of various kinds have 
been held by schools, churches, fraternal organiza- 
tions and other groups in some countries without 
being reported. If more space is given to activities 
in some countries than in others, it is because the 
reports received by the Commission have been more 
extensive in some instances than in others. In 
every case all material that the Commission has 
been able to obtain relating to foreign participation, 
including written matter and illustrations, has been 
consulted to the fullest extent in preparing this 
book. 

One of the most remarkable things about the 
part taken by other countries in this celebration is 
the knowledge of George Washington and his 
times displayed by foreign writers and speakers 
who are quoted in this volume. No attempt has 
been made to correct errors of fact in such quota- 
tions. Considered as a whole, they are striking 
evidence of the deep impression made upon the 
minds of intelligent persons the world over by the 
character and achievements of George Washington. 



He is probably better known today than any other 
world figure. 

The interest aroused by the literature published 
by the Commission and distributed throughout the 
world, and by the world-wide Bicentennial observ- 
ances, has gone a long way toward bringing about 
this situation. It was a primary purpose of the 
celebration, as planned by the Commission, to 
inculcate in the hearts of all peoples a knowledge 
of the life and ideals of George Washington. This 
volume is overwhelming proof of success in this 
respect among the peoples of foreign lands. 

Great Interest Displayed Abroad 

To comply with requests for information and 
assistance from foreign governments, from foreign 
societies and groups of all kinds, as well as from in- 
dividual citizens of other lands and Americans re- 
siding abroad, the Commission found it necessary 
to set up a special section, which became known as 
the Division of Foreign Participation. The work 
of this division expanded during the years 1931 and 
1932 until it was mailing to foreign countries, at 
the peak of its activity, several hundred letters a 
day and thousands of printed pamphlets and 
pictures. 

In no instance did the United States Government 
spend any money for foreign celebrations, nor was 
any money requested for that purpose. Foreign 
governments and peoples, and Americans residing 
abroad, provided everything themselves, except the 
printed matter sent without charge by this 
Commission. 

George Washington Bicentennial Celebrations 
were held in eighty-one foreign countries and more 
than two hundred and seventy-five foreign cities. 

Foreign participation took many forms. Kings, 
queens, presidents, premiers and cabinet ministers 
of foreign governments took an active part, 
addressing their parliaments and public meet- 
ings and broadcasting speeches over international 
radio hookups. Many heads of foreign govern- 
ments sent Bicentennial messages to the President 
of the United States both at the beginning of the 
celebration on February 22, and at the close on 
Thanksgiving day, November 24, 1932. 

Thirty-three cities in seventeen countries named 
streets, boulevards, parks and squares for George 
Washington during 1932. In addition Turin, Italy, 
named a new bridge for him; Vienna, a municipal 



Foreign Participation 



apartment house. In Saigon, French Indo-China, 
and in Florence, Italy, beautiful monuments were 
erected to Washington. A medal in honor of 
George Washington was struck by the French 
Mint. School children of the Village of Washing- 
ton, in Durham County, England, exchanged flags 
with school children of Washington, D. C. The 
American colony in Stuttgart, Germany, raised 
more than $11,000 to endow a library of American 
books in that city to be known as the George Wash- 
ington Memorial Library. Haiti declared February 
22 a national holiday. The municipal authorities 
of Budapest, Warsaw, Johannesburg, and a number 
of other cities planted commemorative trees. 
Poland issued a new postage stamp bearing the 
likenesses of Washington, Kosciuszko and Pulaski 
to commemorate the Bicentennial. In Italy, Ger- 
many, France, England, and other countries pub- 
lic lectures were held; and in practically every 
country in the world there were special observ- 
ances in the schools. In Japan, Canada, several 
Latin American countries, Madagascar, and else- 
where George Washington essay contests were 
held in the schools. 

Eighty-one Countries Represented 

The eighty-one countries or political divisions, 
from which reports of Bicentennial Celebrations 
have been received are listed in the order of their 
appearance in this volume, as follows: 



Italy 


Jamaica 


Cuba 


Trinidad 


France 


Gibraltar 


Algeria 


Malta 


French Indo-China 


Peru 


Madagascar 


Belgium 


Society Islands 


Brazil 


Turkey 


Spain 


Germany 


Canary Islands 


Japan 


Argentina 


Chosen 


Chile 


Poland 


Mexico 


England 


Portugal 


Scotland 


Madeira 


Northern Ireland 


Mozambique 


Australia 


Uruguay 


New Zealand 


Switzerland 


India 


Hungary 


Straits Settlements 


Finland 


Bermuda 


Greece 



Austria 

Bulgaria 

Sweden 

Albania 

Netherlands 

Java 

Norway 

Guatemala 

Czechoslovakia 

Irish Free State 

Nicaragua 

Yugoslavia 

Rumania 

Union of South 

Africa 
Venezuela 
Denmark 
Haiti 
Colombia 
Canada 
Dominican Republic 



Honduras 

Egypt 

Bolivia 

Ecuador 

Siam 

Panama 

China 

Luxembourg 

Persia 

Paraguay 

Costa Rica 

Latvia 

Estonia 

Ethiopia 

Iraq 

Arabia 

Liberia 

Danzig, Free City of 

Morocco 

Palestine 

Syria 



Foreign Diplomats Assist 

By sending to their governments literature and 
information relating to the celebration, furnished 
by the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission, the diplomatic representatives 
of other nations, accredited to the United States 
in 1931 and 1932, contributed largely to the world- 
wide success of the observance. The Chiefs of 
Mission in the United States when the celebration 
opened on February 22, 1932, were: 

H. E. The Ambassador of Italy, Nobile Giacomo 
de Martino. 

H. E. The Ambassador of Cuba, Serior Don 
Orestes Ferrara. 

H. E. The Ambassador of France, Mr. Paul 
Claudel. 

H. E. The Ambassador of Turkey, Mr. Ahmet 
Muhtar. 

H. E. The Ambassador of Germany, Herr Fried- 
rich W. von Prittwitz und Gaffron. 

H. E. The Ambassador of Japan, Mr. Katsuji 
Debuchi. 

H. E. The Ambassador of Poland, Mr. Tytus 
Filipowicz. 

H. E. The Ambassador of Great Britain, The 
Honorable Sir Ronald Lindsay. 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



H. E. The Ambassador of Peru, Senor Don 
Manuel de Freyre y Santander. 

H. E. The Ambassador of Belgium, Mr. Paul 
May. 

H. E. The Ambassador of Brazil, Mr. R. de Lima 
e Silva. 

H. E. The Ambassador of Argentina, Senor Dr. 
Felipe A. Espil. 

H. E. The Ambassador of Chile, Senor Don 
Miguel Cruchaga Tocornal. 

H. E. The Ambassador of Mexico, Senor Dr. 
Don Jose Manuel Puig Casauranc. 

The Minister of Portugal, Viscount d'Alte. 

The Minister of Switzerland, Mr. Marc Peter. 

The Minister of Hungary, Count Laszlo 
Szechenyi. 

The Minister of Finland, Mr. L. Astrom. 

The Minister of Greece, Mr. Charalambos 
Simopoulos. 

The Minister of Austria, Mr. Edgar L. G. 
Prochnik. 

The Minister of Bulgaria, Mr. Simeon Radeff. 

The Minister of Sweden, Mr. W. Bostrom. 

The Minister of Albania, Mr. Faik Konitza. 

The Minister of The Netherlands, Mr. J. H. 
van Roijen. 

The Minister of Norway, Mr. Halvard H. 
Bachke. 

The Minister of Guatemala, Senor Dr. Don 
Adrian Recinos. 

The Minister of Czechoslovakia, Mr. Ferdinand 
Veverka. 

The Minister of the Irish Free State, Mr. 
Michael MacWhite. 

The Minister of Yugoslavia, Dr. Leonide Pitamic. 

The Minister of Rumania, Mr. Charles A. Davila. 

The Minister of the Union of South Africa, Mr. 
Eric Hendrik Louw. 

The Minister of Venezuela, Senor Dr. Don Pedro 
Manuel Arcaya. 

The Minister of Denmark, Mr. Otto Wadsted. 
The Minister of Haiti, Mr. Dantes Bellegarde. 

The Minister of Colombia, Senor Dr. Don Fabio 
Lozano. 

The Minister of Canada, The Honorable William 
Duncan Herridge. 



The Minister of the Dominican Republic, Senor 
Don Roberto Despradel. 

The Minister of Honduras, Senor Dr. Don Celeo 
Davila. 

The Minister of Egypt, Sesostris Sidarouss Pasha. 

The Minister of Bolivia, Senor Don Luis O. 
Abelli. 

The Minister of Ecuador, Senor Don Gonzalo 
Zaldumbide. 

The Minister of Siam, Phya Subarn Sompati. 

The Minister of Panama, Senor Dr. Horacio F. 
Alfaro. 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Spain, 
Serior Don Luis M. de Irujo. 

The Charge d'Affaires of Persia, Mr. Yadollah 
Azodi. 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Uruguay, 
Mr. J. Richling. 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Nicaragua, 
Senor Dr. Don Louis Manuel Debayle. 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of China, Dr. 
Hawkling Yen. 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Paraguay, 
Senor Don Pablo M. Ynsfran. 

The Charge d'Affaires ad interim of Costa Rica, 
Senor Don Guillermo E. Gonzalez. 

The Consul General of Latvia in New York, in 
Charge of Legation, Hon. Arthur B. Lule. 

The Consul General of Estonia in New York in 
Charge of Legation, Colonel Victor Mutt. 

The Consul of Luxembourg, Hon. Cornelius 
Jacoby. 

American Diplomats Cooperated 

The following is a list of American Chiefs of 
Mission in foreign countries in February, 1932, 
who rendered valuable assistance in organizing 
celebrations by American residents abroad and in 
furnishing information and literature relating to 
the Bicentennial Celebration to foreign govern- 
ments and peoples: 

Hon. Herman Bernstein, Minister to Albania. 
Hon. Robert Woods Bliss, Ambassador to 
Argentina. 

Hon. Gilchrist Baker Stockton, Minister to 
Austria. 

Hon. Hugh S. Gibson, Ambassador to Belgium. 



Foreign Participation 



Hon. Edward F. Feely, Minister to Bolivia. 

Hon. Edwin V. Morgan, Ambassador to Brazil. 

Hon. Henry W. Shoemaker, Minister to Bulgaria. 

Hon. Hanford MacNider, Minister to Canada. 

Hon. W. S. Culbertson, Ambassador to Chile. 

Hon. Nelson T. Johnson, Minister to China. 

Hon. Jefferson Caffery, Minister to Colombia. 

Hon. Charles C. Eberhardt, Minister to Costa 
Rica. 

Hon. Harry F. Guggenheim, Ambassador to 
Cuba. 

Hon. Frederick P. Hibbard, Charge d'Affairs ad 
interim, Prague, Czechoslovakia. 

Hon. F. W. B. Coleman, Minister to Denmark. 

Hon. H. F. Arthur Schoenfeld, Minister to the 
Dominican Republic. 

Hon. William Dawson, Minister to Ecuador. 

Hon. William M. Jardine, Minister to Egypt. 

Hon. Harry E. Carlson, Charge d'Affaires ad 
interim, Tallinn, Estonia. 

Hon. Edward E. Brodie, Minister to Finland. 

Hon. Walter E. Edge, Ambassador to France. 

Hon. Frederic M. Sackett, Ambassador to 
Germany. 

Hon Andrew W. Mellon, Ambassador to Great 
Britain. 

Hon. Leland B. Morris, Charge d'Affaires ad 
interim, Athens, Greece. 

Hon. Sheldon Whitehouse, Minister to Guate- 
mala. 

Hon. Dana G. Munro, Minister to Haiti. 

Hon. Julius G. Lay, Minister to Honduras. 

Hon. Nicholas Roosevelt, Minister to Hungary. 

Hon. Frederick A. Sterling, Minister to the Irish 
Free State. 

Hon. John W. Garrett, Ambassador to Italy. 

Hon. W. Cameron Forbes, Ambassador to Japan. 

Hon. Robert P. Skinner, Minister to Latvia. 

Hon. George Piatt Waller, Charge d'Affaires ad 
interim, Luxembourg. 

Hon. J. Reuben Clark, Jr., Ambassador to 
Mexico. 

Hon. Laurits S. Swenson, Minister to the Nether- 
lands. 

Hon. Matthew E. Hanna, Minister to Nicaragua. 

Hon. Hoffman Philip, Minister to Norway. 



Hon. Roy T. Davis, Minister to Panama. 

Hon. Post Wheeler, Minister to Paraguay. 

Hon. Charles C. Hart, Minister to Persia. 

Hon. Fred Morris Dearing, Ambassador to 
Peru. 

Hon. John N. Willys, Ambassador to Poland. 

Hon. John G. South, Minister to Portugal. 

Hon. Charles S. Wilson, Minister to Rumania. 

Hon. David E. Kaufman, Minister to Siam. 

Hon. Irwin B. Laughlin, Ambassador to Spain. 

Hon. John M. Morehead, Minister to Sweden. 

Hon. Hugh R. Wilson, Minister to Switzerland. 

Hon. Joseph C. Grew, Ambassador to Turkey. 

Hon. Ralph J. Totten, Minister to the Union of 
South Africa. 

Hon. J. Butler Wright, Minister to Uruguay. 

Hon. George T. Summerlin, Minister to 
Venezuela. 

Hon. John Dyneley Prince, Minister to 
Yugoslavia. 

Hon. Addison E. Southard, Minister to Ethiopia. 
Hon. Charles E. Mitchell, Minister to Liberia. 

Streets and Squares Dedicated 

The twenty-eight cities in sixteen different coun- 
tries which named streets, squares, and parks for 
George Washington, or erected monuments or pub- 
lic structures in his honor, during 1932 are: 

BELGRADE, YUGOSLAVIA— Street. 

BERGEN, NORWAY— Street. 

BERLIN, GERMANY— Public Square. 

BUCHAREST, RUMANIA— Avenue. 

BUDAPEST, HUNGARY— Street. 

CRACOW", POLAND— Boulevard. 

DARMSTADT, GERMANY— Public Square. 

DRESDEN, GERMANY— Street. 

FLORENCE, ITALY — Boulevard and Monument. 

GUATEMALA CITY, GUATEMALA— Avenue. 

GDYNIA, POLAND— Street. 

HAMBURG, GERMANY— Street. 

JELGAVA, LATVIA— Public Square and Street. 

KORCHA, ALBANIA— Street. 

LJUBLJANA, YUGOSLAVIA— Street. 

MUNICH, GERMANY— Street. 

PRAGUE, CZECHOSLOVAKIA— Street. 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



PRETORIA, UNION OF SOUTH AFRICA— Boulevakd. 

QUITO, ECUADOR— Avenue. 

RIGA, LATVIA— Public Square. 

ROME, ITALY— Boulevard. 

SAIGON, FRENCH-INDO CHINA— Public Square 

and Monument. 
SCUTARI, ALBANIA— Street. 
SOFIA, BULGARIA— Boulevard. 
TURIN, ITALY— Bridge. 
VIENNA, AUSTRIA— Municipal Building. 
WARSAW, POLAND— Avenue. 
ZAGREB, YUGOSLAVIA— Public Square. 

Copies of the Athenaeum portrait of George 
Washington, painted by Gilbert Stuart, were sent 
by the Commission through the State Department 
to every American embassy, legation and consulate. 
That these fine portraits, lithographed in colors, 
supplied a long-felt need was evident from the 
letters received by the Commission. One American 
Minister wrote: 

I cannot close this letter without congratulating you . . . 
Thanks especially to the Commission, excellent portraits of 
Washington may now be seen, appropriately framed, in prac- 
tically every Government establishment in the world. . . . 

Many of these portraits were also presented to 
educational and other public institutions abroad. 
Similarly, a chart published by the Commission, 
portraying in colors the development of the Amer- 
ican flag, was distributed to all of our diplomatic 
and consular offices, and to many foreign educa- 
tional institutions and libraries. 

Walnut seedlings and seeds from walnut trees at 
Mount Vernon were furnished by the National 
Nut Tree Planting Project, in cooperation with 
the Commission, to every American-owned diplo- 
matic and consular office located where climatic 
and soil conditions were favorable to their growth. 
As a result, there are now more than forty of these 
trees growing in the grounds of American official 
residences and offices abroad. 

Ceremonies Organized Locally 

The Commission did not have foreign repre- 
sentatives, nor did it name bicentennial committees 
abroad. In most cases American diplomatic or 
consular representatives were associated with com- 
mittees of foreigners and resident Americans who 



organized the ceremonies. In capital cities, where 
Americans were numerous and in many cases 
already organized, American ambassadors, ministers 
and consular officers joined American groups in 
cooperating actively with foreign governments and 
societies. In numerous smaller places American 
consuls themselves organized ceremonies among 
members of the American colonies. 

Besides communicating with every American 
diplomatic and consular representative, the Com- 
mission sent information to practically every 
American chamber of commerce, trade organiza- 
tion, club and educational institution abroad. Re- 
sponses were immediate and requests came from 
every corner of the globe for assistance in celebrat- 
ing the anniversary. The Commission sent his- 
torical data for speeches, information, photographs, 
and matrices for use by the press; plays, pageants, 
music and costume designs; cuts and photographs 
for use on printed programs, and other material. 

A record of the splendid results of the Bicenten- 
nial activities abroad may be found in the files of 
the Commission. There are newspaper clippings — 
bundles of them in some instances — from almost 
all of the eighty-one countries where Bicentennial 
Celebrations were held, one of the most unusual 
being a special children's page in a Japanese news- 
paper featuring stories and pictures of Washington. 
There are copies of invitations and programs, 
originally and beautifully commemorating foreign 
celebrations of this great anniversary. There are 
unique posters announcing Bicentennial events in 
English and in foreign languages. There are trans- 
lations of biographies of Washington published in 
honor of the Bicentennial, special editions of maga- 
zines and issues of government organs honoring the 
First President of the United States. There are 
hundreds of photographs from every corner of the 
globe recording commemorative assemblies, dedi- 
cations of statues, streets, parks, and buildings to 
George Washington, tree planting, balls, receptions, 
plays and pageants. All these are striking evidence 
of the way foreign governments and rulers, munici- 
palities, organizations and citizens joined in the 
Bicentennial Celebrations in foreign countries. 

One of the most gratifying results of the 
Bicentennial Celebration was the increase in mutual 
understanding and friendship which it brought 
about between the United States and other nations. 
The character of George Washington has a power- 



Foreign Participation 



ful appeal to all peoples without regard to nation- 
ality. In the honor paid to this world-citizen es- 
teem for the man naturally encompassed the nation 
that gave him birth; and, in becoming better ac- 
quainted with its First President and its early his- 
tory, foreign peoples gained a better understanding 
of the United States of America. Formal political 
and diplomatic ties found new and deeper roots in 
a stronger friendship of people for people. . . . 

The Commemoration of the Washington Bicentennial . . . 
has broken the chain of traditional hostility ... It is certain 
that a new appreciation has been created of the friendliness 
now existing between our two peoples. . . . 

This is the statement of an American Consul 
in an official report to the Department of State. 

Celebration in the United States 

It will be of interest to readers of this volume to 
have a brief summary of the George Washington 
Bicentennial Celebration within the boundaries of 
the United States. 

Essentially this was an American celebration and 
the major efforts of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission were directed 
to organizing the celebration in the homes and 
communities of the United States. How this was 
accomplished, and the tremendous amount of work 
required in the process, will not be touched upon 
here. The results, however, are important. 

Active promotion of the celebration was begun 
in the spring of 1930 and the work was so corre- 
lated that it included contact with every city and 
town; every church, school, patriotic, civic and 
agricultural group; every boy and girl unit; all 
libraries, memorial tree-planting committees and 
thousands of miscellaneous organizations. 

In the 123,15 3 cities, towns and villages in the 
United States, 126,870 municipal and community 
programs were given. In the 212,159 churches, 
there were 210,320 programs. Of the 98,3 56 
fraternal, patriotic and civic organizations 85,344 
carried out 156,435 programs. There are 887,073 
school units in the United States and these units 
presented 3,548,292 school programs. The 
77,680 women's organizations, held 316,221 Bicen- 
tennial Celebrations. In addition to women's 
organizations there were 148,560 committees 
composed entirely of women who presented 
43 5,247 programs. 



By agricultural organizations, totalling 108,439, 
programs were given to the number of 240,167. 
There are 44,669 boy and girl scout units which 
gave bicentennial programs during the year to the 
number of 15 3,478. More than 73,000 schools 
entered the Declamatory and Essay Contests con- 
ducted by the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission and the reports of these 
schools filed with this Commission indicate that 
approximately 30,000,000 school children in pub- 
lic, private and parochial schools and institutions 
of higher learning, participated in some form of 
observance in honor of George Washington. 

A poster-picture, in colors, of George Washing- 
ton was placed in every school room in the United 
States, numbering 901,164 and a similar poster 
representing Wakefield, the birthplace of George 
Washington, was placed in 96,438 post offices and 
other public buildings. More than 30,000,000 
trees were planted as memorials to George Wash- 
ington. To summarize the activities of this Com- 
mission, 1,555,755 municipalities and organizations 
were contacted. Committees were appointed to 
the number of 894,224 and the total number of 
programs presented, as reported to the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion, was 4,760,345. In addition to these activities, 
there were a number of outstanding events of an 
impressive character — national, state and munici- 
pal. Memorial coins and a series of Commemora- 
tive Postage Stamps were contributed by the Fed- 
eral Government. Wakefield, the birthplace of 
George Washington, was restored as a national 
monument. 

The Mount Vernon Memorial Highway, which 
is one of the most beautiful boulevards in the world, 
was completed by the Federal Government in the 
year 1932 as a bicentennial feature. This boule- 
vard is about fifteen miles long and connects Mount 
Vernon, the home of George Washington, with the 
City of Washington. It skirts the Potomac River 
and is not only beautiful, but is one of the most 
interesting and historic drives in America. The 
highway enters the National Capital over the great 
Arlington Memorial Bridge spanning the Potomac 
River, which also was completed in 1932. 

Another project of the Federal Government is 
the establishment of the George Washington 
Memorial Parkway, an extension of the National 
Capital's beautiful park system, to the Great Falls 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



of the Potomac River with elaborate park areas 
on both sides of the river. 

These are only the barest outlines, but they will 
serve to impress the reader with the amazing results 
achieved by this Commission in carrying out the 
mandate of the Congress, and will indicate to 
participants abroad the character and scope of the 
celebration in the homeland. 

Americans Present in Spirit 

Americans at home and abroad have been warmly 
appreciative of the honor paid to George Washing- 
ton by foreign governments in 1932 and have been 



deeply impressed by the friendly attitude of for- 
eign peoples toward the United States, as expressed 
in the Bicentennial Celebrations. An American 
foreign officer expressed it in these words: 

The American nation has been present in spirit at each of 
the innumerable gatherings which have been arranged spon- 
taneously in foreign countries to do honor to the memory 
of George Washington. American citizens travelling in for- 
eign lands will point with pride to the public squares, boule- 
vards, avenues and streets which, during this Bicentennial 
Year, have been named in honor of their illustrious leader. 
Their children will stand reverently with uncovered heads in 
the shade of the noble trees which have this year been planted 
in foreign lands, in spots already rich in local tradition and 
in historic interest, to commemorate the George Washington 
Bicentennial. 




GEORGE WASHINGTON'S BOOKPLATE 

This bookplate George Washington had engraved for his personal use, and copies of it are found in the surviving 
books. In his letter of November 22, 1771, to Robert Adam, a friend who was going to England, he requested 
him to get "a Plate with my Arms engravd and 4 or 500 Copies struck." The copperplate was made by 
S. Valliscure, and 300 prints were sent over. The original plate has been recently found. The coat of arms 
is that which through many generations was borne by the Washington family, there being slight variations 
from branch to branch and from generation to generation, especially in the crest. It is probable that the 
coat as George Washington used it was brought over by a great-grandfather on a signet ring inherited from 
an uncle. The history of the motto is obscure. The coat was of silver or white with the bars and stars red; 
the raven of the crest, black; or, in heraldic terms: Argent, two bars gules, in chief three mullets of the second; 
crest, a raven proper, wings endorsed, issuing out of a ducal coronet or. 



Italy 




SHE ITALIAN GOVERNMENT and 
people joined in the world-wide 
I tribute to the memory of George 
Washington during 1932 with a series 
of celebrations unequalled in magnitude and im- 
portance by any tribute to a foreign hero in the 
history of modern Italy. 

King Victor Emmanuel committed himself and 
his country to the Bicentennial in the following 
cablegram on the occasion of the official opening 
of the celebration: 

ROME, FEBRUARY 22, 1932. 
HIS EXCELLENCY 
PRESIDENT HOOVER, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

ITALY, WHICH ADMIRES THE GREAT MERITS OF GEORGE 
WASHINGTON, CELEBRATES TODAY WITH CORDIAL EN- 
THUSIASM THE TUTELARY GENIUS OF THE GREAT FRIENDLY 
NATION. BE GOOD ENOUGH, MR. PRESIDENT, TO ACCEPT 
THE EXPRESSION OF THESE SENTIMENTS ON THIS GLORIOUS 
BICENTENNIAL. 

VITTORIO EMANUELE. 

The admiration of the Italian people for the 
First President of the United States was again 
officially expressed, months later, in the following 
message: 

Washington, D. C, November 24, 1932. 

Honorable Henry L. Stimson, 
Secretary of State. 

The Charge d'Affaires of Italy has the honor to com- 
municate to His Excellency, the Secretary of State, the 
following message just received from the head of the Italian 
Government with the request that the Secretary kindly 
convey it to the President of the United States: 

ON THE OCCASION WHEN THE CELEBRATIONS OF THE 
TWO HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE BIRTH OF GEORGE 
WASHINGTON COME TO AN END, THE FASCIST GOVERNMENT 
WISHES TO ASSURE THE GOVERNMENT OF THE UNITED 
STATES OF THE CORDIAL SENTIMENTS WITH WHICH THE 
ITALIAN NATION HAS JOINED WITH THE UNITED STATES IN 
HONORING THE GREAT PATRIOT, SOLDIER AND STATESMAN. 
THESE CELEBRATIONS DURING 1932 HAVE MADE STRONGER 
THE BONDS OF FRIENDSHIP WHICH EVER UNITED THE 
AMERICAN AND ITALIAN PEOPLES. 

MUSSOLINI. 

The Bicentennial Year coincided with a revival 
of hero worship in Italy and the Italian people 
recognized in the character of George Washington 
the qualities of their own immortals. Amedeo 
Fani, Italian Undersecretary of State for Foreign 
Affairs, stressed this feature of the George Wash- 



ington Bicentennial Celebration in Italy, when he 
said in a notable public address at Milan: 

In the second centenary of the birth of George Washington, 
Fascist Italy, which, reconsecrating every spiritual value 
against invading materialism, has re-established hero worship 
because it feels and comprehends that the invisible power of 
God avails itself of these champions of the ideal to reveal to 
the ignorant the eternal laws of truth and justice, has willed 
solemnly to celebrate the memory of the American hero, who 
as warrior, as statesman and as man, was the noblest, the 
purest and the least selfish among the creators of the in- 
dependence of his country. 

The national importance of the anniversary in 
Italy was evinced by the creation of a committee 
to supervise its observance throughout the king- 
dom. Prince Ludovico Spada Potenziani, Senator 
of the Kingdom and former Governor of Rome, 
was made chairman, and the other members were 
the following eminent Italians and Americans in 
Rome: Professor Franco Bruno Averardi; Profes- 
sor Federico Chabod; Agostino Depretis, Minister 
Plenipotentiary; Nelson Gay, director of the 
American Library in Rome; Astorre Lupattelli, 
president of the Royal University for Foreigners, 
Perugia; Professor Arturo Marpicati, Vice Secre- 
tary, National Fascist Party; Count Francesco 
Pellati, Supervising Inspector of Fine Arts; Sig. 
Gaetano Polverelli, Chief of the Press Office of the 
Chief of Government; Sig. Omero Ranelletti, 
counselor of the Italo- American Association; Pro- 
fessor Gorham P. Stevens, director of the Ameri- 
can Academy in Rome; and Sig. Fulvio Suvich, 
Commissioner of Tourism. 

Under the direction of this committee and with 
the sanction and encouragement of the Govern- 
ment the Bicentennial observance occurred on a 
nation-wide scale. Rome and Florence named 
streets in honor of George Washington; in Flor- 
ence a monument also was erected to him and in 
Turin a new bridge was given his name — the first 
of eight Turin bridges to be named for anyone 
not an Italian. 

A distinctive feature of the Bicentennial cele- 
bration in Italy was its cultural aspect. Many 
public lectures were delivered under the auspices 
of Italian and Italo- American organizations, while 
lecture and study courses were conducted in the 



10 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



high schools and colleges by the Ministry of Na- 
tional Education. The purpose underlying this 
feature of the celebration was twofold: to honor 
the First President of the United States and at the 
same time to give to the Italian people a better 
understanding of the nation he founded. 

Opening Celebration in Rome 

The Bicentennial Celebration in Italy opened 
with a notable reception on February 21, 1932, 
at the Palazzo Salviati in Rome, under the auspices 
of the Italo-American Society, when addresses 
were delivered by Signor Amedeo Fani, Undersec- 
retary of State for Foreign Affairs; Count Giu- 
seppe Volpi di Misurata, President of the Italo- 
American Society and former Minister of Finance, 
and Hon. John W. Garrett, the Ambassador of the 
United States. 

The names of those in attendance were "indica- 
tive of the importance attributed to this recep- 
tion," said Ambassador Garrett in his report to the 



Department of State. The list also included: 
Grand Admiral Thaon di Revel, Duca del Mare; 
Signor Federzoni, President of the Senate; General 
de Bono, Minister of the Colonies; Prince Bon- 
compagni Ludovisi, the Governor of Rome, and 
Prince Spada Potenziani, President of the George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission of Italy. 
To a large and distinguished audience of 
Italians and Americans Signor Fani, in an impres- 
sive address of welcome, outlined the purposes of 
the celebration. He declared that it was the in- 
tention of his country to join the American people 
in honoring the memory of "the noblest among 
the founders of the United States," in a series of 
manifestations throughout Italy during the same 
period set aside in the United States for the com- 
memoration. Paying tribute to Washington's 
virtues in public and private life, Signor Fani said 
that history presents him as one of those rare 
examples of manhood which all humanity seeks 




Acme Photo. 



IL DUCE AND AMERICAN AMBASSADOR ATTEND GEORGE WASHINGTON CELEBRATION IN ROME. 
Accompanied by John W. Garrett, United States Ambassador to Italy, Premier Benito Mussolini is seen as he 

ARRIVED AT THE AMERICAN ACADEMY TO ATTEND A CEREMOVY IN HONOR OF THE FlRST PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES 



Foreign Participation — Italy 



11 



to emulate. The celebration, he said, would 
solidify the bonds existing between Italy and the 
United States. 

Signor Fani concluded his remarks as follows: 

In the name of Washington, which through the initiative 
of the Italo-American Society has been re-invoked here this 
evening, I express the hope that in a fusion of aspirations and 
ideals, America and Italy, standard-bearers of civilized prog- 
ress, may mark out for humanity the world's upward path. 

Count Volpi was then introduced and in an elo- 
quent, forceful address pictured the many quali- 
ties of George Washington's character which made 
him chief among the builders of the United States. 
He spoke of the resemblance of Garibaldi and 
Cavour to Washington, stating that these two 
famous Italians appeared to have assumed many 
of the great American's virtues. George Wash- 
ington's most impressive characteristic, according 
to Count Volpi, was his sense of proportion. This 
quality, he said, was especially needed today by 
all world leaders, and he expressed the hope that 
Washington's memory would be celebrated every- 



where by a return to "the eternal safeguard of 
men — the sense of proportion." 
Count Volpi continued: 

(Translation from the report of the American Embassy.) 

The earliest struggles between the English and French in 
America in the middle of the eighteenth century seemed 
unnecessary in those days; so much so that Voltaire wrote 
in "Candide" that the two nations were warring "for a few 
snow-covered slopes along the Canadian side" and that they 
were spending more in this war than all Canada could possibly 
be worth. A fallacious prophecy it was, as often happens 
in history. These first uncertain movements, in fact, were 
thirty years later to transform through the course of two 
long wars, the thirteen modest English colonies into the 
United States of America; and, slightly less than two hundred 
years later, into the great Republic of forty-eight states and 
130 millions of inhabitants — a republic so large and powerful 
as to be recognized and called throughout the world by the 
name of an entire continent: America. And we are here to 
pay homage to America in the majestic and immortal figure 
of her greatest builder, the second centennial of whose birth 
occurs tomorrow. 

Not to me should the honor fall of being the first to speak 
of George Washington in the celebration which Fascist Italy 
has arranged in his honor, for I can boast of no virtue as a 
biographer and historian. The honor is mine solely by reason 
of my presidency of this Italo-American Association, which 
position I hold through the kindly designation of its members 
and through the desire of the Chief of Government. 




Photograph by courtesy of the European Edition of the New York Herald Tribune. 
ROME HONORS GEORGE WASHINGTON. One of the streets of the Villa Umberto was named for the First 
President of the United States at a solemn bicentennial ceremony in 1932. 



12 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



In history George Washington, like few men and few 
leaders, stands as the very expression of his country, and his 
activity identified itself harmoniously whether it was merely 
because of the greatness of his character that this man so 
powerfully influenced the destinies of his country, or whether 
it was not rather that he was the complete man fitted to 
answer the needs of his country, such as Providence at rare 
times sends to peoples in their critical historic moments in 
order to insure their destinies. 

To me, a Latin and an Italian, George Washington, who 
never set foot upon European soil, seems a Latin hero and an 
Italian spirit of the Kisorgi motto. He was profoundly de- 
voted to the memories of Rome. His work as statesman and 
general has been often and correctly compared, even during 
his lifetime, to the work of Fabius Quintus Maximus 
"cunctator." His three returns to the land — after his first 
command of the Virginian troops, after the dictatorship 
which created the United States, and after his second presi- 
dency — have justly made him comparable to Lucius Quintus 
Cincinnatus. 

Washington also seems close to two of the great men of 
our national Kisorgi tncnto, and it seems that, in turn, these 
two Latins assumed some of his qualities: Garibaldi and 
Cavour. 

These men and their works unite us in respect and grati- 
tude, unite our faith in the immortal virtues which the 
voices of one's own soil express and renew throughout the 
centuries. 

Count Volpi then referred to Washington's life 
in its various phases, from his youth and early ac- 
tivity in agriculture to the first hard military trials 
which began in his twenty-first year; from the 
chief command of the Virginian troops to his 
return to Mount Vernon in 175 8. He went on 
to examine the causes of the Revolutionary War 
and the fatal process of the separation of the 
colonies from the mother country, over which 
process presided the determination and courage of 
the American hero. 

Count Volpi dwelt upon the fifteen years of 
private and family life of the gentleman of Mount 
Vernon which preceded the Revolution, and upon 
the decisive cycle of the war, continuing: 

(Translation from the report of the American Embassy.) 

The Declaration of Rights of the Philadelphia Congress 
proclaimed to the world the problem of American independ- 
ence. To the ensuing war, France lent her support, first 
with Lafayette's volunteers and later with the dispatch of 
regular troops. With the Yorktown victory and the sur- 
render of the English general, Cornwallis, in October, 1781, 
the war ended. There followed the Peace of Paris (September 
3, 1783) which recognized American independence. Thus 
arose the United States of America. 

But the fruits of victory threatened to be lost in the dis- 
cord which followed. Demagogy was rampant and Wash- 
ington, the champion of liberty and democracy, but a man 
accustomed to command, wrote: "Experience has taught us, 
that men will not adopt and carry into execution measures 
the best calculated for their own good, without the inter- 
vention of a coercive power." 

The National Convention in Philadelphia, which deliber- 



ated in secret sessions from May 25 to September 17, 1787, 
drew up the constitution which still governs the United 
States today. In April, 1789, while the French Revolutionary 
Assembly was being opened in Paris, George Washington was 
unanimously elected President of the United States. On April 
3 0, Washington, who had arrived at New York in triumph 
from his Mount Vernon retreat, accompanied all during the 
journey by frenzied demonstrations, pronounced his oath 
before the people, who enthusiastically acclaimed him Presi- 
dent of the United States. 

During the first period of his presidency, Washington was 
faced, assisted by his Finance Minister, Hamilton, with the 
grave financial questions resulting from the war, which 
weighed down heavily upon a nation still small and weak; 
and he had to quell the revolts provoked by this same ques- 
tion, as well as a serious Indian uprising. These tests served 
to prove the robust solidity of the Federal Government. 

The second period of his presidency was marked by serious 
events in foreign politics and his ability as a statesman was 
tested by a series of extremely delicate developments. 

First there was the repercussion of the French Revolution. 
Caught between the "British party" of Hamilton's followers 
and the "French party" of Jefferson's followers, Washington 
induced his government to adopt a neutral attitude, which he 
himself defended against violent attacks at the sacrifice of 
his own popularity. New difficulties also were created for 
Washington by England; and he succeeded, not without dif- 
ficulty, in concluding a treaty which, even though it was in 
the nature of a bargain, safeguarded American rights and 
eliminated danger of another war. 

He could thus with tranquil conscience reject, out of 
respect to the constitution, a further reconfirmation in office 
and once more return to his land, relinquishing the powers 
of government to his direct collaborator, Vice President John 
Adams, elected as Washington's successor to the Presidency 
of the United States. 

Immediate subsequent developments marked another crit- 
ical moment for the United States. This time it was France, 
who adduced from her disappointment over the Anglo- 
American Treaty of 1794-9 5 a motive for a violent break 
with her ex-ally. Washington was designated Lieutenant 
General of the army which was mobilized as a consequence 
of developments, and it seemed as though he was once more 
destined to abandon his agricultural occupations to take up 
arms for his country. 

This period, which was among the most bitter of Wash- 
ington's life, finally gave him two consolations which must 
have been inexpressibly dear to his heart: Before death over- 
took him, in fact, he was assured that the resistance of the 
Union was stronger than any external or internal menace; 
and the maintenance of peace, which he had obtained through 
the utmost hardships, still triumphed, thanks to the tenacity 
and ability of his successor. 

George Washington could now continue his simple life at 
Mount Vernon, looking after the extensive property which 
made him one of the wealthiest men of America. Unex- 
pectedly a rapid disease seized him while he was occupied at 
his daily tasks, and he expired on December 14, 1799, at the 
age of 67. 

The nation's sorrow was profound, and all the people wore 
mourning for one month; Congress consigned his fame to 
history, and voices of condolence were heard throughout 
Europe. 

Abraham Lincoln, in one of the most beautiful tributes to 
Washington ever uttered, said: 

"Washington is the mightiest name of earth — long since 
mightiest in the cause of civil liberty, still mightiest in moral 
reformation. On that name no eulogy is expected. It can- 
not be. To add brightness to the sun, or glory to the name 
of Washington is alike impossible. Let none attempt it. In 



Foreign Participation — Italy 



13 



solemn awe we pronounce the name, and in its naked deathless 
splendor leave it shining on." 

This praise, which would seem to be the highest that could 
be spoken, is surpassed by that of Napoleon: "He is the great- 
est of men and he will be venerated by mankind when my 
fame shall be lost in the vortex of revolutions." 

Now, after the lapse of two centuries, Washington's fig- 
ure stands out in its luminous and kindly beauty, untouched 
by time and undeformed by legend. Even today his memory 
is exalted in the United States and in Europe, and even today 
citizens and foreigners wend their way to Mount Vernon to 
pay him homage. 

I, too, have had the privilege of visiting the verdant retreat 
of the founder of the world's greatest nation, which has now 
become a temple of sacred memories. This homage I paid 
the first time I visited the United States, in 192 5, whither I 
was sent by the Chief of Government to settle the accounts 
of the last war; I repeated it on the occasion of my last 
visit across the ocean. 

Let us leave it to superficial persons to say that America is 
a nation without a history. The life and works of its founder 
alone would suffice to disprove it. This is a people which has 
marched forward with giant strides, which has assimilated into 
the original Puritan stock a mixture of the most varied races, 
which has overcome the most difficult technical and social 
problems, still maintaining poltical and linguistic unity and 
a firm predominance of the federal system over a vast terri- 
tory divided into economically independent states. 

The greatness of Washington is particularly express;d by 
his character, by his balance, by his honesty, by his will 
power; these g f ts he exercised in all their splendor both in 
war and in peace, both as general and as president. 

Loyal to republican institutions, he spurned the crown of- 
fered him by discontented officers and later put down a revolt 
of the army against the civil power. 



His love of liberty was unfailingly linked to the concep- 
tion of a strong state whose authority was supreme. 

He believed in freedom of speech and freedom of the press. 
But when attacks passed beyond the bounds of decency, he 
remarked: "If the government and the officers of it are to be 
the constant theme for newspaper abuse, and this too without 
condescending to investigate the motives or the facts, it will 
be impossible, I conceive, for any man living to manage the 
helm or to keep the machine together." And on another 
occasion he added: "I shall not, whilst I have the honor to 
administer the government, bring a man into any office of 
consequence knowingly, whose political tenets are adverse to 
the measures, which the general government are pursuing; 
for this, in my opinion, would be a sort of political suicide." 
The speaker is always the great master of life, the achiever, 
never the doctrinarian, always the man who possesses the 
sense of proportion in life. 

Count Volpi closed his address with a quotation 
from a speech which, he explained, he had deliv- 
ered at a banquet given in his honor in New York 
by prominent financiers of America: 

(Translation from the report of the American Embassy) 
In Wall Street, in the throbbing heart of that world of 
teeming business, stands the old 18th century Federal Treas- 
ury building, upon whose front rises a simple and kindly 
statue of George Washington. It seems that from out his 
statuary image, George Washington gazes bewildered upon the 
opulent and incredibly high skyscrapers which press so close 
about him as to take away his breath and make him feel that 
the sense of proportion in the world has been lost. 

If every outstanding man leaves to posterity throughout 




NEW GEORGE WASHINGTON BOULEVARD IN ROME. View of the Viale Giorgio Washington, which was 

FORMALLY DEDICATED AS PART OF THE BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION IN THE ETERNAL ClTY ON FEBRUARY 22, 1932. 



14 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



the centuries the dominant imprint of his own personality, 
Washington has left us a sense of measure and proportion. 
While the whole world today, in honoring America, pays 
homage to George Washington, we would express the hope 
that the greatest and best characteristic of his earthly life, 
the sense of proportion, which at this moment seems to have 
been lost by all men in all countries, may re-assume its proper 
value. Everything today in the life of mankind seems out of 
proportion and paradoxical. 

While upon the banks of Lake Geneva the greatest con- 
ference of nations ever seen is in session for the purpose of 
bringing about a general disarmament susceptible of prevent- 
ing war, which becomes ever more cruel among men, two 
nations, who together represent perhaps one-fifth of living 
humanity, are fighting in the Far East, and on each side the 
unarmed are paying the heaviest cost of the incipient con- 
flict. What a boundless and paradoxical irony of fate, and 
what a warning to the leaders of nations! 

While the world is in complex travail, political and, even 
more, demographic in character, which disturbs it in its 
deepest relations and functions of economic life and which 
demands mutual confidence, collaboration, and recognition 
among peoples, the tragic accounting — as the Duce of Fascism 
has called it — of a war ended 13 years ago poisons the life of 
all, piles difficulties upon difficulties, which by their very na- 
ture seem insurmountable. 

While all peoples and all leaders are at heart convinced 
that very little more can be paid, that very little more can 
be received, all are digging themselves into positions which 
they believe, often in good faith, unassailable. Situations are 
complicated, settlements are postponed, equilibrium is made 
impossible. International relations, commerce, and trade grow 
more difficult. The monetary situation of every country be- 
comes more untenable, bringing about artificial protective 
barriers and an unwilling and dangerous egotism, which re- 
tards any possible settlement. 

Unbounded, paradoxical, tragic conflict! 

These two references to the two greatest phenomena dis- 
turbing the world, which today is preparing to celebrate the 
genius of measure and proportion in life, unite us all in a 
single desire, in a single aspiration: That the second centen- 
nial of the birth of George Washington be celebrated worthily 
throughout the world by returning to the eternal safeguard 
of men — a sense of proportion. 

Count Volpi's address made a deep impression 
and was received with every evidence of apprecia- 
tion. When he had concluded Ambassador Gar- 
rett was introduced. Mr. Garrett said: 

All over America the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the 
Birth of George Washington is being celebrated this year. To 
us who live abroad there is great significance in the interest 
that is being taken in this memorial year in other countries 
than our own. Particularly in Italy we are made happy by 
the recognition of Washington through the extensive pro- 
gram of conferences and meetings of which you have heard, 
and I think it is appropriate and important to recognize the 
spontaneity of this celebration. It is certain that the reper- 
cussion at home will have fine effect in stimulating our cul- 
tural relations with the new-old country between which and 
ourselves so many and such important ties already exist. The 
Italian character of these manifestations would, it seems to 
me, be lost, or at any rate lessened, by too many words from 
us. We all are conscious of what is going on, we are proud of 
it and gratified, and while we share in it wholeheartedly, we 
do not forget that Italy's participation is her own tribute to 
the greatness of Washington and to what he has left to the 



whole wide world. May I, therefore, on behalf of my fellow 
countrymen, simply thank Count Volpi and Signor Fani for 
what they have said; for we are deeply touched. 

Avenue Named for Washington 

On Washington's Birthday, the day following 
the program in the Palazzo Salviati, the municipal 
authorities of Rome presided at a public ceremony 
when a beautiful avenue of the Eternal City was 
renamed in honor of George Washington. The 
street selected for this honor is one of the main 
entrance avenues to the Borghese Gardens. 

"I cannot fail to express my satisfaction and 
pleasure at the good taste of the municipality in 
choosing such a dignified and beautiful street,'' 
said Ambassador Garrett in his report to the State 
Department. 

The Ambassador also commented on "the 
cordial and spontaneous nature of the Italian ob- 
servance of the Washington commemoration" as 
"a good indication of the general friendliness in 
relations between Italy and the United States." 

Reception and Radio Broadcast 

Later in the afternoon of February 22, Ambas- 
sador and Mrs. Garrett held a reception at the 
Palazzo Rospigliosi, to which were invited the 
Americans in Rome, Italians identified with the 
George Washington bicentennial celebrations in 
Italy and members of the diplomatic corps in 
Rome, in all, about eight hundred guests. 

A radio program in honor of George Washing- 
ton, broadcast on the evening of February 22 from 
Rome under the auspices of the George Washing- 
ton Bicentennial Committee of Italy, brought to 
a close the opening Bicentennial ceremonies in the 
Eternal City. Prince Spada Potenziani, chairman 
of the committee, delivered the principal address 
on this program, paying high tribute to the genius 
of Washington and telling of Italy's participation 
in the celebration of the two hundredth anniver- 
sary of his birth. Great interest was added to this 
program by the broadcasting of musical selections 
familiar in the days of George Washington. 

The importance of the ceremonies in Rome, ex- 
tending over two days and marking the beginning 
of the Bicentennial observance in Italy, was recog- 
nized by all Italians and Americans interested in 
further cementing the bonds of friendship be- 
tween the two nations. 

His Excellency, Nobile Giacomo de Martino, 



Foreign Participation — Italy 



15 



Italian Ambassador at Washington, wrote to the 
Hon. Sol Bloom, Director of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, a 
few days later, transmitting a report of these 
events received by cable from his government. 
He added this comment: 

"Thus the spirits of the American and the 
Italian peoples are once more drawn close together 
in a memorable expression of the sincere and last- 
ing friendship happily existing between them." 

Thanksgiving Day in Rome 

The end of the Bicentennial celebration in Rome 
was observed on Thanksgiving Day, November 24, 
1932, with a notable meeting at the Farnesina, 
under the auspices of the Royal Academy of Italy. 

Senator Guglielmo Marconi, president of the 
Academy, presided, and the hall was crowded with 
the elite society of the capital. The American 
colony in Rome was present almost in a body and 
representatives from many other countries were 
in the large audience. 

Among those who attended were: Ministers 
Ercole and de Francisco; Alexander Kirk, Charge 
d'Affaires of the United States, representing Am- 
bassador Garrett, who was absent from Rome; 
Signor Agostino Depretis, representing the Gov- 
ernor of Rome; Honorable Fausto Bianchi, Ques- 
tor of the Chamber; Minister Taliani; Honorable 
Luciano Scotti; Professor Marpicati, representing 
the Secretary of the Party, and also a member of 
the Italian Bicentennial Committee; Honorable 
Renzo Pellati; Minister Plenipotentiary Pagliano; 
and the following members of the National Com- 
mittee to honor George Washington: Prince Spada 
Potenziani, chairman; Signor Francesco Pellati; 
Signor Astorre Lupattelli and Professor Federico 
Chabod. 

Those present were received by President Mar- 
coni, Professor Carlo Formichi, Count Volpi, 
Francesco Orestano and Signor Tucci, all mem- 
bers of the Academy. 

The program was opened by President Marconi, 
who briefly explained the reasons for the gather- 
ing. It was, he said, the closing ceremony of the 
national celebration in which all Italy had honored 
the memory of George Washington, the chief 
among the founders of a great and friendy coun- 
try. After welcoming all those in attendance, he 



voiced the appreciation of the Academy for the 
presence of so many who thus wished to join in 
the final Italian tribute to Washington's memory 
in connection with the commemoration of his 
birth. 

Prince Spada Potenziani, chairman of the 
Italian Bicentennial Committee, was then intro- 
duced by President Marconi. In the name of the 
committee, Prince Potenziani expressed sincere 
thanks to the Academy for the ceremony planned 
under the direction of its officials in which the 
Italian commemoration of George Washington's 
birth was being concluded. 

Dr. Formichi Praises Washington 

The principal speaker of the evening was Pro- 
fessor Carlo Formichi, vice-president of the Acad- 
emy. Beginning his discourse with references to 
many of the great names in history, Dr. Formichi 
pointed out that few of these aroused the degree 
of respect that was awakened by the mention of 
George Washington. 

"The title 'hero,' " said Dr. Formichi, "usually 
denotes an extraordinary man accustomed to tri- 
umphs and unacquainted with the bitterness of 
defeat. On the contrary, the heroism of George 
Washington consisted in his remarkable ability to 
oppose adverse fortune with an incomparable 
tenacity." 

In the face of all obstacles and in the darkest 
of hours, Dr. Formichi reminded his auditors, 
Washington kept his faith and courage undimin- 
ished. Even when beaten in battle he did not 
despair, and "the American people, in confirming 
their confidence in him at a time when apparently 
he least deserved it, showed themselves worthy of 
their hero." 

Dr. Formichi then reviewed the almost insur- 
mountable difficulties which Washington had to 
overcome during the Revolutionary War. The 
woeful lack of discipline in an army of continu- 
ally changing personnel because of the short terms 
under which the troops were at first enlisted; want 
of money and munitions; the failure of Congress 
to comprehend the problems of prosecuting the 
war and its slowness to act; sectionalism and 
rivalry among the officers, were some of the trials 
cited by Dr. Formichi with which Washington had 
to cope. Washington, he recalled, has been said 
to have lost many battles but never lost a cam- 



16 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



paign, and this was borne out at Yorktown where 
the American won his crowning military triumph. 
He continued: 

We ask ourselves what could be the motives which induced 
the great man, confronted by so many anxieties which lasted 
for years, to stay at his post? Only the purest love of coun- 
try could enable him to perform such an enormous task. 

After having won independence and unity for his people, 
he applied himself to conserve the supreme benefits which had 
been acquired, and from a great captain he became a great 
statesman. He was a decided adversary of demagogy, and 
had little sympathy for some of the ramifications of the 
French Revolution. On the other hand, he was not led 
astray by military criticism and refused the crown which some 
of his officers wished to put on his head. He loved justice 
and order above all things and considered only that govern- 
ment strong which was capable of providing for the interests 
of the nation. 

Dr. Formichi then cited seven political axioms 
from Washington's Farewell Address, which he 
said were true even today. He concluded by de- 
scribing Washington as "a man born to adminis- 
ter justice and to bring order out of chaos — the 
assertor of eternal ideas." 

At the conclusion of Dr. Formichi's address 
there was enthusiastic and prolonged applause 
from the large and distinguished audience. 

Before the meeting ended President Marconi 
read two telegrams sent by the Royal Academy of 
Italy that evening: 

ROME, NOVEMBER 24, 1932. 
HERBERT HOOVER, 
PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES. 

ROYAL ACADEMY OF ITALY, IN CLOSING CEREMONIES IN 
ITALY IN HONOR OF THE IMMORTAL GEORGE WASHING- 
TON, SENDS FROM ROME CORDIAL AND DEFERENTIAL GREET- 
INGS TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE GREAT AMERICAN RE- 
PUBLIC. 

GUGLIELMO MARCONI, President. 

ROME, NOVEMBER 24, 1932. 
FRANKLIN ROOSEVELT, 
GOVERNOR OF THE STATE OF NEW YORK. 

IN CLOSING IN ROME THE CYCLE OF ITALIAN NATIONAL 
CEREMONIES IN HONOR OF GEORGE WASHINGTON, THE 
ROYAL ACADEMY OF ITALY IN MEMORY OF THIS GREAT 
AMERICAN SENDS CORDIAL AND DEFERENTIAL GREETINGS 
TO THE PRESIDENT-ELECT OF THE GREAT AMERICAN 
REPUBLIC, 

GUGLIELMO MARCONI, President. 

Course of Study on Washington 

Signor Balbino Guiliano, Minister of National 
Education, issued a bulletin to the heads of all 
Italian universities, instructing that a course of 
study of at least eight lessons on George Washing- 
ton and American history be conducted for the 
dual purpose of commemorating Washington's 
birth and "of giving tangible proof of the never- 



belied friendliness of the Italian people for the 
Starry Republic" of the United States. 

A series of four lectures under the auspices of 
the National Fascist Institute of Culture was pre- 
sented in Rome by eminent Italian officials and 
educators. In addition, several similar lectures 
were given in other cities under the sponsorship 
of various groups. 

The newspapers of the country also contributed 
to giving the Italian people a greater knowledge 
of America's First President, publishing many 
articles on George Washington, most of which 
were written by historians and other scholars. 
Further, the press fully reported every event con- 
nected with the Bicentennial Celebration in Italy. 
The importance of the lectures and press and 
magazine articles, as well as the extent of this 
propaganda, will be brought out later. 

The government organ, review of communi- 
cations, published one of the most interesting and 
significant articles to appear in any Italian publi- 
cation with reference to the celebration in honor 
of George Washington. The article, headed 
"George Washington and Inland Navigation," by 
Professor Torquato Carlo Giannini, Royal Italian 
Counselor of Emigration, discussed Washington's 
part in opening up the Ohio Valley and other 
western lands in the United States through his 
interest in the development of inland communi- 
cation and navigation, and paid high tribute to 
Washington's vision and perseverance in the ac- 
complishment of these purposes on which the con- 
solidation of the United States so largely depended. 

Florence Names Boulevard 

While Rome, the capital city, was taking a 
leading part in the Italian observance of the Bi- 
centennial, the city of Florence was giving the 
name of Washington to one of its most prominent 
boulevards, and the Americans resident there were 
erecting on it the first monument to George 
Washington on the Italian Peninsula. 

This boulevard in Florence, now bearing the 
name of Washington, was formerly the Arno 
Boulevard, extending the full length of the 
Cascine, one of the world's most beautiful parks, 
on the bank of the River Arno. Half of the 
boulevard is known as the Boulevard of the 
Queen; the other half is the Viale Giorgio Wash- 
ington. 



Foreign Participation — Italy 



17 



When it became known that the city intended 
to name so prominent an avenue after the first 
President of the United States, the American Con- 
sul in Florence, Mr. John Emerson Haven, con- 
ceived the idea of placing a monument to George 
Washington at its entrance. Americans in Flor- 
ence entered into the plan with enthusiasm, and 
a Washington Memorial Fund was set up to re- 
ceive contributions. Mr. Haven then prepared a 
tentative design for the memorial, and through the 
co-operation of the Mayor, Count Giuseppe della 
Gherardesca, submitted it to Signor Ezio Zalaffi, 
Technical Inspector of the Communal Fine Arts 
Bureau, who conformed the design to the Tuscan 
architecture being developed in the Cascine. 

Made of a light grey material known in Italy 
as "pietra serena," the monument consists of a 
high central section with two sloping wings. A 
niche in the central section holds a reproduction 
in Carrara marble of the famous Houdon bust of 
George Washington mounted on a marble base. 
Above the niche, thirteen stars symbolize the 
union of the first American colonies, and on the 
two wings appear the American eagle and shield. 
Below the niche is a white marble tablet bearing 
the following inscription in Italian: 

DEDICATED TO THE CITY OF FLORENCE 

BY THE AMERICAN RESIDENTS ON 

THE 200TH ANNIVERSARY OF 

THE BIRTH OF GEORGE WASHINGTON 

TO HONOR HIS MEMORY AND RENDER 

HOMAGE TO THOSE IDEALS WHICH HIS 

LIFE EXEMPLIFIED 

Dedicatory exercises for the monument and the 
boulevard were held June 1, 1932, in Cascine Park. 
At this program the United States Ambassador, 
Mr. Garrett, officially presented the monument to 
the City of Florence with the following words: 

Onorevole Podesta: My countrymen at home will hear with 
great appreciation of your gracious action in giving to this 
beautiful Viale the name of George Washington. Those of 
them who live in Florence have combined together to present 
this bust of Washington, which, on their behalf I have the 
honor to ask you, Sir, to accept. 

Count Gherardesca accepted the gift on behalf 
of the City of Florence, saying: 

In naming one of the avenues of the Cascine after the 
heroic liberator of the American Nation, first founder and 
legislator of its civilization, Florence is continuing her tradi- 
tion of hospitality toward friendly nations. Thanks to this 
tradition Florence is considered as the gathering place for all 
elect minds, for all the noblest ideals of art, poetry, and cul- 
ture from every part of the world. 



The American people, a Cyclopean race forged upon an 
heroic anvil, have a special predilection for Florence, because 
all strong spirits like lovely things and because they find 
amidst our monuments and our works of art and in the nat- 
ural charms of the Florentine landscape consolation and re- 
pose from their heavy labors, a pure fount of ideals and 
beauty in which they renew their faith and spiritual joy 
and receive strength to continue in their gigantic work of 
building up a new civilization. 

Florence, too, loves the American people, for it feels that 
their youthful vigorous heart throbs with that same pas- 
sionate generosity which led Italy on to the conquest of her 
liberty and set her upon the path of her new history. 

The gift of George Washington's image which Mr. Garrett 
gave to our city in the name of the American colony in 
Florence and for which I give heartfelt thanks in the name 
of my fellow citizens, is therefore the pledge of a genuine, 
deep friendship which will certainly yield good fruits to my 
country and to the American Nation. 

Speaks for the Italian Government 

At the conclusion of his speech the Mayor in- 
troduced His Excellency Signor Dott. Ugo Ojetti, 
of the Royal Italian Academy, representing the 
Italian Government. Signor Ojetti's address, a 
translation of which follows, was enthusiastically 
applauded by the large audience in attendance. 

It is to be hoped that George Washington will this morning 
deign to cast from his place on high a benignant glance upon 
our Cascine and upon this stretch of the River Arno. To 
receive his memory and his image offered with such gracious 
friendliness by its American guests, Florence could indeed not 
have found a spot more verdant, serene and tranquil, more 
similar, in brief, to the Elysian fields where, if it pleases God, 
according to the concordant testimony of our poets, great 
and good souls betake themselves to rest from the weariness of 
having lived. He will find before his eyes a river as in his 
beloved home, Mount Vernon; and if the Potomac has more 
water than the Arno, the Arno in compensation has more 
history. And he will see lovely fields and trees hardy and 
clear-cut as he would have had men be, and an expanse of 
those cultivated fields which all his life were, after his love 
for his new-born country, his great and constant love. They 
were the great love also of Count Cavour, the founder of 
another free nation, so that to explain to ourselves in both 
of these men their unquenchable faith even in the hour of 
defeat, the indomitable energy even when the faithful betray 
or falter, the unshakeable poise even under the explosions of 
wrath, it would perhaps be well to consider, first of all, this 
agricultural occupation which they followed for years and 
years, their attachment to the solid, sure, tangible soil of 
the fatherland. Hail, hurricane, flood, tempest may strike 
down and scatter the harvest of the year; but the farmer 
knows that the land is ever living beneath the trampled crops, 
beneath the broken branches and the uprooted trees, and that 
one must only be patient, sow again and plant again and weed 
again and prune again, and wait. Only from the fields does 
one learn what Camillo Cavour, with a phrase that would 
have found favor in Rome with Cato, who also was a farmer, 
and in America with George Washington, called the phi- 
losophy of the possible: that is, it is useless to wear out one- 
self, others, and destiny by seeking to change autumn into 
spring and rain into sun, and rushes into oaks, and that 
every fruit, if you have sowed and protected the plant, comes 
to your hand in its own good time. Will is power: big words 
if one is speaking to children. But if a chief speaks to men 



1 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



and has charge of men, he has first to measure obstacles; and 
only then, without an instant's delay, does he send them 
forth. 

This sense of measure, this wisdom, this unwavering expec- 
tation which came to him from long, silent, trustful com- 
munion with nature in his native land, in his lovely Virginia 
amid mountain, river, and sea, this feeling of loneliness even 
at the head of a turbulent army, even before a divided and 
wavering parliament, are the qualities which today, one cen- 
tury and a half after the completion of his work, make of 
Washington a model of man and leader such as even we 
place beside those heroes of Plutarch who have for two millen- 
niums served as a guide to our civilization; a civilization which 
may be shadowed by the clouds that after the great tempest 
still drift across the skies of the soul, but which behind the 
clouds loses not one degree of its warmth nor one ray of its 
light. And the proof is that upon this civilization was pat- 
terned the new American civilization; that indeed, in the 
bitter trials of today even there, in order to save itself as 
certainly it will do, that civilization will more fittingly adapt 
itself to the pattern, giving patience a place beside audacity 
in its fundamental virtues, moderation beside greatness, dis- 
cretion beside liberality, compassion beside strength. 

Among Washington's papers there has been found a note- 
book containing the rules of conduct and civilization which 
his teachers had given him to copy when he was a lad and 



which he had always kept close at hand. And one of these 
rules commands: "When a man does all he can though it 
Succeeds not well blame not him that did it." 

And another says: "Undertake not what you cannot Per- 
form but be Carefull to keep your Promise." 

And still another: "Wherein you reprove Another be un- 
blameable yourself; for example is more prevalent than 
Precepts." 

These are rules of ours, Roman and Latin rules, collected 
at the end of the 16th century (and perhaps Washington did 
not know this) by the Jesuits in a manual for young students. 

Thus of all the long, laborious life of this examplary man, 
soldier, farmer, legislator, and, above all, gentleman — faced 
on one side by the haughty English and upon the other by the 
suspicious French until the latter through hatred for the 
English decided to assist him — from which was gradually 
formed not only the nation but the very American character, 
the years which today seem to us more worth remembering 
and admiring are those between 1775, when Congress en- 
trusted him with the supreme command of the Army of the 
United Colonies, and the victory of Yorktown in 1781, which 
marked the end of English resistance. The army murmured, 
grew weary and restless as it waited, and he every day worked 
with severity or kindness to hold it together, for the army 
was necessarily the nucleus around which America was knit- 
ting together, the standard bearer which amid confusion held 




GEORGE WASHINGTON MEMORIAL ERECTED IN FLORENCE, ITALY. The City of Florence dedicated a boule- 
vard "Viale Giorgio Washington" as its part in the Bicentennial Celebration, and American residents erected 

THIS MEMORIAL, INCLUDING THE BUST OF WASHINGTON, AT THE ENTRANCE TO THE BOULEVARD. ThIS MONUMENT, 

unveiled June 1, 1932, by the American Ambassador to Italy, Honorable John W. Garrett, is the first monu- 
ment to George Washington in Italy. 



Foreign Participation — Italy 



19 



aloft the star-spangled banner. Congress wandered from one 
city to another. Practical men advised leaving England and 
France to fight among themselves without the new States 
having to shed so much blood and spend so much money. 
When the two rivals should be worn out, then the rebellion 
and the war of liberation would be resumed. 

Washington alone never doubted. Erect and calm in his 
buff and blue uniform, surrounded by his officers and his 
young military staff, he appeared not only as a chief and a 
leader, but as a symbol of the future. There were murmurs, 
criticisms, sufferings, but the great taciturn man, accustomed 
to hark in the quiet of the country to the distant bleating 
of strayed lambs, was gathering into his breast during those 
years of waiting and anguish, amid the tumult of faint hearts, 
an urge, a voice, that as yet could not form a word, a voice 
that was only hope: the voice of the country being born. 
And he heeded no other voice. Yes, the troops of the King 
of England held New York and Philadelphia; occupied Geor- 
gia, South Carolina, North Carolina; even in Virginia de- 
stroyed crops and sent expeditions that struck terror into the 
hearts of merchants and colonists. Yes, for six years Wash- 
ington was unable to carry off a victory; but he felt that the 
English were holding the ground and losing the war, for now 
wherever a redcoat of the King of London appeared, the 
Americans would give the alarm that an enemy had appeared. 
The American spirit was being fanned to white heat and 
every blow shaped it in the image which Washington carried 
in his heart. 

Thus with the first victory there came the end of a world 
and the beginning of a new world. King! King! His col- 
onels asked him to accept the crown, and he replied with the 
famous letter: "No occurrence in the course of the war has 
given me more painful sensations . . . and I must view with 
abhorrence and reprehend with severity. Let me conjure you, 
then, if you have any regard for your Country, concern for 
yourself or posterity, or respect for me, to banish these 
thoughts from your mind." 

In 1789 he accepted the office of First President of the 
United States. Since that time every American gazes upon 
this patriarchal figure, this severe face, these grave eyes, these 
compressed lips as upon the image of his patron saint. 

On this side of the ocean, Europe applauded. Liberty for 
all peoples, justice for all citizens; the first flames did not 
spring from Paris, but from Philadelphia, and in Italy gen- 
erous hearts immediately warmed themselves at the blaze. I 
do not speak of that honest adventurer, the Florentine Filippo 
Mazzei, — surgeon, merchant, farmer, diplomat, — so well con- 
sidered by General Washington as to be entrusted with secret 
but highly important missions by him, and well received in 
France and elsewhere. It is enough for me to recall that in 
December, 1788, Vittorio Alfieri in Paris dedicated the first 
Brutus "to the serene and free man, General Washington," 
for "only the name of the liberator of America can stand 
beside the tragedy of the liberator of Rome," and that the 
first thorough historians of the American War of Independ- 
ence were, from Londonio to Botta, Italians and so ardent that 
Botta at first thought of writing that resounding story in 
verse rather than in prose. 

But perhaps it is well today to read, rather than the aulic 
historians, the concise words which the nobleman Daniele 
Dolfin, Venetian Ambassador to the Court of the King of 
France, wrote on September 10, 1783, in reporting to his 
Government the first American declaration of sovereignty: 
"Provided that the Provinces remain united, it is proper to 
expect that with the favor of time and of European arts and 
science this America will become the most formidable Power 
of the universe." 

The years which we are now living, alas! are hard, and 
superlatives are necessarily out of fashion. But perhaps the 
Americans of Florence, whom we wish to thank for the pre- 



cious gift they have today made to us, may take pleasure in 
that long-ago prophecy of the keenest diplomat that Italy 
had in those days. 

In the world of tomorrow the greatest Power will be the 
Power that restores peace not only among the nations but in 
the heart of every man as well, the peace which will make him 
confident of his future. 

Following the program at the park the munici- 
pality of Florence tendered a reception at the 
Palazzo Vecchio in honor of Italian and American 
guests numbering nearly 1,000. The reception 
was carried out in true medieval splendor, with 
trumpeters, footmen, and guards dressed in the 
Florentine costumes of the Middle Ages. A cold 
buffet luncheon was served to the guests. 

Later in the afternoon Consul and Mrs. Haven 
entertained at a reception and garden party at 
their home in honor of Ambassador Garrett. 
Edith Mason of the New York Metropolitan 
Opera sang several selections, "thus contributing," 
wrote Consul Haven, "to a day which will remain 
locally unique in closer Italo-American friendship 
and understanding." 

Old Map of New York Presented 

An interesting incident of the day was the pre- 
sentation by Mayor Gherardesca of a copy of an 
old map of New York to Ambassador Garrett to 
be forwarded to the Mayor of New York. The 
original of the map, known as the Castelplauo, 
is in the Laurentian Library in Florence, and the 
mayor stated that no previous copy of it had ever 
been made. It is said to be the oldest plan of the 
City of New York now existent. 

Attesting the interest which Americans in Flor- 
ence took in the erection of the George Washing- 
ton memorial is the fact that more than a sufficient 
amount to pay for the monument was con- 
tributed. Of this sum, Consul Haven set aside in 
perpetuity a fund, the interest on which will be 
adequate to purchase a wreath on Washington's 
Birthday each year to be placed at the base of the 
monument. The permanent committee for the 
placing of the wreath will consist of the American 
Consul, the Rector of the American Church, and 
the manager of the American Express Company 
who may then be stationed in Florence. 

After the monument was paid for and the above 
mentioned sum set aside, Mr. Haven reported that 
more than $250 remained of the funds contributed 
to the project. This amount, by agreement of the 



20 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



American colony, was turned over to the Unem- 
ployment Relief Fund of the City of Florence, an 
act which received the grateful acknowledgment 
of the Italians. 

Genoa Honors Washington 

Genoa, "the Superb," famed birthplace of Co- 
lumbus, immortal discoverer of the land where 
George Washington and his associates were later 
to create a nation, witnessed, on February 29, 
1932, a program commemorating the birth of that 
nation's First President. 

The feature of this program, which was pre- 
sented in the University of Genoa, was an address 
on George Washington by Professor Torquato C. 
Giannini, Royal Italian Counselor of Emigration. 
Leading officials of the city and province as well 
as foreign representatives in Genoa, dignified the 
occasion by their presence and indicated its 
importance. 



The meeting was presided over by Professor 
Mattia Moresco, Rector of the University of 
Genoa, who briefly but warmly welcomed those 
in attendance. Such large numbers, said the rec- 
tor, could only be accepted as evidence of the 
interest which had been aroused in Genoa in the 
commemoration of the birth of a man recognized 
by all mankind as one of the foremost champions 
of human liberty in all history. It was a pleasure 
to introduce the speaker of the evening who was, 
Professor Moresco stated, so well qualified to dis- 
cuss the life of George Washington. Professor 
Giannini was then presented to the assemblage. 

Speaking before this large and appreciative 
audience, Professor Giannini first considered the 
youth of George Washington, calling attention to 
the factors which helped prepare him for the great 
tasks he was later to perform in the service of his 
country. Touching briefly upon the Revolution- 
ary War as being perhaps well enough known to 




GEORGE WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATED AT GENOA. Meeting at the University of Genoa in 
Honor of the First President of the United States. In the foreground of the picture are, right to left: Prof. M. Moresco, 
Rector of the University of Genoa; Prof. Torquato C. Giannini, Royal Counselor of Emigration; Hon. Ettore Leale, Secretary of 
the Provincial Fascist Federation; Gr. Uff. Dr. Emanuele Vivorio, Prefect of the Province of Genoa; United States Consul General 
W. Roderick Dorsey; Hon. Eugenio Broccardi, Podesta of Genoa; Avvocato Sciccaluga, Vice President of the Province of 
Genoa, and General Giacchi, Commander of the Garrison of Genoa. 



Foreign Participation — Italy 



21 



his hearers to need no retelling, the speaker em- 
phasized the importance of Washington's charac- 
ter in that conflict as the main reason for the 
success of the American armies. 

Professor Giannini next took up the burden of 
his speech, in which he spoke of George Washing- 
ton as President of the United States. It was in 
this position, said the speaker, that Washington's 
strength of character was best displayed and 
America will ever be indebted to him for the wis- 
dom and foresight with which he established 
precedents in domestic and foreign policies. He 
continued: 

Today's celebration is not merely an act of international 
•courtesy towards a great country allied to us during a trag x 
event and a friend in peace, but is a deeply felt act of human 
solidarity spontaneously arising from mutual sympathy and 
natural and historical tendencies which are more keenly felt 
at Genoa than in other places. 

Genoa, or Janua, to express the name in Latin, is the large 
door through which passed the crowds that sailed the ocean 
leading West, building between the old "domina maris" and 
the new City of York a living bridge made up of disappoint- 
ments, sorrows, anxieties, homesickness and victories. At the 
two ends of this "bridge" I see the gigantic images of Colum- 
bus and Washington: the bravery of the former discovered 
the new continent for old Europe, and the latter, with the 
elements of old Europe, established on it a workshop of mar- 
vellous progress. 

Genoa is the port from which sailed Francesco Vigo, erro- 
neously called the Spaniard on account of his name, but right- 
fully called the "giver of kingdoms." It was he who, at the 
head of a mercenary group of hired soldiers opened to Gen- 
eral Clark the road to Vincennes, the key to the West, where 
his remains are kept under the monument erected by the 
Daughters of the American Revolution, and by the conquest 
of which it was possible for the Americans, in the course of 
peace negotiations with the English, to obtain the extension 
of their State as far as the Great Lakes and the Mississippi 
River. 

After recalling the association of Genoa with 
one of Garibaldi's expeditions in his endeavor to 
complete the third unification of Italy, and after 
referring to the Italian patriot's use of American 
ships in the transportation of his troops, Professor 
Giannini concluded his remarks with these words: 

In no other place could the struggle of the colonies for 
national independence find a more sympathetic echo than in 
this district of Italy, of which Genoa is the port. Here al- 
ready were fermenting the germs of an undertaking similar 
in many ways to the American Revolution which inspired 
the poet Vittorio Alfieri to address George Washington as 
follows: 

"Your bravery will be second to none; you have defeated 
the enemy's army which now must lower its flag and stop 
fighting. Its great pride has collapsed while your glorious 
name will never be forgotten." 



Message from the Commission 
Following a report of this celebration at Genoa 
by the American Consul General, W. Roderick 
Dorsey, a message of appreciation on behalf of the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission was sent to the mayor of the city and 
the rector of the university by Honorable Sol 
Bloom, Director, through the American consulate. 
Mr. Bloom's letter was as follows: 

May 24, 1932. 
Honorable W. Roderick Dorsey, 
American Consul General, 
Genoa, Italy. 

My Dear Mr. Dorsey: 

Please be so kind as to convey to the Mayor and to the 
Rector of the University the deep appreciation of this Com- 
mission for the honor which they have rendered to the 
memory of the First President of the United States. Such 
spontaneous tributes by the peoples of other countries find 
real gratitude and friendship in the hearts of the people of the 
United States. 

Sincerely yours, 

Sol Bloom, 

Director, 

United States George Washington 

Bicentennial Com mission. 

In reply to this message, Mayor E. Broccardi 
issued the following statement which was pub- 
lished in the newspapers of Genoa: 

The news that the United States Commission for the Cele- 
bration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of 
George Washington has expressed its appreciation of the 
solemn commemoration held at this Royal University under 
the patronage of the municipal authorities is most gratifying 
to me. 

The City of Genoa, keenly appreciative of all that is great 
and noble, could not fail to join with all the rest of the world 
in rendering homage to the memory of the First President of 
the United States, the pride of his country and of all humanity. 

Consul General Dorsey, in his report to the 
State Department, said that the city's participa- 
tion in the Bicentennial was limited to this one 
program owing to conditions which prevented any 
extensive celebration. Generous accounts of the 
ceremony were published in all the Genoa news- 
papers, which praised Professor Giannini for his 
discourse, and viewed the event as an outstanding 
expression of Italian appreciation of George 
Washington and the United States. 

Observances at Leghorn 

At Leghorn, George Washington's Birthday was 
commemorated at "one of the most brilliant recep- 
tions that has ever taken place" in that city, ac- 
cording to a newspaper account forwarded by 



22 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Jose de Olivares, American Consul there, who took 
the leading part in organizing the celebration. 

The reception took place at Villa Orlando, resi- 
dence of Consul and Mrs. Olivares, the evening of 
February 22, 1932, and was attended by a large 
number of guests representing the highest official 
and social circles of the Province and City of Leg- 
horn, as well as members of the American colony 
there and many others. 

A large framed reproduction of Gilbert Stuart's 
famous Athenaeum portrait of Washington, sent 
by the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission, and a bronze bust of the great 
American, were appropriately displayed in the re- 
ception rooms. Buffet refreshments were served, 
and an orchestra provided musical entertainment. 

When all the guests had assembled, the orches- 
tra played the "Star Spangled Banner" while all 
stood at reverent attention. Mr. Olivares in his 
report of the event especially mentioned this atti- 
tude on the part of the guests, together with their 
many expressions of appreciation, as "eloquent at- 
testations of the enthusiasm which characterized 
the celebration." 

Considerable space was devoted to a report of 
the reception by il telegrafo, the leading news- 
paper of Leghorn. Among other items noted was 
the telegram received by Consul Olivares from 
Cesare Giovara, Prefect of Leghorn, who was 
unable to attend. The telegram read: 

upon the felicitous advent of the second cen- 
tennial of the birth of george washington, creator 
of the independence and power of the great ameri- 
can people, i am pleased to express to you my most 
enthusiastic congratulations. 

Thanksgiving Day Reception 

On Thanksgiving Day the home of Consul and 
Mrs. Olivares was again the scene of a reception, 
the closing event of the Bicentennial Celebration 
in Leghorn. The associate host and hostess at this 
function were the newly appointed American 
Consul John R. Putnam and Mrs. Putnam, the re- 
ception marking the debut of the new consul into 
official circles in Leghorn. Reporting the inter- 
esting event, il telegrafo said: 

This last of a long series of delightful social entertainments 
given at the local American consular residence since the 
arrival here of Mr. and Mrs. Olivares had a four-fold sig- 
nificance; namely, the honoring of the memory of Washing- 
ton, the celebration of Thanksgiving Day, the local debut of 
Consul Putnam (the newly assigned Principal Officer of the 



American Consulate) and his wife, and finally, the parting 
social gesture of Consul and Mrs. Olivares on the eve of their 
retirement to private life. 

The beautiful drawing rooms of the Villa were tastefully 
adorned with the choicest flowers. In the large dining hall 
sumptuous refreshments were served, while music, dancing 
and bridge entertained the numerous guests until after mid- 
night. 

The reception was attended by a large number of the lead- 
ing officials and residents of Leghorn and their ladies, and 
never was a social function in this city more perfectly planned 
and carried out. 

Among the many guests present, the following 
were noted in the newspaper report: 

General Giuseppe Sanna, Commander, Military 
Division of Leghorn; Admiral Romeo Bernotti, 
Commandant Royal Italian Naval Academy; Com- 
mendator Salvatore Montaperto, Duke of Santa 
Elisabetta, Consul of Spain; General Ugo Guidotti, 
Commandant, Volunteer Militia; M. Vittorio 
Chayes, Consul of Rumania; M. Achard, Consul of 
France; Professor George Stewart McManus of 
the University of California, and many other offi- 
cials and prominent citizens of Italy and other 
countries. 

Notable Celebrations in Milan 

In the city of Milan, commercial and industrial 
center of Italy, George Washington's two hun- 
dredth birth anniversary was celebrated on Febru- 
ary 22, 1932, by the largest gathering of Ameri- 
cans ever witnessed in northern Italy. The 
feature of the day was a banquet and dance ar- 
ranged under the direction of a committee ap- 
pointed by United States Consul Homer Brett and 
consisting of Francis J. Heffernan, Elmer F. 
Stucke, and John M. Kennedy. Stephen A. 
Crump, Jr., President of the American Chamber 
of Commerce for Italy, presided, and Mr. Brett 
was the speaker of the evening. 

The celebration, held at Milan's famous restau- 
rant, Campari's, was attended by the Prefect of 
the Province, the Mayor of Milan, and many other 
government officials in addition to Americans and 
other nationals residing in Milan. Consul Brett 
reported the appearance of numerous articles on 
the life of George Washington in all the principal 
publications of Milan, and many press notices in 
leading newspapers of Italy commented most fa- 
vorably on the program as one of the outstanding 
events connected with the Bicentennial Celebra- 
tion in that country. 

Musical numbers for the celebration were fur- 



Foreign Participation — Italy 



23 



nished by Mary Newson, formerly of the Scala 
Opera, who opened the program by singing the 
"Star Spangled Banner," and by the International 
Quartet consisting of George Knisely, John Row- 
lands, Ellis Loeb and Mary Newson. 

Mr. Brett delivered an eloquent and inspired 
address on the character of George Washington 
and the importance of his services in the establish- 
ment of American independence. Every people 
has its leaders, the consul pointed out, and there 
have been great men in history whose names and 
services will ever be celebrated in the hearts of 
men. But Washington was no ordinary hero, he 
said, the brightness of his virtues being outstand- 
ing among all those immortals "whose mission on 
earth is to accomplish the seemingly impossible." 
Mr. Brett said in part: 

Every race has its leaders, every history its heroes, there 
have been great men in every age and there are great men 
today, but there is a rank of humanity above and beyond the 
merely great and we are gathered tonight to pay tribute to 
the memory of one of the brightest of that shining band of 
the immortals whose mission on earth is to accomplish the 
seemingly impossible. Two hundred years ago this day, a 
man child was born in Virginia. The country had been white 
man's land for five generations, births were no novelty and 
no circumstance showed that this one was important except 
to the family concerned. But this child was to be named 
GEORGE WASHINGTON and surely, the shadowy form of 
Clio, Muse of History, must have hung above his cradle 
knowing that the life then beginning would affect the fate 
of millions yet unborn in lands both far and near. Of his 
childhood we know little, of his boyhood only that it was 
short, for, the son of a widowed mother, at sixteen he was 
earning his own living by the hard work of surveying lands 
in the wilderness. While still a lad and after others had failed 
in the task, he was chosen to cross the trackless ranges of 
the Appalachians and find out what the French were doing 
in the Ohio Valley. A little later it was his lot to begin the 
Seven Years War with a defeat and a surrender and we next 
see him on that day of dreadful slaughter when, with four 
bullets through his clothing and two horses killed under him, 
he and his frontiersmen saved the wrecks of Braddock's routed 
army. Years of military employment on a harassed frontier 
gave him the habit of command; by inheritance and marriage, 
wealth came to him in early manhood and then were followed 
some fifteen years of fulfilled duty as husband, master, neigh- 
bor, citizen, church-member and Mason; of faithful service 
in the House of Burgesses; of continued education and devel- 
opment of character until of the First Continental Congress 
Patrick Henry could say: "But for solid information and 
sound judgment, Colonel Washington is unquestionably the 
greatest man on the floor." 

1775! Winds from New England brought the startling 
news of Lexington and Concord, and the knowledge that 
Americans must either fight like men or live like slaves and 
the very British blood within their veins, made their answer 
certain. Unanimously chosen commander-in-chief, Wash- 
ington put himself at the head of the patriotic mob around 
Boston which bore no semblance to an army. Organization, 
discipline, food, clothing, arms and ammunition — everything 
was lacking — and there was no money with which to buy, nor 
credit upon which money could be raised. History has no 



finer tale, poetry no nobler epic than that of this one man's 
devotion during the next seven years of that time that tried 
men's souls. Grieving over the suffering of his soldiers in 
the terrible winter camps at Morristown and Valley Forge, 
almost heartbroken by the treason of the beloved Arnold, 
provoked by the constant incapacity of Congress, conspired 
against by the envious, Washington's faith and courage never 
faltered and when the spirits of the not-yet-created nation 
sank near to the breaking point, he would revive them by 
some sudden midnight crossing of the ice-filled Delaware or 
by such victories as Princeton, Trenton or Monmouth. Wash- 
ington, by nature bold, impetuous, daring even to the border 
of rashness, knowing that he could not and must not ever 
risk a defeat in the open field and that the fate of a nation 
and of liberty in the world depended upon his ability to keep 
an army in being, became the American Fabius even more 
famed for his quick and skillful retreats than for his sudden 
attacks upon an unwary foe. Year after year dragged its 
slow length along but at last the gods of fortune favored 
the patient, and then, when his enemy had blundered, Wash- 
ington cast aside the cloak of Fabius and swooped to the at- 
tack as swiftly as any Alexander. Yorktown became a his- 
toric name; in the mid-night streets of Philadelphia, watch- 
men cried the glad news that Cornwallis was taken, and a 
new nation assumed its separate and independent station 
among the peoples of the earth. 

Sheathing his victorious sword and bidding an affectionate 
farewell to his comrades, Washington returned to the simple 
life of a planter at his beloved Mount Vernon. But his public 
service was far from being ended. Independence had been 
achieved, but not unity. There was a confederation, but no 
nation. Suspicion, fear, jealousy and strife existed between 
the thirteen states and for seven years confusion grew worse 
confounded. Washington more than any other man realized 
the need for union, more than any other he worked to bring 
about the Constitutional Convention and, as its presiding 
officer, he more than any other helped it toward a happy con- 
clusion of its labors. His name was then America's sole sym- 
bol of unity; confidence and trust in him was the only com- 
mon bond between the sections and the knowledge that he 
would be at the head of the new government was the most 
powerful of all arguments for ratification. If by some miracle 
the Revolution could have been fought and won without a 
Washington, the result would have been not one, but several 
nations, and the establishment of a new and perhaps more 
quarrelsome Europe in America. 

As the first President of a new republic with a constitu- 
tion as yet on paper only, Washington rendered services 
greater than even he had ever given in any other capacity. 
All his solid information and sound judgment; all the wisdom 
of his ripe experience; all the prestige of his known patriotism 
and exalted character, were needed to guide the tiny ship of 
state safely along its troubled course. Two men, as far apart 
as the poles and yet both great, Hamilton and Jefferson, agreed 
in nothing save in respect for Washington, and he used the 
talents of both to weave strong the fabric of the nation. 
Many of his words of that time ring fresh and apt today: 
"My ardent desire is ... to comply strictly with all our 
engagements, foreign and domestic; but to keep the United 
States free from political connexions with every other coun- 
try, to see them independent of all and under the influence 
of none. In a word, I want an American character." While 
injudicious partisans shouted, Washington sternly kept the 
country neutral in European ears; from the British he secured 
the surrender of the northwestern forts and from Spain, free- 
dom of navigation on the Mississippi; when rebellion raised its 
head at home he personally accompanied the troops which as- 
serted the authority of the republic; scorning fatigue he 
visited every state; he personally chose the site and supervised 
the planning of our national city and with his own hands he 



24 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



laid the cornerstone of the Capitol. For eight years he guided 
the government along the unexplored path of nation-hood 
and then performed a last but supreme civic service by de- 
clining a third election by which he set a precedent of untold 
value to the republic in that it sternly blocks the road to all 
incipient Caesars. 

It is not Americans alone who pay tributes to Washington. 
Frederick the Great sent him a present as from the world's 
oldest general to its greatest; Lafayette thought that the key 
to the Bastille, emblem of tyranny overthrown, could hang 
nowhere so symbolically as upon the walls of Mount Vernon 
and Napoleon Bonaparte, who to the world's benefit might 
have imitated him in deeds, said "Washington imparts to us 
the same vivid impression as the most august examples of 
antiquity and his heroic simplicity meets without debasement 
the majesty of kings, while Byron in an ode to this same 
Napoleon exclaimed: 

"Where may the wearied eye repose 

When gazing on the great 

Where neither guilty glory glows 

Nor despicable state? 

Yes — one — the first — the last — the best, 

The Cinc'nnatus of the West, 

Whom envy dared not hate, 

Bequeathed the name of Washington 

To make man blush there was but one." 
A very human man, who liked to dance and to play cards; 
who enjoyed cock-fighting, fox hunting and horse racing; an 
emotional man who often laughed, sometimes wept; who 
prayed fervently and, upon very rare occasions swore, Wash- 
ington of all the superlatively great men that have lived was 
perhaps the least gifted. He had none of that flashing intelli- 
gence or quick mental brilliance which we associate with 
genius. Genius is spasmodic and erratic but Washington was 
as steady as the stars in their courses. He was probably not 
born great; he certainly acquired greatness and his preemi- 
nence was due almost solely to a constant Tightness of desire 
that we call character. 

The little country that George Washington fathered is 
now a mighty nation of the earth. The three million citizens 
of then, are one hundred and twenty millions now, and the 
United States possesses a national power perhaps beyond all 
precedent in history. But if the character of Washington had 
been less noble than it was; if he had been an able but selfish 
soldier greedy for power and grasping for a throne; if there 
had not been ever before the eyes of his successors his shining 
example of willingness to serve and his even more remarkable 
willingness to relinquish power, our republic would hardly 
have endured, we would hardly have remained one nation and 
we would not have been great. Abundance of material re- 
sources alone cannot suffice for the foundation and the sus- 
tenance of a state. Many regions have had such wealth and 
their people have remained as beggars sitting upon heaps of 
gold. Of all the gifts that Providence with lavish hand has 
showered upon America, not one nor all together are so great 
in value as the rich legacy of character and unselfish service 
bequeathed by him who will be forever called, "The Father 
of his Country." 

The next commemorative event in Milan took 
place, under the auspices of the Lombard Group of 
the Italo-American Society, on the evening of 
April 14, 1932, when Professor Giuseppe Gallav- 
resi, eminent historian of the Royal University of 
Milan, delivered an address on the life and char- 
acter of George Washington and his importance 
in history. 



The audience on this occasion included govern- 
ment, provincial and municipal officials, authori- 
ties of the University of Milan, and several hun- 
dred other Italians and Americans. Professor 
Gallavresi's address was given at the suggestion of 
the Italian Government and was appreciatively 
received by his hearers. 

Address of Signor Fani 

The next Bicentennial event in Milan was a 
notable program in honor of George Washington 
presented by the Philology Club on the evening of 
June 7, 1932, the feature of which was an address 
on the life of America's first President by Signor 
Amedeo Fani, Undersecretary of State. The large 
audience attending the lecture included municipal 
and provincial officials of Milan, United States 
Consul Homer Brett, members of the American 
colony, and many other distinguished persons. 

Signor Fani, who privately toured the United 
States in 1930, held the complete interest of his 
audience throughout his learned and eloquent ad- 
dress. Dwelling on Washington's early training 
as the basis for the wisdom, self-abnegation, pati- 
ence and courage which characterized him in his 
official and public life, the American leader was, 
said Signor Fani, one of the greatest men in 
history. 

Signor Fani's address follows: 

[Translation from the universalita romana] 

In the second centenary of the birth of George Washing- 
ton, Fascist Italy which, reconsecrating every spiritual value 
against invading materialism, has re-established hero worship, 
because it feels and comprehends that the invisible power of 
God avails itself of these champions of the ideal to reveal to 
the ignorant the eternal laws of truth and justice, has willed 
solemnly to celebrate the memory of the American hero who 
as warrior, as statesman and as man was the noblest, the 
purest and the most disinterested among the creators of the 
independence of his great country. 

And in heartily thanking those who have invited me here, 
I feel highly honored to speak of Washington in this your 
Milan which perhaps more than any other Italian city, has 
known the misfortune and the woe of foreign domination, the 
cruel invasions of princes, kings and emperors who seized it 
for their crowns; in this city where from the Combat of the 
Carroccio to the Five Days the centuries have written the 
diurnal tragedy of Italian hopes, and where, with the dreams 
of writers and the blood of martyrs, there was silently pre- 
pared the epic of our independence and political unity cul- 
minating in that glorious risorgimento which was to give 
finally, with a reconquered country, national dignity and a 
definitive civil consciousness. 

And also accepting your invitation, I thought that Destiny 
had willed that here, in a day not long past, there was thrown 
out from a divining mind that first seed of rebirth that was 
to lead our country along the great road of History. So the 
new heroic and warlike feeling that today brings all Italy to 



Foreign Participation — Italy 



25 



rally round the great name of George Washington is derived 
also, my Milanese, from this your city, boiling with traffic, 
pulsating with fecund life which from the summit of its 
cathedral seems to radiate over the peninsula the light of its 
ardent spirituality and the breath of its vigorous Spring. 

To trace the figure of Washington, to circumscribe in the 
scope of a few phrases this imposing personality of History, 
has always appeared to every one a bold and complex en- 
terprise. 

At first glance he appears to lack those outstanding charac- 
teristics, those flashes of genius, those powerful lights and 
shadows that in human conception should ever mark the 
leader of peoples, the dominator of events, the hero. 

And though history offers innumerable examples of modest 
beings who were unexpectedly called into light by the force 
of events and concluded their mortal lives leaving behind 
them — with only one gesture, with only one attitude — shining 
and imperishable halos, rarely, almost never, can there be 
found the phenomenon of a character as great as Washing- 
ton's in history, with conquests as vast, yet being completely 
pervaded with silent industry and severe modesty and filled 
with persevering directness and disinterested renunciation. 
Nevertheless some believed and dared to say that all promi- 
nence came to the figure of Washington from an easy and 
benevolent fortune. They were those who were deceived by 
the apparent simplicity of his virtues, by his stubborn shyness 
of honors which caused him to minimize his every triumph. 
But they should have considered that all this went to make 
up that formidable harmony which was the principal trait of 
his character, a harmony having in itself a perfection that 
goes beyond the human, that same perfection which makes 
him the apostle and the standard bearer of his country, a sym- 
bol and a synthesis of the thought of his age, one of the 
milestones along the via sacra of humanity. 

It was in Virginia in a little house built upon a bluff, a 
modest house with a pointed roof and its eaves reflected in 
the clear waters of the Potomac, that George Washington 
first saw the light on the 22nd of February, 1732. 

The Washingtons, sprung from solid Anglo-Saxon stock of 
good lineage and of anglican, monarchical and cavalier tra- 
dition, transplanted themselves to Virginia about 16 57. The 
great-grandfather of George, a Colonel in the Virginia militia, 
led in wars against the Indians, and having acquired lands on 
the upper Potomac, built there a house at Bridges Creek, be- 
came a notable of the place and began a promising family 
career. 

George Washington was left fatherless at an early age and 
his education was then entrusted to his mother. From her, 
a rather plain woman, he had furthermore inherited firmness 
of character and a natural inclination toward physical 
activity. 

No finished education for him; refined education in the col- 
leges of the mother country was reserved to the offshoots 
of the Virgin'an aristocracy and so to his older brother, pre- 
sumptive heir to the name and the fortunes of the Washing- 
tons. For him, instead, a little Latin, a little grammar, some 
solid and practical teaching of elementary subjects. 

Life in the open and physical exercises attracted him more 
than mental speculations. From his earliest years he was in- 
clined to solitude, of frank and loyal character, but taciturn. 

The exterior world which struck upon his senses he did 
not discuss with others, but he reflected upon it in his mind. 
So he educated his spirit without making of it a gift dis- 
tressing to his friends and companions and, almost as a presage 
of his great future and of the mission to which he was des- 
tined by Fate for the fortune of the American people, he ac- 
cumulated in his soul those treasures which he later showered 
upon humanity organizing a nation and creating a new politi- 
cal system. 

From a boy, agriculture attracted him irresistibly through 



that tenacious love of the soil which was in him almost a 
religion and which never left him. 

At the earliest possible age he became a surveyor, and during 
long expeditions through the boundless reaches of the region 
he learned to know intimately both places and men, to prac- 
tice the cult of exactitude, the discipline of the will, the 
mastery of passions and contempt for danger. 

Endowed with a sharp faculty of observation and pro- 
foundly attached to his race, he knew how to estimate its 
nature and character, appreciate its virtues, discern its defects 
and — quite otherwise from the great minds of the Eighteenth 
Century such as Voltaire, Rousseau and Franklin whose spirits 
panted with desire to find interpretation to the world en- 
tire — he adapted himself perfectly to the restricted environ- 
ment of Virginia with its settlers and its negroes whose life 
he studied and interpreted. 

George Washington was therefore a mentality which let 
itself be guided by its own insf'nct, by its own conscience, 
that little spark of celestial fire that he struggled to keep 
alive in his heart, thus practising one of the maxims of the 
Jesuit fathers of La Fleche, a maxim which Washington him- 
self had written in a copybook carefully preserved among the 
letters of his youth. 

So upon this youth strong and wild, filled with practical 
sense and realistic knowledge, descends from on high a light 
that warms and brightens, the same that will point out the 
way during the stormy hours of doubt and will comfort the 
spirit when agony shall be unendurable. 

A decisive circumstance of his life awaits him at the thres- 
hold of his twentieth year. His half-brother, Lawrence, head 
of the family, heir of the name and the estates of the Wash- 
ingtons, dies of consumption and he passes suddenly from a 
poor disinherited cadet to the head of the house and a man of 
wealth. 

Here we have him at twenty years possessor of great estates, 
of profound knowledge of his country, armed with a will of 
iron, disciplined by the adversities of a hard life, ready, in 
short, for any event. 

And events ripen, now that Destiny, preparing the theater 
for its great act, is transforming that far and forgotten land 
of Virginia, — that which Voltaire called ironically qitelqucs 
arpcnts de neigc dans le Canada into a fire of discord between 
the two most potent nations of Europe upon whose dissen- 
sions the greedy glances of all the civilized world are fixed. 

So it was that at 21 years of age George Washington began 
his political life as a negotiator designated by the Governor 
of Virginia for a delicate mission. The selection was not made 
at random. He is already a notable person, head of an illus- 
trious house of the land, knower of the woods and trails and 
with confidence in his instincts and his experience. But the 
beginnings are not easy: terrible marches, tempestuous pas- 
sages, storms of heavens and of men. 

His mission happily terminated, he was created Colonel; for 
the first time he heard the whistle of bullets, he smiled at 
them; for the first time before the horrors of massacre and 
the woe of others he shuddered. 

He felt that he could not express the pity inspired in him 
by the terror of the inhabitants of Winchester threatened with 
massacre by Indians. He wrote: 

"The supplicating tears of the women, and moving petitions 
from the men, melt me into such deadly sorrow that I sol- 
emnly declare, if I know my own mind, I could offer myself 
a willing sacrifice to the butchering enemy provided that 
would contribute to the people's ease." 

And he is scarcely at the beginning of the bitter struggle 
which lasts indefinitely, treacherous and bloody. 

There is fighting everywhere with varying fortune. 

Aide-de-camp to General Braddock, he sees his chief fall 
mortally wounded by a musket-ball. 



26 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



He himself has two horses killed under him and many 
bullets pass through his clothing. 

The spirit was unconquered but the weakness of the flesh 
betrays him. The symptoms of the terrible disease which had 
carried off his brother attack him, but his sound temper does 
not yield, and well again after weeks of agony, he obtains 
command of the troops of that Virginia of which he was 
already the hope and the living expression. After months and 
months of obscure but stern efforts, of disasters and unheard 
of struggles, finally on November 2 5, 175 8, behind the flying 
French forces, he had the fortune and the joy of seeing the 
English flag raised over that Fort Duquesne which for so long 
had menaced the peace and well being of his land. 

This notable victory ended French domination on the Ohio 
and, it may be said, initiated European recognition of the 
glory of Washington who now became "The soldier of Vir- 
ginia." In the battles of this war he had seemed to be invul- 
nerable, as if Divine Providence had resolved to preserve him 
for the future and for greater deeds. 

Cantu in fact narrates that during a trip which Washington 
made many years later to the Ohio region, an old Indian Chief 
at the head of his tribe asked to see him, saying that in the 
war he had often aimed at Washington and had ordered his 
best marksmen to do the same but to their astonishment no 
one of their shots had found its mark. Convinced that Colonel 
Washington was protected by the Great Spirit he had ceased 
to fire on him then, and now came to pay homage to the man 
whom Heaven had so evidently saved from perishing in battle. 

But more than by his invulnerability, every one had been 
impressed by his outstanding superiority derived from his per- 
severing self-abnegation, his exceptional valor and his iron 
firmness. 

His fellow citizens rendered him public honors and called 
him to high offices. Astonished Europe knows him and ad- 
mires him unconsciously, but History knows already that this 
first part of his life is nothing more than a sample of his 
quality, a first brief experience and training to meet the 
grander mission which the future will confide to him. 

The trial was undergone with honor, experience was conse- 
crated by victory, the country knew then that it could count 
upon its worthiest son as soon as events had ripened and when 
the people shouted for their leader and their hero. 

Before Washington reappeared in the public eye there passed 
sixteen years, 16 years of peace, of silence and of oblivion 
which he seemed to enjoy as desert travelers enjoy the longed- 
for oasis. 

He has returned to familiar customs, to Mount Vernon, his 
own well loved home, where he devotes all his time and efforts 
to agriculture. 

First a surveyor, then a soldier, the land has always been 
his great love, but he has not been able hitherto to devote him- 
self to it intensely, methodically and scientifically. Now he 
feels the necessity, now he wishes to transform his untilled and 
half-abandoned lands into a prosperous and productive do- 
main. All the most important technical books of the epoch 
become the objects of his tenacious and passionate study and 
for more than 12 years they so remain. 

As he can, he enlarges his possessions, adds new lands to the 
Mount Vernon estate, buys a beautiful house in Williamsburg 
and builds another in Alexandria, and in watching the daily 
progress which occurs under his firm guidance, counting the 
flocks which increase and the harvests which triple, in noting 
how his dependents add to their well-being, he rejoices as in 
a victory. 

His meditative spirit feels the wholesome beauty of this 
creative struggle against the stubborn land and he writes: 

"The more I am acquainted with agricultural affairs, the 
better I am pleased with them . . . how much more de- 
lightful ... is the task of making improvements on the 



earth than all the vain glory that can be acquired from 
ravaging it. . . ." 

In his hospitable manor, goal of illustrious visitors and 
gathering place of friends and acquaintances, he has at his 
side his wife, the widow Martha Custis whom he married 
shortly after his return from the war and to whom he will 
be a faithful companion as long as life lasts. 

A companion tender and devoted, an affectionate friend; 
but it was written in the book of Fate that the solitary hero 
who should win for his country its greatest conquest was 
never to realize for himself that which was the great love of 
his life. This was the serene Sally, dowered with a strange 
beauty, made for strength and gracefulness but, above all 
close to his heart because of that mysterious, instant compre- 
hension which sometimes makes two separate souls into one 
only being. He had met her first at 16 years but even then 
too late, for Sally, two years older than he, was no longer 
free, having married George Fairfax, the best friend of 
Washington. 

So this sad and sterile passion will always remain for him 
a thing of loss and sorrow, the most cruel passage on the 
road of renunciation. He never recovered from the hurt, 
and on the eve of his death, to her, now a widow, poor and 
abandoned of all, he wrote that nothing had been able "to 
eradicate from my mind the recollection of those happy 
moments, the happiest in my life, which I have enjoyed in 
your company." 

Meanwhile the most solemn hour of the country approaches; 
the hour of the supreme crisis in which the American Colo- 
nies, for years and years taxed and mocked, will shake off with 
iron and blood the shameful yoke imposed by the blind and 
tyrannical policy of the mother country and will dare to try 
their fate. 

And when — the American Congress having uselessly made 
its last appeal — a storm of rebellion broke and swept resist- 
lessly over the whole country, every eye turned instinctively 
toward George Washington as toward the only being capable 
of silencing all dissensions and jealousies, of bending to dis- 
cipline the unorganized and heterogeneous contingents of the 
revolutionary army, of teaching all by example how sacrifices 
should be made, capable, in short, of unfurling and of holding 
high the banner of the rights of his country and of carrying 
it onward into the light of victory. 

In that historic moment he showed himself to be the only 
one who had the great quality of action, the only one who, 
knowing the road, dared to enter upon it conquering the 
skepticism of the crowd. 

At this stage Washington, more than a man of action is a 
doer of things. The people know that an indomitable will 
is his, a will that overcomes every obstacle and that the harder 
the task, the more it bends to the struggle. To him was well 
fitted the phrase of the poet that, "Danger is the belt for the 
flank of a hero." 

But constructive tenacity is his and therefore he is an or- 
ganizer. He will organize men, give them a consciousness and 
out of them construct a state. He succeeds in organizing an 
army even though it lacked the fusion of souls impossible in 
those lands, fusion that he never fully obtains not even after 
the last and glorious victory of Yorktown. Not even then 
could he say that in so many years and so many battles he 
had given his army a spiritual unit. Therefore, — and here 
the hero appears in all his brightness, — the more desperate his 
efforts, the more trying the tragic situations which from 
time to time arose, the greater was his merit and the more 
brilliant every success even though little in itself. 

We will not follow the fortunes of this tragic war of more 
than seven years with its struggles, disasters, bitter disap- 
pointments, sufferings without end, battles desperate and 
obscure. 

Certain it is that from that 15th of June, 1775, from that 



Foreign Participation — Italy 



27 



day in which Washington who had entered the assembly as a 
mere delegate from Virginia issued from it as the General-in- 
Chief of the United American Colonies, he knew well that he 
had assumed the burden of a superhuman mission. But he was 
equal to his task; he himself was superhuman. It may be said 
that for more than six years he knew no repose and was in 
constant struggle against everything and everybody — against 
the enemy, against his own people. He alone, with his faith, 
with his obstinacy, with his valor, defied the hurricane with 
lowered head and overcame it in a storm of silence by the 
force of his tenacity, with discipline and with the bronze-like 
inflexibility of his great spirit. Failure did not discourage 
him, treason did not stop him, defeats did not conquer him 
and desperation he never knew. 

There was one moment when his army found itself facing 
the enemy without shelter, without shoes, almost without 
clothing, almost without food. Shelter, provisions, muni- 
tions, everything essential was lacking, and winter with its 
snows and its storms was coming on. In the midst of so 
many miseries there came from England proposals of peace, 
propositions which would save the honor of both sides and 
put an end to the universal suffering. But they would have 
meant returning to subjection and the reply of Washington 
was not delayed a moment: 

"Nothing short of independence, it appears to me, can pos- 
sibly do. A peace on other terms would ... be a peace of 
war. The injuries we have received from the British nation 
. . . have been so great and so many, that they can never 
be forgotten." 

And the Congress, though not ignorant of the hard situa- 
tion of the army and the country, did not dare to contradict 
the great voice in which it heard the inspiration of heroism 
and the warning of Destiny. 

The Bicentennial celebration of the Philology 
Club, at which Signor Fani delivered the above 
address, was the last celebration in Milan until 
after the summer months. 

Closing Program in Milan 

Thanksgiving Day, however, is always observed 
in Milan by a luncheon under the auspices of the 
American Chamber of Commerce for Italy. This 
year the luncheon took on the character of a clos- 
ing observance of the Bicentennial in the principal 
speech by Consul Brett. The following is an 
excerpt from his remarks: 

With this day the observation of the Two Hundredth An- 
niversary of the Birth of George Washington as officially 
ordered by Congress comes to an end and ... a few words 
of tribute will certainly be in order. 

In the unanimous opinion of all Americans one man only 
was the Father of his Country and remains always and in- 
comparably first in their hearts and memories. He was not 
only the military chieftain whose faith and courage won the 
Revolution and the political leader whose personality made 
the nation and established the form of government, but he 
was and still remains not only the national hero of America 
but its ideal of civilized manhood. This preeminence, felt by 
his contemporaries as well as by succeeding generations, was 
due to no mental brilliance or intellectual excellence but 
solely to qualities of character such as courage, honesty, sin- 
cerity, unselfishness and that utter devotion to the public 
good which is the highest ideal of patriotism. No American 



can imagine that Washington should ever have desired a wrong 
thing or that he would ever have stooped to achieve a right- 
eous end by unworthy means. Intensive study of his life and 
deeds during the century and a third elapsed since his death 
has revealed no fault in him and an American mother can 
make no nobler prayer for her son than that he may become 
a man like Washington. 

Every institution is but the magnification of some indi- 
vidual and the American nation at its highest and best is the 
projection of the shadow of the first and greatest of our 
magistrates and leaders. In an almost religious manner we 
feel that his spirit still presides over our destinies; that when 
we have faithfully followed his example and his precepts we 
have been great and fortunate and that our abandonment or 
forgetfulness of these has always been followed by sorrow 
and disaster. As Abraham Lincoln so eloquently said, 
"Washington needs no eulogy. In solemn awe we pronounce 
that name and in its naked, deathless splendor leave it shining 



on. 



Stirring Tribute in Naples 



Outstanding in its solemn tribute to George 
Washington was the celebration in Naples on 
February 22, 1932, under the auspices of the 
Italo-American Union of that city. The program 
was of especial interest to Americans because it 
was initiated and carried out entirely by Italians 
under the direction of Contessa Fanny Zampini 
Salazar, founder of the Italo-American Union and 
moving spirit of the Neapolitan celebration. The 
Contessa received valuable assistance from United 
States Consul General Coert du Bois and other 
American consular officers. 

Contessa Salazar personally contributed to the 
program on Washington's Birthday by reading in 
English the Bicentennial Ode, "George Washing- 
ton the Nation Builder," written by the American 
poet, Edwin Markham. Music was furnished by 
a string quartet of Naples which played several 
compositions written by Americans during the life 
of George Washington. The reading and the 
musical numbers were thoroughly appreciated by 
a large audience, comprising numerous govern- 
ment, military, judicial, and municipal officials, 
educational and cultural leaders, members of the 
consular service of foreign countries in Naples, 
and the entire American colony of the city. 

The principal speaker was Avvocato Edgardo 
Borselli, prominent lawyer of Naples, who deliv- 
ered an impressive address on the life and charac- 
ter of George Washington. The following trans- 
lation of a summary of Cavalier Borselli's address 
is from il mattino: 

Cav. Edgardo Borselli made a speech praising Washington 
and his life and showing that he was a man of feeling and 
of action. He illustrated the most notable facts of his mili- 



28 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



tary career, his personality as a great condottiere, and his re- 
ligious sentiments. 

The speaker continued, to say that Washington was able 
to accomplish the miracle of carrying out a grand destiny 
for the reason that he was possessed of the three fundamental 
virtues necessary: self-reliance, reflection, and perseverance. 
These are the most notable qualities in the American's char- 
acter and although they are also attributes of the Italians, 
Americans have the extra quality of being optimists, and they 
complete everything they start for the sake of the fact of 
having undertaken it. 

Cav. Borselli went on to say that George Washington stands 
out in his period like some marvellous figure in sculpture and 
becomes a symbol as did our Roman heroes and those of our 
Risorgimento, who inspired his life. 

Cav. Borselli then pointed out that this is what is actually 
occurring in Italy today. The great fascist "Condottiere" 
has also been able to change the course of the life of a nation. 
He has been able to set the torches of the Roman era alight 
and to re-awaken heroism in the Italian soul. Examining the 
causes of the wide sympathy which unites Italy to the United 
States, Cav. Borselli happily ended his speech hoping that 
Italy and America would together contribute to strengthen 
the human cause of peace, the birthright of the history and 
civilization of these two countries. 

Lectures on Washington and His Times 

A series of lectures on George Washington and 
his times was inaugurated May 3, 1932, in Naples 
under the auspices of the Royal Superior Institute 
of Economic and Commercial Science of Naples, 
at the request of the Ministry of National Educa- 
tion, by Professor Corrado Barbagallo. 

IL mattino next day published a report of this 
event of which the following is a translation: 

Yesterday, in the great hall of the Royal Superior Insti- 
tute of Economical Science, Professor Corrado Barbagallo 
held the first of a group of conferences to be given this year 
under the auspices of the Ministry of National Education be- 
fore an interested audience of prominent personalities and a 
vast assembly of students. The subject was: "George Wash- 
ington's country," or the "State of Virginia in the Eighteenth 
Century." 

The orator stated that the insurrection of the British colo- 
nies of North America from which the Republic of the United 
States originated and which inspired all the European revolu- 
tions of the Eighteenth Century, was led by a man of gentle 
birth from Virginia, that ancient and most spiritual of colo- 
nies. Professor Barbagallo described the origin and develop- 
ment of this country where, owing to the cultivation of to- 
bacco and the character of the early colonists from England 
a society had formed of enormous class differences. In this 
connection the speaker gave a vast and interesting account 
of Virginian society of the period, comparing it with that of 
the northern and central States of America, as different as 
"fire from water," according to British writers. Professor 
Barbagallo pointed out the resemblance of existing customs in 
Virginia during the Eighteenth Century to those of feudal 
Europe in the middle ages, where the political classes were 
composed of conquerors and warriors and gave a vivid sketch 
of the similarity in tastes and habits. Towards the middle 
of the Eighteenth Century society was constituted of a num- 
ber of large families of noble and aristocratic descent among 
which was that of the Washington family. 



Other Programs in Naples 

The Bicentennial of George Washington's birth 
was observed again in Naples on two other great 
American holidays — July 4 and Thanksgiving 
Day. 

The July 4 celebration was held on the Island 
of Capri in the Bay of Naples, with the Americans 
residing or sojourning in that vicinity, joined by 
a large number of their Italian friends, combining 
an observance of Independence Day with a com- 
memoration of George Washington's birth. The 
festivities included a banquet in the evening at 
the principal hotel in Capri attended by the high- 
est Italian officials on the island and by most of 
the Americans who participated in the earlier 
activities of the day. 

The entire program, according to a communi- 
cation of November 5, 1932, to the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission 
from Consul General du Bois, was dedicated to 
the memory of George Washington. The First 
President of the United States was spoken of in 
all the addresses, and many toasts were offered in 
his honor. Frequent references were made by the 
speakers to the appropriateness of dedicating the 
celebration of America's independence to the 
memory of the man who, more than any other, 
made that independence possible. 

Thanksgiving Day in Naples 

With the official close of the Bicentennial Cele- 
bration scheduled for Thanksgiving Day, Novem- 
ber 24, 1932, the American colony in Naples pre- 
pared to bring the series of Neapolitan observances 
in honor of George Washington to an impressive 
and dignified end. They were joined in these 
plans by their many Italian friends in the city 
headed by Contessa Fanny Zampini Salazar, who 
presided over the fete, and Cavalier Avvocato 
Giulio Nocerino, who delivered the principal ad- 
dress. The program was given at 5 P. M. in the 
Excelsior Hotel, with instrumental music of 
Washington's day, including some of his favorite 
selections, being featured. 

The Contessa's remarks on this occasion follow: 

I consider the highest success of the Italo-American Union 
and the most deeply appreciated privilege of my very long 
life, to have been able, last February 22 and today, to co- 
operate, in Naples, to the honors paid in the United States, 
in Rome and abroad, for the Bicentennial of the birth of 
George Washington. 



Foreign Participation — Italy 



29 



But I could not have done anything had not the authorities 
in Naples supported and encouraged it all, it having been the 
wish of Italy to pay due homage to the father of the great 
American nation, with whom we feel to be linked by cordial, 
spiritual alliance. 

The presence of the American Consul General and of sev- 
eral Americans, residents or visitors in Naples, make us feel 
their kind interest in this work of love, and we hope they will 
have their country-people hear how faithful and devoted to 
the United States is the Italo-American Union, in its long 
and deeply cherished ideal of that spiritual alliance. 

In addition to the afternoon program the 
Americans residing in and near Naples further 
celebrated the distinctly American holiday by 
partaking later in the evening of a Thanksgiving 
dinner which was served in a private dining room 
in the Excelsior Hotel. The salon used on this 
occasion was appropriately decorated, portraits of 
George Washington being prominently and attrac- 
tively displayed. Only informal remarks were 
made at the dinner, but they all included tributes 
to the great man in whose honor the Bicentennial 
Celebration had taken place. 

Describing this event in a communication to 
the United States George Washington Bicenten- 
nial Commission, November 25, 1932, Consul 
General du Bois assured Director Sol Bloom of the 
success of all observances taking place in Naples 
during the year. He wrote: 

I feel no hesitation in assuring you that the observance of 
Thanksgiving Day in Naples, and other programs here, car- 
ried out in every practicable way your suggestions with re- 
spect to the significance of the Washington Celebration. 

Palermo Participates 

Despite the small number of Americans residing 
in Palermo, the two hundredth anniversary of 
George Washington's birth was observed in fitting 
manner with the cooperation of United States 
Consul Howard K. Travers and his associates. A 
tea was given on February 22, 1932, at the Con- 
sulate for Americans resident or visiting in Pal- 
ermo and eminent Italians of the district, and in 
the evening Consul Travers gave a dinner for all 
Americans in the vicinity. 

In accordance with instructions issued by the 
Ministry of Education a commemorative lecture 
was presented at the Royal University of Palermo 
on March 8, 1932, by Professor Gaspare Ambro- 
sini of the Faculty of Political Science of the Uni- 
versity. The lecture was attended by the entire 
staff of the American Consulate, together with 
students and faculty members of the University 



and officials of the city and province. Extolling 
the virtues of America's first President in eloquent 
and dignified terms, the speaker was enthusiasti- 
cally received by the large audience. Professor 
Ambrosini's lecture was given wide attention in 
the Italian press, and the speaker himself was 
highly commended. 

Professor Ambrosini also contributed to the 
literature published during the Bicentennial Cele- 
bration a book entitled "George Washington, the 
Statesman." 

Important Observance in Trieste 

Even smaller than the American colony in 
Palermo is that in Trieste where there were 
scarcely a half-dozen Americans in 1932. But the 
Bicentennial of George Washington's birth was 
not allowed to pass unnoticed either by the Ameri- 
cans themselves or their Italian friends in the latter 
city. 

The American part of the program occurred 
on Thanksgiving Day and took the form of a re- 
ception given by the United States Consul at 
Trieste, Rollin R. Winslow, and Mrs. Winslow, at 
their home. 

Previously two excellent lectures had been pre- 
sented by eminent Italian speakers as Bicentennial 
features in Trieste. The first of these was an ad- 
dress given by Professor Antonio Foschini, editor 
of popolo d'italia, on May 13, 1932, under the 
auspices of the Fascist Institute of Culture, and 
the second was presented by Professor Vittorio 
Franchini of the University of Trieste. 

Professor Foschini told his audience of the 
genius of George Washington which proved so 
valuable in the founding of the United States, and 
said that this genius was a direct development of 
his contact with the soil as a farmer and with the 
American frontier as a young militia officer. The 
stability of Washington's character in times of 
stress and storm and his total lack of desire for 
personal glorification were cited as reasons for the 
profound respect and admiration for him which 
prompted his countrymen to hold in his honor the 
greatest national celebration of its kind in all 
history. 

Attended by many officials and leading resi- 
dents of the city, Professor Foschini's lecture was 
an outstanding contribution to the Bicentennial 
Celebration in Italy. Press accounts of the dis- 



30 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



course praised the speaker highly for his interest- 
ing and well-expressed speech. 

Professor Franchini's address was delivered at 
the University of Trieste as a feature of the series 
of similar lectures presented at institutions of 
higher learning throughout Italy at the instance 
of the Italian Ministry of Education. As instruc- 
tor of economic history at the University, Profes- 
sor Franchini was well qualified to discuss the sub- 
ject of his discourse, which was "Washington, the 
Statesman and Economist." 

The personality of the great American, said the 
professor, might be compared with a light which 
the passing centuries could not dim. Washing- 
ton's personality dominated the entire struggle of 
the American Revolution and its strength was still 
radiant enough to inspire his countrymen and all 
others who are devoted to the cause of human lib- 
erty. As the first President of the United States, 
it became Washington's duty to chart the un- 
known seas of government and statesmanship upon 
which the young republic was embarked under 
his direction. How well he built the foundations 
of government, the speaker said, was shown in the 
progress of the nation which still found his doc- 
trines and teachings as applicable today as they 
were when first uttered. 

"The commemoration," said an account of the 
lecture appearing in il popolo di Trieste under 
date of May 20, 1932, "dignified and solemn, was 
timely and significantly made to coincide with the 
closing of the course in 'Economic History' for 
the academic year 1931-32 as conducted by Pro- 
fessor Franchini. It was greeted by the students 
with great enthusiasm and was followed by hearty 
applause for the distinguished professor." 

The tea on Thanksgiving Day at the home of 
Consul and Mrs. Winslow concluded the Bicen- 
tennial Celebration in Trieste. Mrs. T. Monroe 
Fisher, wife of the vice consul at Trieste, Mrs. 
Icilio Grandi, and Mrs. John Patterson, also Amer- 
icans, assisted in serving. Mr. Winslow then de- 
livered a short speech in Italian in which he ex- 
plained to the Italian and other guests present the 
significance of Thanksgiving Day in America and 
briefly reviewed its origin as a national holiday in 
the United States. As a day of national Thanks- 
giving, said Consul Winslow, it was a most appro- 
priate occasion to bring to an end the great cele- 
bration in honor of George Washington which had 



extended to every corner of the earth during the 
year 1932. 

Washington's Proclamation Read 

At the conclusion of the Consul's remarks, the 
first Presidential Thanksgiving Day Proclamation, 
issued in 1789 by George Washington during his 
first year in the Presidency, was read in English 
by the Rt. Rev. Archdeacon G. R. Beamish, a 
Canadian residing in Trieste. Many toasts were 
then offered to the continued friendliness in the 
relations between Italy and the United States, "the 
sincerity of which was apparent," wrote Consul 
Winslow. 

There were nearly a hundred guests at the cele- 
bration, most of them being Italian or of nationali- 
ties other than American. Among those attend- 
ing were the ranking Italian officials in Trieste, the 
Consular corps, and the American colony. 

"The reception," wrote Mr. Winslow to the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission on December 1, 1932, "was of a most 
informal and friendly nature. All the guests ap- 
peared to enter whole-heartedly into the spirit of 
the occasion." 

It was, the Consul added, a fitting program in 
which to bring the Bicentennial Celebration to a 
close in Trieste, and in it, as in those which pre- 
ceded it, the warmth of Italo-American relations 
was emphasized and enhanced. 

Turin Names Bridge for Washington 

Turin's observance of the Bicentennial was an 
event not merely of 1932, but a commemoration 
that will last as long as the city's newest bridge 
spans the River Dora in its course through that 
city. In a colorful ceremony the city celebrated 
the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
George Washington by giving his name to this 
structure. The dedication of the bridge occurred 
in October, 1932, but the American colony in 
Turin meanwhile paid honor to the First President 
of the United States and were joined by Italians. 

On February 22 the Americans and a large 
number of their Italian friends assembled under 
the auspices of the American colony of Piedmont 
for a George Washington birthday dinner and 
dance. In a report dated February 25, 1932, Wil- 
liam W. Heard, American Consul at Turin, said: 

"The dinner was attended by 114 persons, in- 
cluding the Prefect of Turin and Mrs. Ricci, the 



Foreign Participation — Italy 



31 



Vice Podesta of Turin and Mrs. Gianolio, Count 
and Countess Ettore Fugino (the Count represent- 
ing the Italo-Americans for Piedmont, recently 
named by the Italian Government to participate 
in all activities touching upon the United States) . 

"After all the guests had taken their places at 
the tables they stood at attention while the 'Marcia 
Reale' and 'Giovinezza' were played and the first 
verse of the 'Star Spangled Banner' was sung by 
Cavalieri Giuseppe Vogliotti, a well-known tenor 
in Turin." 

Consul Heard delivered a brief address in which 
he said: 

First I wish to thank His Excellency, Doctor Ricci, Pre- 
fect of Turin and Avvocato Gianolio, Vice Podesta of Turin 
for the honor they have accorded us in attending this cele- 
bration to commemorate the 200th anniversary of the birth 
of George Washington. Their presence here tonight is an 
outward manifestation of the cordial sympathy which exists 
between our two countries. And speaking on your behalf I 
wish to express through them our sincere wishes to His 
Majesty the King and the Chief of the Government. 

As you know our celebration this evening is to commemo- 
rate the 200th anniversary of the birth of George Washing- 
ton, the Commander-in-Chief of our first Continental Army 
and the First President of the United States. I shall not elabo- 
rate upon the part played by him in helping to lay the 
foundation of our country. The story of his career is well 
known to all of us. I have thought it desirable, however, 
to reprint on our menu for this evening a brief extract from 
the life of Washington recently written by James Truslow 



Adams, one of our foremost historians. In this extract you 
will observe that Mr. Adams lays stress upon the character 
of Washington which caused the people to put their faith in 
him in their troublesome times. Washington thought of his 
country first — not in a selfish way, because he well knew that 
nations must always have due regard for each other if dif- 
ficulties and even wars are to be avoided — and I should 
like each of you to try and think of your country today as 
Washington did, thus helping, each in his way, to overcome 
the difficulties which seem to beset us on all sides. 

Just one brief word more. By Act of Congress the cele- 
bration of this event is to take place simultaneously through- 
out every city and village of the United States and its pos- 
sessions, as well as every part of the world where Americans 
may be gathered. The Commission appointed under this law 
has planned to continue the celebration until Thanksgiving 
Day, November 24, 1932. It is hoped, therefore, that we 
may be able to come together again on July 4th and on 
Thanksgiving Day. 

The Prefect of Turin replied in glowing terms 
of the friendship existing between Italy and the 
United States and expressed his "deep appreciation 
at being present at the celebration of the two hun- 
dredth anniversary of George Washington's 
birth," according to the report of Consul Heard. 
As the Prefect spoke extemporaneously, and no 
notes were taken, it is not possible to report his 
address. 

An attractive little folder adorned with a pic- 
ture of George Washington was presented each 
guest on this occasion. On the inside was printed 




TURIN NAMES BRIDGE FOR WASHINGTON. In the presence of Count Paolo Thaon, Podesta of Turin, 
American Consul William W. Heard untied the ribbons and thus officially opened the new bridge to traffic 



32 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



a tribute by James Truslow Adams, American 
writer and historian, and on the opposite page ap- 
peared the American menu for the dinner. The 
words of the "Star Spangled Banner" were printed 
on the back. 

"From the remarks which I heard," summar- 
ized Consul Heard, "I have no doubt everyone was 
highly pleased with the way in which the pro- 
gram was carried out." 

Bridge Dedication Is Colorful 

An interesting feature of Turin is the number 
of bridges which span the River Dora. Until 1932 
there were seven main bridges over which the city's 
principal thoroughfares crossed the stream. All 
but two of these are named for rulers of the House 
of Savoia, and all are named for Italians. When, 
therefore, the Mayor of Turin notified Consul 
Heard that a new bridge under construction 
would be named in honor of George Washington, 
it was accepted by the American colony as an 
especial mark of the city's regard for the first 
President of the United States. 

The official ceremony of naming the bridge and 
opening it to traffic was held on Sunday morning, 
October 16, 1932, in the presence of all of the 
high authorities of the City of Turin, including 
the Prefect of the Province, the General com- 
manding the First Army Corps, the Rector of the 
Universityof Turin, the Podesta and the two Vice 
Podesta, as well as a large number of other im- 
portant persons. At the request of the Podesta, 
all the Americans residing in the Turin district 
were especially invited to the dedication. 

New Bridge Is Blessed 

In accordance with the Italian custom, the 
bridge was first blessed in colorful and impressive 
religious ceremonies. Following this the Podesta, 
or Mayor, of Turin, Count Paolo Thaon di Revel, 
delivered the following short speech lauding 
George Washington and expressing Italy's friend- 
ship for the United States: 

The National Fascist Government has celebrated with 
solemn official manifestations the memorial date of the Bicen- 
tennial of the birth of George Washington. 

Already many of the principal Italian cities have rendered 
homage to this great leader, whose high and immaculate figure 
shines luminously through the present time and passing beyond 
the borders of his country to gain for himself the respect and 
admiration of the world. 

Turin, by reason of tradition and sentiment, the birthplace 
of patriots, statesmen, and great thinkers, as the cradle of 



national idealism, has particularly felt the fascination of the 
personality of the founder of the Starry Republic and of his 
constructive work, and has desired to give public and endur- 
ing evidence of its tribute by dedicating this bridge to his 
glorious name. At the same time it also wishes to evidence 
sympathy and friendship towards the great American people 
because of the particular affinity and likeness of their national 
hero and our chosen chief in our redemption and revolution, 
and on account of the special ties between our laboring classes 
and industrials, and generally because of their genial hos- 
pitality to so many of our countrymen. 

While I thank His Excellency the Prefect for his interven- 
tion and the authorities here assembled, I salute with particu- 
lar pleasure and deference your presence, Mr. Consul, and also 
the members of the American colony in Turin. 

There is deep satisfaction in having the spiritual participa- 
tion of the American Department of State for Foreign Af- 
fairs and of the central Commission for the commemoration 
of the Bicentennial and I beg you, Mr. Consul, to convey to 
those honorable bodies our warmest thanks. 

To George Washington, the great animator, whose works 
constituted an identity with the destiny of his country, who 
has devoted his life to his nation, for the purpose of realizing 
its unification, its independence and its greatness, we offer 
all our veneration and admiration. 

At the end of the Mayor's address, Consul Heard 
delivered a speech of thanks expressing his own 
and his country's appreciation for the manner in 
which Turin had chosen to honor George Wash- 
ington. The Consul said: 

As Consul of the United States of America I find a par- 
ticular pleasure in my duty today to extend the thanks and 
expression of appreciation on the part of my Government for 
the high honor the authorities of the City of Turin have paid 
to the memory of our illustrious first President, George Wash- 
ington, in giving his name to this bridge. 

In America, and in fact all over the entire world, this 
year the name of George Washington is being especially hon- 
ored because it is the 200th anniversary of his birth. 

During the most trying and difficult days of the young 
American Republic, Washington led his compatriots by the 
shortest road to independence and prosperity, and by his wise 
counsel, written in our constitution and other documents of 
state, he has saved them from many trials and hardships to 
which they would have been natural heir in the normal course 
of events. Therefore it is most fitting and symbolical that 
this bridge which is a masterpiece of modern engineering, re- 
sulting in short routes and efficient service, should receive his 
name. 

This action upon the part of the Italian Government is just 
another of the many manifestations this nation has made in 
response to our mutual friendship and such acts with a truly 
friendly nation like the United States never fail of appre- 
ciation. 

Permit me to read a telegram I have just received from 
the special Commission created by Congress for the celebra- 
tion of the 200th anniversary of the birth of Washington: 

ON BEHALF OF THE UNITED STATES GEORGE WASHINGTON 
BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION, PLEASE EXPRESS TO THE 
AUTHORITIES AND CITIZENS OF TURIN OUR DEEP APPRECIA- 
TION OF THE HONOR THEY RENDERED TO THE MEMORY OF 
GEORGE WASHINGTON BY NAMING THEIR NEW BRIDGE FOR 
HIM. THIS WILL BE ANOTHER LINK IN THE CHAIN OF 
FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN THE PEOPLES OF ITALY AND THE 
UNITED STATES. 

SOL BLOOM, Director. 



Foreign Participation — Italy 



33 



Permit me, Mr. Podesta, to express to the Italian Govern- 
ment, through you, the best thanks and sincere appreciation 
of the Government of the United States. 

The ceremony was concluded to the strains of 
martial music played by the municipal band, while 
Consul Heard untied the ribbons to open the 
bridge officially to the traffic between two popu- 
lous sections of Turin. 

In communicating to the American Consul the 
city's decision to name its new bridge in honor of 
George Washington, the Podesta of Turin said the 
action would "express to you and the American 
nation the high consideration which this city has 
for the great Statesman." 

On the day the bridge was dedicated the 
Podesta sent the following message to President 
Hoover: 

We are opening today the bridge dedicated to George 
Washington at Turin, exalting the glorious memory of the 
founder of the United States, and expressing Turin's profound 
good will toward the American people. 

Americans in Venice Plan Statue 

The American colony in Venice numbers less 
than a dozen persons, but they had high hopes of 
commemorating the Bicentennial by the erection 
of a monument to be placed before the American 
pavilion at the Biennial Exposition of Art in the 
Public Gardens. 



Advising the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission of these plans, Consul 
John Corrigan said that the statue at first consid- 
ered for this project was the famous statue exe- 
cuted by the great Italian sculptor, Canova, for 
the State House of North Carolina. However, it 
was found that this statue did not conform to any 
accepted likeness of Washington and the idea of 
erecting a duplicate of it was abandoned. 

As an alternative to this plan, the little colony 
next studied the possibility of commissioning a 
modern artist to design a monument for presenta- 
tion to the City of Venice. This idea, wrote Mr. 
Corrigan, "did not meet with favor because of the 
apprehension that the required fund could not be 
raised locally even if a satisfactory piece of work 
could be completed within the time limit." 
Again referring to the small number of Ameri- 
cans residing in Venice, the Consul assured the 
Commission that deep regret was felt throughout 
the colony that the "only scheme which it seemed 
feasible to carry out has fallen through." 

In view of the circumstances and the handicaps 
under which Americans in Venice were forced to 
work, the intent can only be accepted as of equal 
value with the deed could it have been carried 
through. 




NEW GEORGE WASHINGTON MEMORIAL BRIDGE AT TURIN, ITALY. This is one of eight bridges over the 
River Dora at Turin and the only one named for a foreigner. 



34 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



George Washington Lecture Series 

References have been made to lectures delivered 
in different cities of Italy under the auspices of 
various societies and other organizations. These 
series were in most instances arranged with the co- 
operation and encouragement of the Italian Na- 
tional Bicentennial Committee. According to a 
report compiled by this Committee at the conclu- 
sion of the celebration, other lectures were given 
in addition to those heretofore mentioned. The 
organizations acting as sponsors for these lectures 
were the National Fascist Institute of Culture; the 
Italo- American Association; the Roman Lyceum, 
the Institute of International Law, and the As- 
sembly Club, of Rome; the Italo- American Asso- 
ciation and the Club of the Deluded, of Naples; 
the North-American Group and the Philology 
Club of Milan; the Italian University for Foreign- 
ers and the Italo- American Association of Perugia; 
and the Academy of Peace of Rovigo. 

Under the auspices of the Italo-American As- 
sociation of Rome, lectures on George Washington 
were given by Undersecretary of State Amedeo 
Fani, Senator Count Giuseppi Volpi, United States 
Ambassador John Work Garrett, Professor Tor- 
quato Giannini, Professor Arrigo Cavaglieri, 
Francesco Orestano, and Senator Carlo Schanzer. 

Lectures were given under the auspices of the 
National Fascist Institute of Culture at Rome by 
General Angelo Gatti, Professor Gaspare Ambro- 
sini, Professor Bruno-Averardi and Comm. Luigi 
Villari; at Padua by Sig. Luigi Barzini and at Pola 
by Professor Antonio Foschini. 

Signor Ferace delivered a lecture in Rome under 
the auspices of the Assembly Club, and the Roman 
Lyceum was the sponsor of a lecture delivered in 
the Capital City by Professor Montesi Festa. 

In Perugia lectures were delivered under the 
auspices of the Italo-American Association of 
Perugia by Sig. Vittorio Scialoja, Sig. Emilio Bo- 
drero, and Professor Del Vecchio. 

In accordance with the instructions issued by 
the Ministry of Education lectures were given in 
higher institutions of learning as follows: 

Royal Superior Institute of Commerce, Bari, by 
Professor Aldo Baldassarri; Royal University of 
Bologna by Professor Simeoni; Royal University 
of Camerino by Professor Chiandano; Royal Uni- 
versity of Ferrara by Professor Quilici; Royal Uni- 
versity of Catania by Professors Paladino and 



Santi Floridia; Royal University of Florence by 
Professor Lorenzoni; Royal University of Genoa 
by Professor Zaja; University of the Sacred Heart, 
Milan, by Professor Fanfani; Bocconi University, 
Milan, by Professor Arrigo Solmi and Professor 
Gustavo del Vecchio; Superior Institute of Com- 
merce, Naples, by Professor Carrado Barbagallo; 
University of Padua by Professor Catellani; Uni- 
versity of Palermo by Professor Ambrosini; Uni- 
versity of Perugia by Professor Capasso; Univer- 
sity of Turin by Professor Lanni; Superior Insti- 
tute of Commerce, Turin, by Professor Gribaudi; 
Superior Institute of Commerce, Trieste, Professor 
Franchini; Superior Institute of Commerce, Ven- 
ice, Professor Pietro Orsi. 

Proclamation By Minister of Education 

At the suggestion of the Italian Bicentennial 
Committee, Balbino Giuliani, Minister for Na- 
tional Education, issued on April 4, 1932, the fol- 
lowing proclamation to the universities and other 
higher institutions of learning: 

As you all know, this year is the Bicentennial of the birth 
of George Washington, and this event is being celebrated not 
only in America, but throughout the entire world, with par- 
ticular solemnity. 

Italy, too, pays honor to the memory of the American 
national hero, whose lofty figure as warrior and statesman 
looms greater and greater as time goes on; and the com- 
memorations which have been and are being held throughout 
the Peninsula are directed simultaneously toward celebrating 
the legendary figure of the First President of the Starry Re- 
public and of giving tangible proof of the never belied friend- 
liness of the Italian people to the Republic itself. 

The Italian universities cannot remain aloof from the cele- 
bration; George Washington must be brought before the 
minds of our young students; moreover, the history of the 
United States of America must be briefly outlined to them 
from the epic battles of independence to our times. 

I therefore give instructions that in all universities of the 
Kingdom and the higher institutions of economic and com- 
mercial sciences, one of the professors, to be designated by 
the head of the institution, hold during the scholastic year a 
brief course of lessons, from eight to ten, on George Wash- 
ington and on American contemporary history, with particu- 
lar references to the political, economic, and social organiza- 
tions of the United States. 

The students of the various faculties and schools are to be 
invited to attend these lessons, as well as the students of such 
other higher institutions of learning as may exist in the same 
city. 

Prior to this, on March 26, the press had pub- 
lished a proclamation from Signor Giuliani ad- 
dressed to the heads of high schools and college pre- 
paratory schools, which read: 

While Fascist Italy, heir to a civilization whose history 
draws close upon its third century, is proudly jealous of the 
national glories which bestrew her path along all its great 



Foreign Participation — Italy 



35 



length, she also desires to honor the memory and the works 
of the great men of other nations. She has therefore given 
full and deliberate adherence to the honors which the United 
States of America is this year paying to George Washington on 
the two hundredth anniversary of his birth. I order that the 
secondary schools also commemorate the great American leader 
and statesman. The history professor in all classical, scien- 
tific, and artistic lyceums, in the higher classes of technical 
and law schools, in industrial and commercial schools, and 
in secondary agricultural schools will, at the beginning of the 
lesson one day within the first ten days of April, deal with 
the noble figure of George Washington, bringing out the 
simplicity and purity of his life and his great devotion to his 
country and his duty. 

Historical Documents Published 

Another contribution of the Italian Bicenten- 
nial Committee to the commemoration of Wash- 
ington's birth was the publication of certain pre- 
viously unpublished documents containing much 
valuable information relating to George Washing- 
ton. Among these the most important were some 
450 reports of the diplomatic representatives of 
the Republic of Genoa in the United States during 
the Presidency of George Washington. In these 
reports are many detailed observations on Wash- 
ington's activities and some interesting comments 
on his personality. The celebration also brought 
to light material dealing with Italians who distin- 
guished themselves in the United States and who 
rendered special service to the cause of American 
independence. This information was given to the 
Italian Encyclopedia as well as to the press and 



other publications, and proved to be of value as a 
means of spreading knowledge of Italo- American 
relations. 

Assistance from Italian Embassy 

Any account of the Bicentennial Celebration in 
Italy would be incomplete without acknowledg- 
ment of the valuable assistance received from the 
Royal Italian Ambassador to the United States, 
Nobile Giacomo de Martino, and the Embassy 
staff. 

It was through the efforts of Ambassador Mar- 
tino that the sword of Lafayette, presented to the 
great Frenchman in 1779 by the Continental Con- 
gress, and belonging to Count Perrone di San Mar- 
tino of Turin, Italy, by reason of his being a 
descendant of Lafayette, was lent to the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion for display in the Bicentennial Loan Exhibi- 
tion in Washington, D. C. The sword, a beautiful 
object, attracted much attention during the time 
it was on display. 

The Embassy rendered great service both to the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission and to the Italian Committee for the 
Bicentennial Celebration by transmitting informa- 
tion and messages and did much to contribute to 
the success of Italy's tribute to the memory of 
George Washington. 




Courtesy of the Metropolitan Museum of Art. 
MARBLE BUST OF GEORGE WASHINGTON MADE BY GUISEPPE CERACCHI, ITALIAN SCULPTOR, 
AT PHILADELPHIA IN 1795. It is one of two such busts made from life, the other being the 

FAMOUS HOUDON BUST. CERACCHI WAS BORN IN ROME, JULY 4, 1751, AND WAS AN ARDENT PATRIOT. 



Cuba 




I UBA, last of the American republics to 
gain independence, entered wholeheart- 
edly into the commemoration of the 
birth of "The First American Libera- 
tor" — George Washington. This island republic, 
discovered by Columbus on his first voyage to 
America in 1492, struggled eighty years for its in- 
dependence, and George Washington, who had first 
blazed the way to liberty in the Western Hemi- 
sphere, was "a shining symbol" to the people of 
Cuba as well as the other Latin American republics. 
In the words of His Excellency, Dr. Orestes Fer- 
rara, then Ambassador of Cuba and dean of the 
Latin American diplomatic corps in Washington: 

The example of Washington, the chief leader in securing 
the independence of his country, was an inspiration to the 
free governments organized on the vast continent discovered 
by Spain. The American Revolution was a notable step for- 
ward along the path of progressive ideas and because of this, 
as well as for geographical reasons, it had a far-reaching 
effect on the peoples to the south of the United States. Each 
son of a new republic, who tendered the greatest service to 
the nascent democracy, was figuratively called the "Wash- 
ington" of his country. 

The President of the Republic of Cuba, His Ex- 
cellency General Gerardo Machado, sent messages 
expressing the cordial sentiments of the people of 
Cuba for the bicentennial celebration of the birth 
of George Washington, both at the beginning and 
the close of the celebration period. His message 
on Washington's birthday, a cablegram addressed 
to the President of the United States read: 

HAVANA, FEBRUARY 22, 1932. 
HIS EXCELLENCY 
MR. HERBERT HOOVER, 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 

IN THE NAME OF THE PEOPLE AND THE GOVERNMENT OF 
CUBA AND IN MY OWN NAME, I HAVE THE HONOR TO EX- 
PRESS TO YOUR EXCELLENCY OUR SENTIMENTS OF CORDIAL 
PARTICIPATION IN THE REJOICING OF YOUR GREAT NATION 
ON THE OCCASION OF THE BICENTENNIAL OF THE BIRTH OF 
THE ILLUSTRIOUS WASHINGTON, THE FIRST AMERICAN 
LIBERATOR. 

GERARDO MACHADO, 
President of the Republic of Cuba. 

On the occasion of the closing of the celebration, 
President Machado again expressed the admiration 
which the Cuban people have for George Washing- 
ton, in the following message to the Government 



of the United States, transmitted through the Cu- 
ban Embassy in Washington: 

HAVANA, NOVEMBER 22, 1932. 

IN THE DIFFICULT DAYS THROUGH WHICH THE WORLD 
IS SADLY PASSING, THE COMMEMORATION OF THE BICEN- 
TENNIAL OF THE BIRTH OF GEORGE WASHINGTON HAS COME 
TO ELEVATE THE PUBLIC SPIRIT, BRINGING IT CLOSER TO 
THE IDEALS OF THE GREAT FATHER OF THE AMERICAN 
COMMONWEALTH. 

IT IS NECESSARY, AT THE CLOSING OF THIS COMMEMORA- 
TIVE PERIOD, THAT WE ENDEAVOR TO BE GUIDED BY THE 
INFLUENCE OF THE NOBLE CONDUCT WHICH, AS AN EDU- 
CATOR THROUGH EXAMPLE, HE FOLLOWED DURING ALL HIS 
LIFE. GEORGE WASHINGTON TAUGHT TEMPERANCE, SPIRIT 
OF SACRIFICE AND PATRIOTIC DECISION TO THOSE WHO 
GOVERN; ORDER, DISCIPLINE AND LOVE TOWARDS REPUB- 
LICAN INSTITUTIONS TO THE GOVERNED, AND MENTAL AND 
MORAL RECTITUDE TO ALL. 

ON THIS DAY AND IN THE NAME OF MY PEOPLE, I EXPRESS 
THE WISH THAT THE CITIZENS OF ALL THE AMERICAS BE 
WORTHY OF THE NOBLE EXPONENT OF THE HUMAN RACE 
WHO WAS THEIR FIRST LEADER IN THE CONQUEST OF LIB- 
ERTY AND INDEPENDENCE. 

(SIGNED) GERARDO MACHADO, 
President of the Republic of Cuba. 

The bicentennial celebrations in Cuba varied 
from the formal reception at the American Em- 
bassy, on the opening day, to rustic picnics on the 
huge sugar plantations of the island republic; from 
an impressive commemorative service in the beau- 
tiful Holy Trinity Cathedral in Havana, to a Bi- 
centennial Ball that was an outstanding social event 
of the year. Radio companies dedicated entire pro- 
grams to the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the 
Birth of George Washington; Cuba's famous race 
track, Oriental Park, had a "George Washington 
Day," and there were pageants, plays and special 
ceremonies throughout the island. Commemora- 
tion of the bicentennial in Cuba began well be- 
fore the official date set for the opening of the cele- 
bration and continued until its close on Thanks- 
giving Day. 

Celebration Begins in Havana 

To the Daughters of the American Revolution 
fell the honor of initiating the Bicentennial Cele- 
bration in Havana when they made their regular 
gathering on February 3, 1932, an open meeting 
and presented a special program in honor of George 
Washington. 

A patriotic and inspirational address by the Rev. 
Dewey Burham, pastor of the Union Church, fea- 



36 



Foreign Participation — Cuba 



37 



tured the exercises which were held in the Woman's 
Club before an audience of more than two hundred. 
Miss Clara White, Regent of the Havana Chapter, 
had issued a general invitation to all resident Amer- 
icans, their friends and visitors, to join in the cele- 
bration and many distinguished members of the 
American Colony in Havana were present, headed 
by Mrs. Harry F. Guggenheim, wife of the Ameri- 
can Ambassador to Cuba. Many local organiza- 
tions attended in a group, the Girl Reserves in their 
uniforms adding a special dash of color. 

The club rooms had been appropriately deco- 
rated throughout in a red, white, and blue motif, 
and over the stage hung a beautiful copy of the 
Athenaeum portrait of George Washington. The 
flag used on the stage held special significance for 



the members of the chapter as it had covered the 
casket of a young soldier who had given his life 
during the World War and had been presented to 
the chapter by his mother, Mrs. William Laidlaw. 

The program opened with the singing of the 
Cuban national anthem, "Himno Bayames," and 
"America," by the audience, led by a quartet com- 
posed of Mrs. Helen Bermudez, Mrs. Ruby Ball 
Arango, Mrs. Jewel Feike, and Mrs. Louise Stephens, 
with Mrs. Mary Daniel at the piano. 

Dean Hugo Blankingship, of Holy Trinity 
Cathedral, pronounced the invocation and the 
regent gave the address of welcome. The "Pledge 
to the Flag" was then given, followed by the sing- 
ing of Keller's "American Hymn" by the quartet, 
the recital of "Old Glory" by Mrs. Rose Ellis, a 




Courtesy of the Heraldo de Cuba. 



WASHINGTON PORTRAIT UNVEILED AT THE GEORGE WASHINGTON SCHOOL, HAVANA, CUBA, 

ON PAN AMERICAN DAY, APRIL 14, 1932. This reproduction of the Athenaeum portrait by Gilbert 

Stuart was presented by the John Quincy Adams School of Washington, D. C. 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



solo, "America the Beautiful," sung by Mrs. Ber- 
mudez, a poem recital by Mrs. Arango and another 
number by the quartet. 

Rev. Dewey Burham then delivered his address 
on Washington, which was a scholarly discourse 
that met with the full appreciation of the audience. 
Relying upon history for estimates of Washington's 
character by his contemporaries, Dr. Burham cited 
his heroic example of self-sacrifice and constructive 
thought for his country as one to be emulated by 
succeeding generations of patriotic Americans. 

The singing of the "Star Spangled Banner" by 
the quartet and the audience brought the program 
to a close. 

Service in Cathedral 

The next observance of the Bicentennial in 
Havana was the George Washington commemora- 
tive service in Holy Trinity Cathedral the morning 
of Sunday, February 21, under the auspices of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution. 

The huge church was crowded for the impressive 
service, which was attended by the American Am- 
bassador, Hon. Harry F. Guggenheim; the British 
Minister, the staffs of the American Embassy and 
of the British Legation, the American Consul Gen- 
eral and the staff of the Consulate, a representative 
of the Cuban government, various patriotic 
organizations in Havana and members of the 
American and British colonies there. 

Bishop H. R. Hulse delivered the sermon, in 
which he brought out the strong character of 
Washington as "a hiding place from the wind," a 
refuge in the storms and stress of those momentous 
days. He said that in the lives of the great, human- 
ity has its greatest treasure, for they show us our 
possibilities and inspire us to make something of 
our own lives. A synopsis of Bishop Hulse's ser- 
mon, taken from the Havana post of February 22, 
1932, follows: 

The Text; Isaiah, 32:2: "And a man shall be as an hiding 
place from the wind, and a covert from the tempest; as rivers 
of water in a dry place, as the shadow of a great rock in a 
weary land." 

This is the prophet's explanation of the function of great 
men in human society. It is part of his philosophy of history. 

The life of George Washington and his influence in the 
establishment and development of the United States is a stand- 
ing illustration of the way in which great men determine the 
course of human history. 

Competent observers say that the Revolutionary war could 
not have been won except for Washington. Equally com- 
petent observers think that the United States would not have 
escaped the dangers of the formative period if it had not been 
for his skillful piloting. 



As the commander-in-chief of the army, he had to fight 
not only the forces of the king but the lethargy of Congress, 
the intrigues of his officers, the provincial jealousies of the 
different colonies, and the tendency of his army to disintegrate 
when the immediate danger was over. 

As a result of his patience and industry and ability and 
character the war was won, the independence of the colonies 
was recognized, and then came the most critical period in the 
history of the United States. 

Washington became the most influential leader in the move- 
ment to unite the states once more and form a new nation 
and through incessant correspondence he kept in touch with 
leaders of opinion everywhere. 

A convention was called to amend the articles of confed- 
eration. The new constitution was not popular, but it was 
finally adopted, though with small majorities in the larger 
states. It was adopted because Washington brought all the 
force of his influence to bear in its favor. 

Washington was a Mason and a member of the Church 
of England. Both had their influence over his character. No 
one who is familiar with the ritual of Masonry can read over 
his state papers without becoming aware of the way in which 
Masonry had influenced his thought. 

It has been said that his membership in the church was 
purely nominal and that he was not a religious man. In favor 
of this it has been urged that he drank, swore occasionally 
and delighted in the theater. 

In his public addresses he speaks of God and divine provi- 
dence and the divine author of our religion. Those were not 
idle words, he knew what they meant. When he prayed he 
was not doing it for effect; he was addressing his Maker. It 
seems to me foolish to disregard all this and regard him as a 
hypocrite who simply used these phrases because they were 
popular. 

Home life, the discipline of the wilderness and of business, 
religion, these all helped in the formation of his character. 
But after all, character is man's own achievement. Outward 
influences help and God helps inwardly, but the result depends 
upon a man's own response. 

The lives of the great constitute humanity's great treasure. 
They show the possibilities of humanity, and inspire us to 
make something of our own lives. 

We honor them best, not by building them monuments, 
but by trying to enter into their spirit. Humanity is always 
building monuments to the prophets and stoning their 
successors. 

The service closed with the "George Washington 
Prayer" of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution. 

Varied Programs in Havana 

February 22, 1932, in Havana was the occasion 
for five distinct observances of George Washing- 
ton's birthday, varying from special radio pro- 
grams and formal social functions to a "Bicenten- 
nial Day" at the races. 

The most important event of the day was the 
reception tendered the members of the American 
colony by the American Ambassador and Mrs. 
Guggenheim, at the beautiful Embassy residence. 

Hundreds of Americans called at the Embassy 
during the afternoon and were received by the Am- 
bassador and Mrs. Guggenheim, repairing after- 



Foreign Participation — Cuba 



39 



wards to the garden, which forms part of the Em- 
bassy grounds, for out-of-door dancing and re- 
freshments. The First Secretary of the Embassy, 
Hon. Edward L. Reed, and Mrs. Reed assisted in 
receiving the guests, as did the Military Attache, 
Major James J. O'Hare, and Mrs. O'Hare. 

The spacious drawing rooms of the Embassy 
were appropriately decorated to give significance 
to the occasion, and tributes to the great American 
were voiced by British and Cuban guests as well as 
by those of the many other nationalities 
represented. 

The day was made memorable by two national 
radio programs, one at noon featuring an address 
by the Director of the National Press Bureau, Sr. 
Dr. Rafael Martinez Ybor, the other in the evening 
over Station CMC of the Cuban Telephone 
Company. 

The afternoon broadcast was made from the 
Hotel Palace and besides the speech of Dr. Ybor, 
included a brief address by Prof. Perez Benitoa, 
songs by nationally known Cuban singers, and the 
playing of the Cuban and American national 
anthems by the Cuban Army Band of the Sixth 
Military District. 

In his speech, which was broadcast to the United 
States, Dr. Ybor said, in part, according to the 
Havana post of February 23, 1932: 

Two centuries have passed since the birth of George Wash- 
ington, and his life and achievements stand as a guiding 
beacon not only to the citizens of his country, but also to all 
the world and especially to peoples of the Western 
Hemisphere. 

His fame survives, bounded only by the limits of the earth 
and by the extent of the human mind. He survives in our 
hearts, in the growing knowledge of our children, in the 
affection of the good throughout the world; and when our 
monuments shall be done away, when nations now existing 
shall be no more; when even our young and far-spreading 
empire shall have perished, still will Washington's glory 
unfaded shine and die not, until love of virtue ceases on earth, 
or earth itself sinks into chaos. 

The evening radio program over Station CMC 
was dedicated to the commemoration of the birth 
of George Washington and featured American 
music especially selected for the occasion and the 
reading of the speeches which had been delivered 
earlier in the day in Washington, D. C, by the 
Secretary of State of the United States, Hon. 
Henry L. Stimson, and by His Excellency Dr. 
Orestes Ferrara, then Cuban Ambassador to the 
United States, at the impressive exercises in the Pan 



American Union Building in observance of the 
Bicentennial. 

Each station announcement during the program 
was followed by a brief dedication of the broadcast 
to the memory of George Washington, and at the 
close of the program, the following tribute to the 
great North American hero was pronounced: 

Thus ends the program which this station has respectfully 
dedicated to the memory of George Washington who, born 
to serve his country and the world, lives on in a fame as 
enduring as the earth, as everlasting as Truth and as perma- 
nent as Virtue. The fame of Washington is as a rock against 
which the waves are destined to break eternally without 
effecting the slightest change. 

An extremely colorful observance of George 
Washington's birthday and in a lighter vein, took 
place at Havana's famous racing track, Oriental 
Park, that afternoon. Each race was given a name 
that recalled the great American and the main 
event of the day was called the "George Washing- 
ton Race." The others were: The "Cherry Tree," 
"Valley Forge," "Bunker Hill," "Yorktown," and 
"Mount Vernon." 

Evening brought a fitting climax to a memorable 
February 22 in Havana when the George Washing- 
ton Birthday Dinner-Dance was held in the beau- 
tiful silver ballroom of the National Hotel under 
the auspices of the American Legion, Havana Post 
No. 1. 

. This brilliant function was attended by prac- 
tically all of Havana's large American colony, 
headed by Ambassador and Mrs. Guggenheim and 
the American Consul General, Hon. Frederick F. 
Dumont, and Mrs. Dumont, and prominent mem- 
bers of Havana society. 

Charles C. MacKay, Post Commander of the 
Legion, was in charge of arrangements, assisted by 
a special Legion committee composed of James S. 
St. Amour, chairman, Porter King, V. C. Jordan, 
A. E. Grayhurst, Russell Morgan, F. Franceschi 
and W. P. Taylor. 

Divertissements interpolated during the evening 
included the acrobatic dancer, June Morgan, in 
two acts; the dancers, America and Valencia, in 
Spanish dances, and Mercedita, who presented 
novelty Rumba numbers. 

Hundreds of American visitors in the city who 
did not attend the American Legion dance also 
celebrated the anniversary of the birth of their 
First President, crowding to capacity the Casino 
Nacional, the Hotel Plaza and other hotels and 
night clubs throughout the city. 



40 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Gift Portrait is Unveiled 

In Havana on April 14 — Pan American Day — a 
portrait of George Washington was unveiled with 
impressive ceremonies in Public School No. 40, 
"The George Washington School," as part of the 
observance of "Washington Week," recommended 
by school authorities of the Republic for special 
study of George Washington and programs in his 
honor throughout the entire school system. 

The portrait was a gift to the George Washing- 
ton School by the John Quincy Adams School of 
Washington, D. C., and had been sent through the 
good offices of the Pan American Union, the Sec- 
retary of Public Instruction and Fine Arts of Cuba 
and the Havana Board of Education. A letter 
written by one of the pupils of the Washington, 
D. C.j school accompanied the portrait, and invited 
the Cuban school children to join in the Bicenten- 
nial Celebration of the birth of George Washington. 

With the United States officially represented by a 
secretary of the American Embassy, Hon. George 
Andrews, and with the entire school in attendance, 
the unveiling of the portrait was a dignified and 
beautiful ceremony. The General Superintendent 
of Schools, Dr. Ramiro Guerra, presided, and other 
officials on the platform with Dr. Guerra and Mr. 
Andrews were the Provincial Inspector of Schools, 
Dr. Heliodoro Garcia; Administrator Dr. Gabriel 
Garcia Galan; District Inspector Dr. Cordoba de 
Fernandez, and the principal of the school, Dr. 
Maria Rodriguez Marrero, with her staff. 

The band of the "General Machado Escuela 
Tecnica Industrial" played the Cuban and Amer- 
ican national anthems and there was an allegorical 
representation by three pupils depicting Cuban- 
American friendship. 

This friendship was commended by the princi- 
pal, Dr. Rodriguez Marrero, in her speech, and by 
the two guest speakers, Dr. Guerra and Dr. Garcia 
Galan. The latter referred to the great Cuban 
liberator, Jose Marti, and to George Washington, 
as "apostles of liberty and Pan-American unity." 
He pointed out that national independence and 
stability, and reciprocal co-operation, should be the 
basis of the union between the peoples of America, 
and called attention to the significance of that day, 
April 14, which is celebrated in the United States 
and all the Latin American republics as "Pan 
American Day." 

Dr. Ramiro Guerra praised the unveiling of the 



picture and the general program of the day, and 
urged that the school children of Cuba realize the 
great part they can play in cementing the friend- 
ship so happily existing between the United States 
and Cuba. He referred to the wonderful char- 
acter of George Washington and added that he was 
a true patriot — 

the vivid memory of whom lives forever in the minds and 
hearts of the people of the United States, serving them as a 
bright beacon. His noble spirit and his democratic attitude 
merit this high and universal esteem. 

He concluded with a summary of the history 
of the American peoples, and expressed gratitude 
for their prosperity and union, "the latter," he said, 
"effected by natural geography and strengthened 
by history." 

Observance at Cienfuegos 

Cienfuegos, on the shore of the Caribbean Sea, 
in the south central part of Cuba, has only a small 
American colony but through the initiative of the 
American Consul there, Mr. Knox Alexander, 
Americans and their friends were able to join in 
paying tribute to the First President of the United 
States. 

On February 22, 1932, Mr. and Mrs. Alexander 
held a reception at their residence from 5 to 7 
o'clock in the evening. In rooms appropriately 
decorated practically all the members of the local 
American colony were received by the Consul and 
Mrs. Alexander, assisted by Miss Roldan and Mr. 
Benet of the Consulate staff, and Mrs. Benet. 

Many members of the British colony, including 
the British Vice Consul, came to pay their respects, 
together with prominent local residents and gov- 
ernment officials, and the Spanish Consul and his 
wife. In all there were about 5 guests, many of 
whom had come a considerable distance. 

Letters of felicitation were received at the Con- 
sulate from the Governor of the Province of Santa 
Clara, the Mayor of Cienfuegos, the Mexican Con- 
sul at Cienfuegos, the President of the Cienfuegos 
Yacht Club, the editor of la correspondencia, 
the leading newspaper of Cienfuegos, and from 
various other officials and persons. 

Later in the Bicentennial Year Mr. Alexander 
presented a copy of the Athenaeum portrait of 
George Washington by Gilbert Stuart to His Ex- 
cellency Serior Juan Antonio Vasquez Bello, Gov- 
ernor of the Province of Santa Clara, and the por- 



Foreign Participation — Cuba 



41 



trait was hung with appropriate ceremony in the 
Marti Library of the Provincial Palace at Santa 
Clara. 

A copy of the poster, "Wakefield," distributed 
by the United States George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission, was given by the Consul to 
the City Hall of Cienfuegos, where it was placed in 
a prominent position and remained during the 
whole period of the Bicentennial. 

Summing up the observance in Cienfuegos, Con- 
sul Alexander wrote that the sentiment of the peo- 
ple there for the American hero "is one of great 
respect and admiration," and added that he felt the 
Bicentennial had "served to enhance this senti- 
ment." 

School Children Celebrate at Preston 

The American colony at Preston, a distribution 
center of the United Fruit Company, with a popu- 
lation of 11,000, boasts an American school, and 
the school children there celebrated the anniversary 
of the Father of Their Country with all the en- 
thusiasm of the American school children "back 
home." 

On February 22, 1932, under the direction of 
their teacher, Miss Stella L. Lee, the children of the 
American School at Preston gave the following 
patriotic program with the participants dressed in 
Colonial costumes: 




CHILDREN IN COLONIAL COSTUMES, CELEBRATING 
BICENTENNIAL AT PRESTON, CUBA. 



I. "Why This Program," a recitation. 
II. "The Inscription on Washington's Tomb," a recitation. 

III. "Flag and Letter Drill," by the pupils of the first and 

second grades. 

IV. "Life of George Washington," a play given by the pupils 

of the upper grades. 
V. "The Original Thirteen Colonies," a one-act play. 
VI. "The Making of the Flag," a one-act play. 

Several patriotic songs, including the "Star 
Spangled Banner" and "America," were sung by 
the players during the performance, and the "Flag 
Salute" and many familiar quotations by or about 
George Washington were given. 

The presentations were made more impressive 
and realistic by the attractive Colonial costumes 
worn by the children, all of which were made 
locally from a very limited supply of material and 
equipment. 

"Washington, the Pioneer" is Honored 

"George Washington the Pioneer" was the spirit 
that motivated the Bicentennial Celebration in 
Bayate, Oriente, where the American Pioneer 
Society of Cuba has its headquarters. A picnic and 
dance, in the style of the old-time frontier camp 
meeting held by the pioneers of Washington's day, 
opened the celebration on the afternoon of Febru- 
ary 21 and continued until dawn of the morning 
of February 22. 

The American Consul at Antilla, Cuba, Mr. 
Horace J. Dickinson, whose consular district in- 
cludes Bayate, in a despatch to the Department of 
State said of the society and the celebration: 

Bayate, an agricultural community in the center of Oriente 
Province, is the home of Mr. Volney L. Held, the founder 
of the American Pioneer Society of Cuba. This society was 
organized for patriotic, social and commercial purposes, and 
its membership includes many of the leaders of American 
communities in this district, as well as in other sections of 
Cuba. The greater number of its members are Americans 
who established themselves in this country subsequent to the 
Spanish War. It was thought by the leaders of the society 
that, in view of the fact that they represent a pioneering 
element, it would be most appropriate to celebrate the George 
Washington Bicentennial by a picnic and dance such as might 
have been held by the pioneers of Washington's day. 

The celebration began in the afternoon with a 
picnic and old-time barbecue on the banks of the 
Cauto River. Late in the evening the celebrants 
moved to the nearby ranch of one of the Pioneers 
and at exactly midnight an older member of the 
society sounded 200 strokes on a large bell, one for 
each of the years that had passed since the birth of 
George Washington. 



42 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



The sounding of the bell was also the signal for 
the beginning of the dance. The orchestra was 
composed of a number of the members of the 
society and they played old-time music and music 
from the days of Washington, while the others 
performed the dances of that time as well as the 
square dance and other typically American dances. 
In keeping with the "pioneer spirit of ruggedness," 
the festivities continued until the sun ushered in a 
new day — George Washington's birthday. 

Mr. Held had informed the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission that "all re- 
unions and dances of the society throughout the 
year will be on the old-time style in honor of the 
Bicentennial." There was another picnic and 
dance on March 20, 1932, at Palmarito, similar to 
that which opened the celebration. Then the rainy 
season set in and was so prolonged that these plans 
had to be abandoned. However, all during the 
year the Bicentennial was remembered by a printed 
seal, showing the profile of George Washington and 
the dates, 1732-1932, appearing on all the sta- 
tionery of the American Pioneer Society and on its 
bulletins. 

Women Celebrate at Banes 

The Women's Welfare Association of the town 
of Banes organized the observance of the two hun- 
dredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Wash- 
ington with a patriotic entertainment and dance 
on February 20, 1932. 

Banes, with a population of 13,000, has a fairly 
large American colony, composed for the most part 
of employes of the United Fruit Company, which 
has offices there, and the Women's Welfare Asso- 
ciation is made up of wives of these employes. 

Having planned the celebration with a two-fold 
purpose — to honor George Washington and to aid 
a Cuban charity with the proceeds from the sale 
of the tickets — the association issued invitations to 
both Cubans and Americans, and more than 60 
percent of the audience which filled the American 
Club was made up of Spanish-speaking persons. 

The clubhouse was appropriately decorated with 
red, white and blue bunting, the American and 
Cuban flags, and wall silhouettes portraying scenes 
in the life of Washington, all of which were sub- 
ordinated to the main feature of the decorations — 
a portrait of Washington lent to the association by 
the American Consulate at Antilla. 



A dramatic program featured the early part of 
the evening and was followed by general dancing. 
Dr. Peter S. Malaret, superintendent of the hospital 
at Banes, and a distinguished linguist, acted as mas- 
ter of ceremonies and prefaced each scene of the 
program, which was given in English, with an 
explanation in Spanish. In this way the many 
Cuban guests were able to follow the stories pre- 
sented, and their lively interest showed that they 
were fully appreciative of the significance of the 
occasion. 

A summary of the program, with the remarks 
of Dr. Malaret, follows: 

Dr. Malaret: Tonight we are gathered together to celebrate 
an event which took place two hundred years ago — the birth 
of George Washington. The history of this great man is 
known the world over because he is one of the men who 
belong to the world and not to a nation. 

Tonight we are going to touch upon some of the incidents 
occurring in the life of this great man. The first incident 
is from a story often related of his boyhood and which clearly 
shows an intricate trait of character displayed early in his 
life. This is the story of the Cherry Tree, which we are now 
going to describe in Spanish so that our Spanish-speaking 
guests may better appreciate what is going on. 

[There followed a brief description in Spanish of the 
following scene:] 

THE CHERRY TREE (Scene I) 

(A boy sits by a table reading. A middle-aged man enters. 
The boy rises and the man hands the boy a package. The boy 
opens it.) 

"Good afternoon, George." 
"Good afternoon, father." 

"Here is something I have brought you from the 
market." (He hands the boy a hatchet.) 

"Oh! how splendid. Thank you, father. May I try 
it?" 

"Yes, my boy." 

(George leaves the room, followed by his father.) 
Dr. Malaret: Now by waiting a few minutes we must make 
believe that a number of days have elapsed before the next 
scene: 

the cherry tree (Scene II) 
The father enters carrying a small tree neatly cut 
near the roots, and says: "It is a shame." (He shakes 
his head and lays the tree on the floor.) Then, pacing 
the floor, he continues: 

"Who would dare cut that tree? I must find the 
culprit." 

George now enters, frightened, and says: 

"Father, forgive me. I cut down that tree. I am 
sorry." 

Father: "Why, George, you! You cut down my tree! 
(Pauses.) Well, my son, you are not only truthful, but 
courageous. I hate to lose the tree. You should have 
known better, but I would hate worse to see you act 
cowardly. I forgive you. Take the tree away." 

(George takes the tree and goes out. Father goes out.) 

THE INDIAN WARS 

Dr. Malaret: The next scene represents another incident in 
the life of Washington. When Washington was nineteen 
years old, he took part in the French and Indian wars. At 



Foreign Participation — Cuba 



43 



that early age he displayed the fine qualities which belong to 
great leaders. Washington was a surveyor and engineer by 
profession and in both made a reputation for himself, as well 
as in soldiering. 

Now we will recall "The Indian Wars." 

(The ensuing scene showed Washington among the Indians, 
who gave a war dance.) 

THE WASHINGTONS AT HOME 

Dr. Malaret: The third scene portrays the home life of 
Washington. At the end of the French and Indian Wars, 
Washington returned to his life as the proprietor of beautiful 
Mount Vernon, on the shores of the Potomac. He loved 
this enchanting place and was a good farmer. In 1759 he 
had married Martha Custis, who was his devoted companion 
until he died. She filled her post of First Lady admirably. 

Now comes the third scene — Washington's domestic life — 
represented by her whom we should always honor, the devoted 
wife and mother, Martha Washington. 

(Then followed a short scene bringing out the character 
of Martha Washington.) 

THE DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE 

Dr. Malaret: Now we present one of the most critical 
episodes of this period — the signing of the Declaration of 
Independence of the United States by the representatives of 
the colonies assembled in solemn session. 

A number of boys file in and seat themselves around a 
table. "John Hancock" sits at the head of the table, and 
begins to read from the paper before him, the Declaration 
of Independence. Then he says: "Gentlemen, are you ready 
for the question?" 

"Question: All in favor of signing this document will show 
their assent." All solemnly nod their heads and exchange 
glances with each other. Then the document is signed by 
Mr. Hancock and passed around for the other signatures. 
All remain seated. 

Dr. Malaret: Washington was named General-in-Chief of 
the American Army June 15, 1775. We all know his prowess 
as a general. He battled unremittingly against a thousand 
obstacles until he achieved the surrender of Cornwallis in 



1781. The following scene shows him being named Com- 
mander-in-Chief. 

General Washington enters. All the men rise. John Han- 
cock hands him a sword and says: "General Washington, you 
have been selected by this Continental Congress on this 
fifteenth day of June, 1775, to become Commander-in-Chief 
of the Continental Army." George Washington answers: 
"I realize the responsibility devolving upon me and accept 
your decision, trusting Providence may grant us wisdom and 
a successful issue to this momentous problem." 

THE FLAG 

Dr. Malaret: Now comes the creating of the American 
flag. Betsy Ross, a lady of Philadelphia, is shown informing 
General Washington and Mr. Hancock that the work of 
making the flag is completed. 

Betsy Ross appears, sits down, and begins to work on 
the flag. A boy stands beside her, watching with interest. 
There is a knock at the door. The boy opens it and 
Washington and Hancock enter. 

Washington and Hancock: "Good morning, Mistress 
Ross." 

Mrs. Ross: "Good morning, gentlemen." 
John Hancock: "Well, what success, Mistress Ross?" 
Mrs. Ross: "I have just finished the flag." 
(The boy helps her to open the flag. The men step 
back. The orchestra plays "The Star Spangled Banner.") 
(Audience stands.) 

THE DANCE 

Dr. Malaret: When the Revolutionary War was brought to 
a successful close, Washington was chosen as the first Presi- 
dent of the United States, in the year 1789. He proved an 
able leader and organizer, displaying great wisdom in the 
construction of the new government. After eight years of 
notable achievement, he retired to his home in Mount Vernon, 
where he died in the year 1799. 

But you must realize that in spite of war, in spite of 
weighty questions of state, the currents of home life and 
social activities moved on apace. 




YOUNG PEOPLE TOLD ABOUT GEORGE WASHINGTON AT GAZA BENDIG RANCH, CUBA. 
Volney L. Held, president of the American Pioneer Society of Cuba, addressing an assembly of 

YOUNG MEN AND WOMEN, INCLUDING AMERICANS, CUBANS, SPANIARDS, ENGLISH, AUSTRIAN'S, FlNNS AND SWEDES. 



44 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



The last incident we present tonight depicts one of the 
dances in great favor during the life of Washington. 

(There followed the closing and most spectacular event of 
the program — a minuet danced by six couples, attired in 
beautiful Colonial costumes.) 

Santiago Celebrates Bicentennial 

July 4 in Santiago is always the occasion of a 
celebration in honor of the American soldiers who 
helped Cuba to win her independence. This year 
the annual ceremony was combined with the ob- 
servance of the two hundredth anniversary of the 
birth of the man who contributed so greatly to 
secure the independence of the United States — 
George Washington. 

"In this district," reported the American Consul 
at Santiago, Mr. Edwin Schoenrich, "there is no 
unified group of Americans at any one place which 
could be called upon in a body to gather for a 
patriotic celebration. However, the Bicentennial 
did not pass unobserved." 

Just outside Santiago is San Juan Hill where 
occurred the battle of that name made famous by 
the charge of Roosevelt's Rough Riders. A statue 
to the American soldiers who gave their lives there 
now stands on this hill and members of the local 
Society of Cuban Veterans of the Cuban War of 
Independence annually, on July 4, make a pilgrim- 
age to this statue to lay a wreath at its foot in 
homage to their American comrades in arms. 
American residents attended this event and ad- 
dresses by representatives of the veterans are a part 
of the ceremony. 

July 4, 1932, the event was made an observance 
of the Bicentennial of the birth of George Wash- 
ington, and the speakers referred to the life of the 
First President of the United States and to the 
world-wide celebration in his honor. 

"In appropriate spirit, observance was made in 
this way of this noteworthy event," wrote Consul 
Schoenrich in a letter to the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission. 

The consul added that beyond this there were 
no special celebrations of the Bicentennial as un- 
usual conditions conspired to prevent them. 

"The initial preventing cause was the disastrous 
earthquake which shook the region about Santiago, 
Cuba, on February 3, 1932. This quake was fol- 
lowed by a series of tremors, gradually lessening in 
intensity, over a period of several months. It was 
not until late June that the reconstruction of the 



city can be said to have been quite completed and 
tranquility restored. This period was followed by 
one of economic difficulties which prevented the 
return of normal social life. In this city the lights 
were not finally restored until November 1, last. 
Throughout this time martial law was in force in 
this district. 

"Under these circumstances, and with the local 
population absorbed in its pressing problems, as 
indicated above, it will be seen that conditions 
unfortunately conspired seriously against the hold- 
ing of any other special celebration in connection 
with the anniversary of the birth of George 
Washington," concluded Consul Schoenrich. 

Isle of Pines Observances 

The Bicentennial Celebration extended even into 
the island possession of Cuba — the Isle of Pines. 
This picturesque island, just south of the western 
tip of Cuba, opened the celebration with all the 
local color and splendor of a summer picnic under 
a tropical February moon. 

The School Board of the Isle of Pines annually 
sponsors a moonlight ride on one of the island 
steamers over the beautiful waters of the surround- 




PARTICIPANTS IN GEORGE WASHINGTON 

BICENTENNIAL PLAY AT BANES, CUBA. 

This Bicentennial program was given under the 

AUSPICES OF THE LOCAL Woman's WELFARE ASSOCIATION. 



Foreign Participation — Cuba 



45 



ing bay, and this year the excursion was made a 
celebration in honor of George Washington's 
birthday. 

At sunset, the evening of February 20, 1932, the 
S. S. Pinero set out from the port of Nueva Gerona 
with practically the entire colony aboard for a 
seven-hour cruise. Games were played during the 
trip and there was a program of patriotic music 
which added interest to Nature's offerings — a full 
moon, schools of flying fish that darted away from 
the bow of the boat, and glimpses of large fish that 
the clear waters revealed lying among the grasses 
and patches of sand on the bottom of the bay. 

The evening of May 4 brought the climax of the 
Bicentennial observance on the Isle of Pines when 
the Hibiscus Club of the Isle presented a program 
of music, plays and tableaux in the Fausto Theater 
in Nueva Gerona before an audience of more than 
200 persons. 

The program opened with Sousa's "Washington 
Post March" played by the orchestra. This was 
followed by several groups of tableaux depicting: 
The story of the youthful George Washington and 
the cherry tree; George Washington and his 
mother; Washington as a young surveyor; the 
courtship of George and Martha Washington, dur- 
ing which the actors played and sang appropriate 
songs; and the Washington family at Mount 
Vernon. 

The tableaux were followed by an orchestral 
interlude and then a one-act play, "A Pair of Scis- 
sors," was presented. This was the story of Betsy 
Ross and the making of the first flag and Wash- 
ington's inspection of it. 

The program concluded with Cuban and Amer- 
ican music rendered by the orchestra, with a final 
scene, to the accompaniment of a spirited march, 
revealing a portrait of George Washington 
garlanded with flowers. 

The whole program was enthusiastically received 
by the audience. An additional note of interest 
was given it by the fact that many of the properties 
used — furniture and costumes — were genuine an- 
tiques of the time of George Washington, brought 
long ago to the Isle of Pines by ancestors of the 
present members of the Hibiscus Club. 

As reported in the Isle's fortnightly paper, isle 
of pines post: 



The whole program was built to carry out, locally, the 
world-wide plan of making the life of Washington better 
known to everyone during this two hundredth year after his 
birth. 

Tribute by Dr. Ferrara 

One of the finest tributes to George Washington 
by a Cuban was written in 1932 by His Excellency, 
Dr. Orestes Ferrara, Secretary of State of Cuba 
and former Ambassador to the United States. It 
is given here as it appeared in the special Bicenten- 
nial issue of the Washington times, May 
30, 1932: 

George Washington is one of the beacons placed at inter- 
vals along the highroad of History. For his country he 
serves as a guide in time of stress and a refuge in tranquil 
moments; a never- failing example of true goodness; a warn- 
ing to turbulent youths, and a mute accusation of selfish 
interests. 

Thus it is always he who vivifies the moral principles of 
his fellow countrymen. This difficult and absorbing scene 
in which he played the leading role did not mar his personality. 

He was a redoubtable agitator because the times required 
it, yet he always preserved his serenity of spirit: he was an 
energetic revolutionary, imbued, however, with the ideal of 
order; he was a politician, but not an opportunist; a citizen 
of a new democracy, but not a martyr. His character was 
admired by his contemporaries and is venerated by posterity. 

Washington is an example of perfect balance, of perfect 
harmony. He was equally great in peace and in war, in the 
little acts of daily life and in the general principles which 
he followed with constancy and devotion. 

The people of the United States, with legitimate pride, hold 
him their greatest glory. But although Washington gave 
himself only to the service of the Thirteen Colonies of North 
America, his life is a heritage belonging to the whole world. 
Virtue claims him for her own and, regardless of frontiers, 
makes him a citizen of every corner of the globe. 

The example of Washington, the chief leader in securing 
the independence of his country, was an inspiration to the 
free governments organized on the vast continent discovered 
by Spain. The American Revolution was a notable step 
forward along the path of progressive ideas and because of 
this, as well as for geographical reasons, it had a far-reaching 
effect on the peoples to the south of the United States. 

All the institutions erected on the ruins of colonial rule 
were modeled on the Constitution which their brethren of the 
north had previously written for themselves. 

In the heroic struggle for independence throughout the 
wide lands of Latin America, many were the illustrious and 
glorious leaders who, with magnificent generosity, offered 
their strength and their intellect to the cause of liberty. To 
them the name of Washington was a shining symbol, and 
each son of a new republic, who tendered the greatest service 
to the nascent democracy, was figuratively called the "Wash- 
ington" of his country. 

The principle that no President should succeed himself for 
a third term, although not included in the Constitution of 
the United States by the signers of that document, was never- 
theless established by Washington in this country by his 
own volition. Latin America, however, adopted this principle 
in its written constitutions, making it notwithstanding crises 
and lapses. 

The precedent set by George Washington in refusing to 
bow to the will of the majority of his compatriots, who would 
have elected him to the presidency for the third time, has for 



46 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



more than a century been the Latin-American constitutional 
principle that is most cherished and respected by the masses. 

The parting advice given to his fellow citizens in his Fare- 
well Address, not to take part in European struggles and not 
to intervene in the controversies which geography and history 
might occasion in that noble and ancient continent, was a 
solemn warning heeded also by Latin America. 

Statesmen of the 20 republics, which were successively 
established, managed to keep themselves aloof from the con- 
fused fluctuations of European politics, thus preventing the 
balance of power in Europe, when disturbed, from being re- 
dressed as a result of conflict in America, according to the 
phrase and the desire of an eminent statesman of the last 
century. 

Universal applause, without dissent and without reserve, 
is a worthy tribute to the admirable picture presented by the 
life of George Washington. The voice of his soul told him 
that only noble purposes and good deeds inspire and nourish 
unselfishness. His mental powers gave him from his earliest 
years a clear comprehension of the fact that in our mortal 
life the part reserved for each one of us is but small and 
fleeting, for from birth we live with others and for others. 

Washington Honored by the Press 

The story of the Bicentennial Celebration in 
Cuba would not be complete without reference to 
the splendid participation of the Cuban press. 
Weeks before the celebration opened, the news- 
papers were already giving much space to the ap- 
proaching anniversary, printing brief histories of 
the life of Washington, calling attention to the fact 
that he belongs not only to the United States but 
to all free peoples, and commending a nation which, 
"though grown great . . . can . . . express gratitude 
to those who forged a free country and offered a 
magnificent example of citizenship and integrity." 

el pais, of Havana, gave a great deal of space to 
the Bicentennial, both before February 22 and dur- 
ing the celebration period. One of the features 
which this paper published during February, 1932, 
was an historical series of articles entitled, "Wash- 
ington, An Historical Interpretation," by Alberto 
Lamar Swheyer. 

heraldo de cuba, of Havana, ran a series of 
drawings, giving in pictorial form the story of the 
life and achievements of Washington. The cartoon 
on February 22 depicted Washington towering 
over the skyscrapers of America and looming forth 
from a sky that was the Stars and Stripes. On the 
editorial page appeared an article on George Wash- 
ington, a translation of part of which follows: 

Today there begins, with all the solemnity that his historic 
figure merits, the celebration of the two hundredth anniversary 
of the birth of George Washington. 

The people of North America can, with pride, make 
marvelous comparisons between their "yesterday" and their 
"today," between the British colonies liberated after the 



middle of the eighteenth century and what those same colonies 
are now — one of the first powers of the world. . . . 

Fortunate is the nation grown great through toil and 
riches which, nourished by the security of peace and enervated 
by stability, and, in the midst of its enjoyment of these 
permanent institutions, can celebrate the greatness of the 
past and express gratitude to those who forged a free country 
and offered a magnificent example of citizenship and integrity. 

diario de la marina, of Havana, published 
many articles on Washington. In one of these, ap- 
pearing on February 22, 1932, under the title, 
"Washington," is the following tribute translated 
in part: 

In the heart of every man who loves liberty, whether he is 
enjoying it or not, this day should have happy echo; for 200 
years ago today, in Virginia, was born George Washington, 
hero of the independence of his country, champion of right, 
and, as Lee said: "First in war, first in peace, first in the 
hearts of his countrymen." 

In honor of the birth of Washington, First President of 
the North American Republic, the United States is going to 
observe this year with great celebrations. . . . What a fine 
thing is this testimony of veneration for a man whose name 
is linked with all that pertains most intimately to the well- 
being, the free institutions of the United States and to the 
renown of the country! 

Washington! A name which had the power to re-animate 
a nation at a time of terrific and continued public disasters 
and calamities; a name which shone out in the midst of the 
horrors of war, a beacon which flooded the soul with its light 
and guided friends to his country, but blazed as a meteor to 
confound its enemies!" 

the Havana evening telegram, an American 
newspaper of Havana, on February 22, 1932, said, 
in a "box" on the first page: 

GEORGE WASHINGTON 

The two hundredth anniversary of the birth of George 
Washington is today being observed by Americans through- 
out the world. Any attempt to eulogize the achievements or 
character of America's greatest citizen would be superfluous. 
His life history and accomplishments are known to school 
children in every land, and the great nation of which we 
have the honor to be citizens is a living monument to his 
work, far more so than any mass of stone that may be erected 
or literary effusions that may be composed. 

It remains only for us, then, to render him tribute in the 
most practical way — to rededicate ourselves on this day to 
the ideals of liberty and love of country for which he strove. 
Washington's greatest service to his country was not in time 
of war, and his patriotism was of the practical kind that was 
intensified when the guns of battle were silenced and there 
was a need for devotion to country which he gave so 
unselfishly. 

In the world-wide crisis of today we can pay the "first 
American" no greater tribute than to face our problems with 
the same confidence in our destiny and devotion to our ideals 
that Washington manifested in the ordeal of integrating a 
new-born nation. 

el mundo, of Havana, featured the Bicentennial 
prominently with photographs, drawings and an 



Foreign Participation — Cuba 



47 



editorial on February 22, which translated reads 
in part: 

Two hundred years ago today in Wakefield, Virginia, was 
born the liberator of America, George Washington. 

Throughout the centuries that have passed since, the nation 
which he created with his sword has grown great and power- 
ful. But the figure of the Father of his Country has re- 
mained in its niche — where he would have wished it to be — 
in the hearts of the people. 

The life of George Washington is the finest example that 
the North American people could have had in their upward 
march to prosperity. ... It is said of Washington that he 
was "First in War, First in Peace, and First in the hearts of 
his countrymen," to which could be added "and first great 
example of American democracy." 

The press reported prominently every celebra- 
tion in Cuba in commemoration of the birth of 
Washington, and practically all the papers took the 
opportunity to reprint Washington's Farewell Ad- 
dress, which has always found much favor in the 
Latin-American republics. Many of the periodi- 
cals, especially those which appeared during the 
week of February 22, notably orbe and carteles, 
published stories concerning Washington and the 
Bicentennial and reproduced portraits of him and 
paintings of events connected with his achieve- 
ments. 

mercurio, a daily newspaper of Havana, sa- 
luted the Bicentennial editorially with a tribute to 
George Washington and congratulations to the 
United States, which could boast such a hero. This 
feeling of genuine admiration was repeatedly 
echoed in the press during the entire Bicentennial 
Year. It found notable expression in a sonnet writ- 
ten almost a century ago by a famous Cuban 
woman poet and reprinted by many newspapers in 
honor of the Bicentennial. This little poem was 
written in 1841 by Dona Gertrudis Gomez de Avel- 
laneda and later rewritten by her when she visited 
Mount Vernon and the tomb of George Washing- 
ton. It is given below in translation: 

TO WASHINGTON 

Not in the past was there model for your virtue, 
Nor will history give example in the future, 
No other fame equal to yours in grandeur 
Will the centuries spread in their flight. 



Europe saw the spirit of war and victory 
Stain its soil with blood. . . . 
But it was America's reward and glory 
That Heaven gave it the spirit of humanity. 

While he converts the world into a bleak plateau, 

Let the bold conqueror revel in his skill 

And haughtily order his slaves about; 

The more will the peoples know in their conscience 

That he who rules them free, alone is strong, 

That he who makes them great, alone is great! 

On Pan American Day 

On Pan American Day, April 14, 1932, when 
twenty Latin-American Republics united in send- 
ing messages from their respective Presidents to be 
read at the tomb of George Washington at Mount 
Vernon by their Ministers, Ambassadors and 
Charge d'Affaires, the President of Cuba con- 
tributed the following message: 

GEORGE WASHINGTON, GUIDE AND SOUL OF THE REVOLU- 
TION WHICH GAVE INDEPENDENCE TO THE THIRTEEN COLO- 
NIES, WAS, AT THE SAME TIME, THE PRECURSOR OF ALL THE 
REVOLUTIONS WHICH HAVE GIVEN LIBERTY TO ALL 
AMERICA. HIS EFFORTS, HIS ENERGY, THE CONTINUITY OF 
HIS AIMS IN THE MOST DIFFICULT HOURS AS IN THOSE OF 
VICTORY, AND HIS DEFINITE ACHIEVEMENT WERE AS AN 
IMPERATIVE MANDATE TO THE PATRIOTS OF THE REST OF 
THE NEW CONTINENT. IN THE LONG CHAIN OF HISTORI- 
CAL EVENTS THE NORTH INDICATED TO THE SOUTH THE 
ROUTE WHICH LED TO THE FORMATION OF A NATIONAL 
CONSCIENCE, THE HIGHEST STAGE OF OUR MODERN ERA. 

•WASHINGTON, FROM THE HIGHEST NATIONAL MAGIS- 
TRACY, PRACTICING ALL THE VIRTUES, BECAME THE GREAT 
TEACHER OF ALL RULERS. HIS LIFE, DEDICATED TO THE 
PUBLIC GOOD, HIS SERENITY OF ACTION, HIS EQUILIBRIUM 
IN THOSE DIFFICULT TIMES IN WHICH NATIONALITY, 
THOUGH ALREADY POLITICALLY FORMED, WAS NOT MORALLY 
OR PSYCHOLOGICALLY PERFECTED, CONSTITUTE THE FUNDA- 
MENTAL TEACHING WHICH WAS FOLLOWED BY ALL RULERS 
IN NEW COUNTRIES. 

CUBA, THE LAST NATION OF AMERICA TO CEASE TO BE A 
COLONY, HAS FELT THE INFLUENCE OF THE GREAT AMERI- 
CAN, AS SHE COULD FEEL THAT OF ONE OF HER MOST ILLUS- 
TRIOUS SONS. HIS GRANDEUR SERVED AS AN EXAMPLE TO 
OUR HEROES, HIS HIGH STANDARDS OF MORALITY TO OUR 
GOVERNORS, AND ALL HIS ACTS INSPIRED THE BEST ACTIONS 
OF OUR PEOPLE. 

ON THIS DAY, THE 14TH OF APRIL, WHICH HAS BEEN CON- 
SECRATED TO PAN AMERICANISM, PERMIT ME IN THE NAME 
OF THE PEOPLE AND OF THE GOVERNMENT OF CUBA TO 
UNITE WITH ALL THE OTHER PEOPLES AND GOVERNMENTS 
OF THE AMERICAS IN RENDERING OUR HOMAGE OF ADMIRA- 
TION AND RESPECT TO THE WARRIOR, THE GOVERNOR, AND 
THE CITIZEN, THREE TIMES GREAT, WHO WAS BORN TWO 
CENTURIES AGO FOR THE GOOD OF THE UNITED STATES, FOR 
THE HONOR OF THE NEW CONTINENT, AND FOR THE GLORY 
OF THE WORLD. 

GERARDO MACHADO, 
PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC. 




GEORGE WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL CEREMONY BEFORE THE FAMOUS STATUE OF WASHINGTON IN 
PARIS, FEBRUARY 22, 1932. The Paris Post of the American Legion and other patriotic organizations in Paris 
joined in this impressive ceremony in the place d'lena at noon on the two hundredth anniversary of the blrth 

of the First President of the United States. 



48 



France 




)RANCE participated in the worldwide 
observance of the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George 
Washington in a series of impressive 
celebrations which extended with unabated en- 
thusiasm over a period of two years and were un- 
paralleled in the history of Franco-American re- 
lations. 

French statesmen, scholars, artists, writers, 
clergymen, military leaders and private citizens 
joined on many notable occasions in expressing 
their admiration for George Washington, his 
American contemporaries and the ideals for which 
they stood. American residents and official repre- 
sentatives of the American Government in France 
witnessed this remarkable tribute to the memory 
of the First President of the United States with 
that gratitude which had its origin in the days 
when Lafayette, Rochambeau, De Grasse and other 
gallant Frenchmen aided the struggling American 
Colonies to win their independence. 

His Excellency, M. Paul Doumer, martyr Presi- 
dent of the French Republic, took the lead in pay- 
ing tribute on behalf of the French nation and 
the French people to the memory of George 
Washington on February 22, 1932. Standing be- 
neath an original Stuart portrait of George Wash- 
ington draped with the Stars and Stripes and the 
Tricolor, he addressed one of the most brilliant 
Franco-American assemblages ever convened in 
Paris, while an international audience on both sides 
of the Atlantic heard his words broadcast by radio. 
In the following tribute President Doumer of- 
ficially identified his nation with the world-wide 
George Washington Bicentennial Celebration: 

On this day when beyond the ocean the United States of 
America are commemorating the ever-living personality of 
that great citizen, Washington, I am happy to associate the 
unanimous French nation with this patriotic and fervent 
homage. 

George Washington holds a great place in the history of 
the world. In our eyes he symbolizes the noble and generous 
aspirations that are common to our two peoples and which 
carry them forward towards an ever more elevated, more 
human ideal of civilization, through justice and through 
liberty. 



That the sentiment thus expressed was sustained 
throughout the period of the celebration is evinced 
by the following official communication from the 
Government of France to the Government of the 
United States on Thanksgiving Day, November 24, 
1932, transmitted by M. Paul Claudel, French 
Ambassador in Washington, to the Secretary of 
State: 

At the moment when the cycle of ceremonies commemorat- 
ing the Bicentennial anniversary of the birth of George 
Washington is ending with a solemn act, the French Govern- 
ment greatly desires to assure the American Government of 
the sentiments of cordial friendship with which the whole 
French people join in the homage rendered to the great man. 

The celebrations of this year, following upon the ceremonies 
commemorative of the siege of Yorktown, have contributed 
to drawing closer the bonds existing between two peoples who 
have always defended shoulder to shoulder the same ideal of 
liberty and peace. 

Concerning France's participation in the bicen- 
tennial celebration, the United States Ambassador 
to France, Walter E. Edge, made this comment in 
a dispatch of February 23, 1932, to the Secretary 
of State at Washington: 

I have the honor to report that the Bicentenary of the 
birth of Washington was celebrated in Paris in a manner 
which could hardly be surpassed in a foreign country. Amer- 
icans and French alike united in a common and spontaneous 
homage to the First President which made it clear that no 
matter what temporary problems may exist between the two 
countries, Washington and the republican idealism which he 
symbolizes is universally revered. Through the personal 
attendance at the ceremonies of the President of France, 
French marshals and other high officials, a tribute was rendered 
which has hardly been equalled since the death of Washington, 
when ten days of national mourning were decreed by the 
Government. . . . 

The commemoration in France of George Washington's 
birth cannot but have fully met the desires of Congress in 
its project for celebration abroad. 

Such quotations as the above echo the theme of 
the bicentennial in France. The further cement- 
ing of amicable French-American relations was the 
inspiration of every celebration. 

Movement is Spontaneous 

The new YORK herald, of Paris, in an editorial 
of February 22, 1932, among other pertinent 



49 



50 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



things, stated: "The most significant portion of the 
bicentennial is the spontaneous and unanimous en- 
thusiasm with which the whole American nation, 
whether at home or abroad, has seized upon the 
occasion to re-examine and appraise the noble 
figure which is imperishably associated with the 
gaining of our national independence and the for- 
mation of our government." 

An examination of all the records dealing with 
the Bicentennial Celebration in France reveals the 
equally "significant" fact that not only Americans 
abroad but the French people themselves "seized 
upon the occasion to re-examine" the relations 
which exist between France and the United States. 

The celebration in France was not centralized in 
Paris, but was widespread in effect and in activity. 
Citizens of the United States resident in Nice, 
Monte Carlo, Cannes, Strasbourg, Lyon, Bordeaux, 
Calais, Nantes and other French cities, supported 
by enthusiastic Frenchmen, gathered together on 
Washington's Birthday, Flag Day, Independence 
Day, Thanksgiving Day and the birthdays of 
French and American heroes, to pay honor to 
George Washington and his patriot contempora- 
ries. Geographically speaking, it might be said that 
the spirit of George Washington pervaded all of 
France. 

The interest of the French people was greatly 
stimulated by the fact that France remembers, and 
"shall always remember," her own heroes of the 
American Revolution — Lafayette, Rochambeau, 
De Grasse, Chastellux, De Noailles, and the other 
French patriots who came to the aid of America 
in its hour of need. 

Then, too, as was apparent on more than one 
occasion during the Bicentennial Celebrations in 
France, there was a deep feeling of gratitude, par- 
ticularly among the higher officials, for America's 
aid in 1917 and 1918. 

To further identify the French Government 
with the Bicentennial Celebration a George Wash- 
ington medal by Lucien Bazor was struck. United 
States Ambassador Edge in a letter to the Secretary 
of State, referred to this medal as follows: 

I have the honor to state . . . that a medal engraved by 
M. Bazor, commemorative of the Two Hundredth Anniversary 
of Washington's birth, has been struck by the French Mint. 
This medal, which bears the portrait of Washington on one 
face with the inscription — George Washington — 1732-1799 
— and on the reverse a replica of Mount Vernon, may be 
obtained at the Mint. 



Cooperating Organizations 

American organizations in France took a lead- 
ing part in the bicentennial events. Those offici- 
ally pledging themselves to cooperate were: The 
American Chamber of Commerce in France, the 
American Club, the American Aid Society, the 
American Legion, American Women's Club, Asso- 
ciation of American Volunteers with the French 
Army, Daughters of the American Revolution, 
Order of the Cincinnati, Sons of the American 
Revolution, American Navy League, American 
Overseas Memorial Day Association, Military 
Order of Foreign Wars of the United States, Mili- 
tary Order of the World War, National Aeronautic 
Association of the United States, Veterans of For- 
eign Wars, and the American Hospital of Paris. 

Bicentennial participation in the nature of ban- 
quets, balls, placing of wreaths on the tombs and 
monuments of French and American heroes, offi- 
cial and governmental functions, meetings of 
women's organizations, speeches, and historical 
plays and pageants was encouraged and entered 
into by these groups. 

During a visit to Europe in 1930 for the pur- 
pose of perfecting the organization of special com- 
mittees in European countries for the furtherance 
of bicentennial plans, Honorable Sol Bloom, Di- 
rector of the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission, in an interview pub- 
lished in the new york herald, of Paris, on 
August 8, 1930, said: 

It is unthinkable that this celebration should be held with- 
out the aid of France. Practically half of General Washing- 
ton's victorious army at the Battle of Yorktown was composed 
of trained and gallant French troops under the command of 
the Comte de Rochambeau. 

The young Marquis de Lafayette, a volunteer officer who 
looked upon General Washington as his foster father as well 
as his Commander-in-Chief, commanded the light infantry 
division of the American troops with the rank of Major 
General. He was given that rank by Congress when he was 
only twenty years old, and this position was next to that 
of Washington himself. 

We Americans never forget that another Frenchman, not 
so frequently mentioned in history, the Comte de Grasse, 
Admiral of the French fleet in the West Indies, brought that 
squadron into Chesapeake Bay and surrounded Yorktown on 
the water side. This prevented the escape of our opponents 
and assured beyond question the victory that ended the war in 
favor of the United States. 

Colonel William N. Taylor, then president of 
the American Chamber of Commerce in France, 
was made chairman of the George Washington Bi- 
centennial Committee of Paris. Under his direc- 



Foreign Participation — France 



51 



tion, with the full cooperation of Ambassador 
Edge and his associates in the American Embassy 
and the enthusiastic support of the above-men- 
tioned organizations, the bicentennial celebration in 
France went forward. 

Celebration Begins In 1931 

Although the celebration did not open officially 
until February 22, 1932, there were many func- 
tions in honor of George Washington in France 
during 1931. As early as 1930 and throughout 
1931 a great deal of publicity regarding the bicen- 
tennial appeared in the French and American press 
in France. Some of this was stimulated by the 
participation of the United States in the French 
International Colonial and Overseas Exposition at 
Paris in 1931, for which the American Government 
erected a full-sized reproduction of Mount Ver- 
non. 

The approaching bicentennial was also heralded 
by the activities of various French organizations, 
notably a company of prominent French and 
American dramatic and musical celebrities who 
produced a colonial pageant at the Theatre des 
Champs Elysees. French and American scholars 
were also evidencing considerable interest in the 
historic anniversary year that was approaching by 
renewing their research into French archives of the 
18 th century. 

Such then, in brief, were the activities in France 
in anticipation of the bicentennial celebration, and 
it was upon this foundation of genuine interest in 
the great American hero that there were conceived 
and carried out the splendid commemorations of 
his birth that occurred throughout France and 
especially in the city of Paris during 1932. 

Events In Paris 

Paris, summoning all of her Old World tradi- 
tions, culture and pride, and her New World ideals, 
democracy and patriotism, commemorated the 
Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of 
George Washington in a manner that added glory 
to the name of France in the eyes of America. 
Through the national and municipal governments, 
schools, civic, military and religious bodies, and 
with the enthusiastic support of many American 
organizations, Paris expressed her friendship for the 
United States in a series of events that began prior 



to 1932 and extended through the termination of 
the bicentennial period, November 24, 1932. 

Thorough organization of all forces and agen- 
cies made the bicentennial in Paris outstanding. 
On October 26, 1931, a communication went for- 
ward from the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission in Washington, D. C, to 
Colonel Taylor, from which the following excerpt 
is taken: 

We feel that during the celebration next year in France all 
the organizations in Paris will be able to pay due honor to the 
memory of General Washington in a way that will bring to 
the attention of the world the great principles of liberty and 
orderly government for which the name of Washington 
stands. The close association of Washington with Lafayette, 
Rochambeau, and other Frenchmen makes the celebration in 
that country especially appropriate. 

This letter asked Colonel Taylor to enlist the co- 
operation of the various American groups for the 
purpose of formulating plans for appropriate bi- 
centennial activity in France. 

Colonel Taylor in a letter of January 12, 1932, 
accepted this important responsibility and com- 
municated the information to the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission that 
a meeting for the purpose of organizing the bicen- 
tennial celebration in France was held at the 
American Chamber of Commerce in Paris on De- 
cember 29, 1931, which the leaders of all of the 
organizations mentioned heretofore in this report 
were invited to attend. 

To give the greatest possible impetus to the bi- 
centennial movement a general committee com- 
posed of the presidents of these organizations was 
formed. The American Ambassador, Hon. Walter 
E. Edge, accepted the honorary chairmanship of 
this committee, which at the outset adopted the 
following resolution: 

Whereas, the Congress of the United States has created a 
Commission to arrange a fitting nation-wide observance of 
the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George 
Washington in 193 2, and 

Whereas, the Commission so created, composed of the 
President of the United States, the Vice-President of the 
United States, the Speaker of the House of Representatives, 
four members of the United States Senate, four members of 
the House of Representatives, and eight citizens appointed 
by the President of the United States, is charged with the 
duty of planning and directing the celebration, and 

Whereas, the high purpose of the event is to commemorate 
the life, character and achievements of the most illustrious 
citizen of our Republic and to give every man, woman and 
child living under the Stars and Stripes an opportunity to take 
part in the celebration which will be outstanding in the 
world's history, and 

Whereas, the George Washington Bicentennial Commission, 



52 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 




COMTESSE DE CHILLY SPEAKING AT GEORGE WASHINGTON CELEBRATION IN PARIS. The Comtesse, who is 
Regent of the Benjamin Franklin Chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution, is shown addressing 

ONE OF THE NUMEROUS BICENTENNIAL GATHERINGS AT THE WASHINGTON MONUMENT IN THE PLACE d'IeNA. In the fore- 
ground of the picture from left to right are General Gouraud, Military Governor of Paris; M. Renard, Prefect of the Seine; 
M. Achille Fould, Under Secretary of State for National Defense, and Norman Armour, American Charge d'Affaires. 



desiring the full co-operation of the people of the United 
States has extended a cordial and urgent invitation to our 
organizations to participate in the celebration, therefore, be it 

Resolved, that the Organized American Associations in 
France do hereby endorse the program of observance of the 
Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Wash- 
ington, to take place in 1932; accept with appreciation the 
invitation of the George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion, and pledge themselves to extend earnest co-operation to 
the United States Commission in all possible ways, so that 
future generations of American citizens may be inspired to 
live according to the example and precepts of Washington's 
exalted life and character, and thus perpetuate the American 
Republic, and be it further 

Resolved, that this resolution be incorporated in the 
official proceedings of this meeting and that a copy thereof 
be transmitted to the George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission, Washington, D. C. 

Program of Events 

Many program outlines of the bicentennial 
activities in Paris appeared in the newspapers of 
Paris. A complete schedule of events is contained 
in dispatches from the American Embassy to the 
Secretary of State and to the United States George 



Washington Bicentennial Commission, from which 
is taken the program below: 



February 20: 
10:00 P. M. 

February 21: 
10:00 A. M. 

10:30 A. M.- 

10:45 A. M, 

11:00 A. M, 

12:00 M. 

1:00 P. M. 

9:30 P. M.- 



Fcbritary 22: 
10:00 A. M. 



-Washington Birthday ball at the Fondation 
des Etats-Unis, Cite Universitaire. 

-American Legion services at Lafayette statue 
in the courtyard of the Louvre. 

-American Legion lays wreath at former home 
of Rochambeau. 

-Special services at the American Cathedral 
Church of Paris. 

-American Legion services at the statue of 
Admiral de Grasse at the Trocadero. 

-American Legion ceremony at the Washing- 
ton Monument Place d'lena. 

-Banquet given by the Societe de Croix de 
Guerre at the Cercle Militaire. 

-Ceremony under the auspices of the Universite 
de Paris and the Comite France-Amerique at 
the Sorbonne under the presidency of M. 
Rollin, Minister of Commerce. 

-American Embassy services at the Washington 
monument. 



Foreign Participation — France 



53 



■/ 





By courtesy of the European Edition of the New York Heralil Tribune 

LAFAYETTE REMEMBERED ON WASHINGTON ANNI- 
VERSARY. The American Legion and French Vet- 
erans Hold a George Washington Bicentennial Cere- 
mony BEFORE THE STATUE OF THE GREAT FRENCHMAN 
WHO AIDED THE UNITED STATES TO WIN ITS INDEPENDENCE. 



10:30 A. M. — Veterans of Foreign Wars ceremony at Wash- 
ington monument. 

10:45 A. M. — Veterans of Foreign Wars services at Lafayette 
tomb in Picpus Cemetery. 

12:30 P. M. — Luncheon at American Women's Club. 
1:00 P. M. — Annual luncheon at American Embassy in 
honor of the Chiefs of Mission of the embas- 
sies and legations of the American Republics 
and Canada. 
4:30 P. M. — Reception at the American Women's Center. 
7:30 P. M. — Banquet at the Hotel du Palais d'Orsay under 
the auspices of the American Club in collabo- 
ration with the Association Amicale des 
Anciens Officiers de Liaison pres l'Armee 
Americaine and the Military Order of Foreign 
Wars. 

The Chicago daily tribune, European edition, 
said regarding the exercises of February 21 in 
France: "The first half of the crowded and prelimi- 
nary celebration of the Washington Bicentennial 
here was accomplished and was featured by the 
closest cooperation of French officials and the 
American colony since the American Legion con- 
vention in 1927." 



American Legion Inaugurates Celebration 

It was the American Legion that officially in- 
augurated the celebration by the laying of a floral 
offering at the monument to Lafayette in the Cour 
du Carrousel, Louvre, at 10:00 o'clock Sunday 
morning, February 21. Leaving Pershing Hall at 
9:30, the Color Guard and the members of the Post 
Auxiliary and the Forty and Eight proceeded to the 
statue of Lafayette. Representatives of French 
veteran societies were awaiting them there with 
flags, as well as a crowd of more than five hundred 
people. In the name of the American Legion and 
its Auxiliary, Henry W. Dunning, commander of 
the Paris Post, laid the first wreath. This impres- 
sive ceremony was marked with a spirit of solem- 
nity that pervaded the whole proceedings. 

The French veterans were then invited to join 
the Legionnaires and proceed to the former home 
of Rochambeau in the Rue du Cherche-Midi. 
From the balcony of this historic dwelling Mr. 
S. T. Bailey, local chief of the Forty and Eight, 
hung the second wreath and made a short memorial 
address, eulogizing Rochambeau, which was tranS- 




Bjy courtesy of the European Edition of the New York Herald Tribune. 

CEREMONY AT ROCHAMBEAU RESIDENCE. George 

Washington's memory was honored at the former 

Paris home of the General who commanded the 

French allies in the War of Independence. 



54 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



lated by Mrs. Donald R. MacAffe, president of the 
Legion Auxiliary. From the home of Rochambeau 
the Legionnaires proceeded to the Benjamin Frank- 
lin statue in the Place du Trocadero where Mrs. 
MacAffe placed a bouquet and delivered a short 
address in French in the name of the American 
Legion Auxiliary, honoring "this great American 
to whom the credit must go for allying France with 
the colonies in the Revolution." The speech was 
translated into English by Mrs. Sedley Peck. 

At the appointed hour of 11:00 o'clock, the 
American Legion contingent reached the statue of 
Admiral De Grasse on the Avenue du President 
Wilson, and here Mrs. Sanva Seymour placed the 
flowers in the name of the Forty and Eight. The 
Daughters of the American Revolution were rep- 
resented at this ceremony by the Comtesse de 
Chilly, who spoke as leader of her organization. 

The wreath-laying ceremonies, which took the 
Legionnaires and the Auxiliary units, the French 
veterans, the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, and other organizations to the four different 
historic monuments mentioned above, culminated 



in the ceremony at the Washington Monument in 
the Place d'lena at high noon. As befitted the 
occasion, the largest gathering of the series was 
grouped around this splendid equestrian monu- 
ment of the one in whose honor the day was set 
apart. 

Among the notables assembled at the base of this 
statue were: Norman Armour, Charge d'Aff aires 
ad interim of the American Embassy; General 
Stanley H. Ford, American Military Attache; 
Charles C. Loeb, president of the American Cham- 
ber of Commerce in France; James Donoghue, of 
the American Club of Paris; Charles Beaumont, 
commander of the Benjamin Franklin Post of the 
Veterans of Foreign Wars; and Commander Sedley 
Peck of the Department of France of the Ameri- 
can Legion. 

Upon Commander Peck was conferred the honor 
of placing the wreath at the Washington statue. 
the Chicago daily tribune, European edition, of 
February 22, 1932, commented on this series of 
wreath-laying ceremonies by saying that "with the 
hearty cooperation of French officials and veterans 




GEORGE WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL PROGRAM AT THE STATUE OF DE GRASSE IN PARIS. 



Foreign Participation — France 



55 




By courtesy of the European Edition of the New York Herald Tribune. 

BICENTENNIAL CEREMONY BEFORE STATUE OF 
BENJAMIN FRANKLIN. Americans and Frenchmen 

JOIN IN HONORING THE MEMORY OF GEORGE WASHINGTON 
AND HIS FRIEND AND FELLOW PATRIOT IN PARIS. 



and representatives of other local American organi- 
zations, the Paris societies and the American Legion 
and its Auxiliary carried out its share of the Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Celebration with telling suc- 
cess. 

The activities of the American Legion culmi- 
nated during the afternoon with an "open house" 
to all veterans and their families at Pershing Hall, 
the American Legion headquarters in Paris, which 
was characterized by the Chicago tribune as "the 
scene of a lively activity with hundreds of veterans 
and their families, including many French coming 
to visit the ex-service exhibition and dance in the 
illustrious memorial room, or fraternize at the bar." 

At 5:30 Admiral Guepratte performed the im- 
pressive ceremony of decorating Commander Peck 
with the insignia of the Legion of Honor. He used 
the sword of Mrs. Peck's father in giving the acco- 
lade and praised Commander Peck's volunteer ser- 
vice with the French Near-East Army in 1916 and 
1917 and his subsequent work in furthering accord 



between the French and American veterans, for 
which he was inducted into the Legion of Honor. 

Others attending this ceremony included Gen- 
eral Niessel, General Mariaux, governor of the 
Invalides, and many outstanding figures of the 
American colony in Paris. 

The American Legion was also represented by 
its commander at the banquet at 1:00 p. m. on 
Sunday, February 21, 1932, given by the Societe 
de Croix de Guerre at the Cercle Militaire. By 
happy coincidence the first annual banquet of this 
famous organization was scheduled for that date 
and in honor of George Washington a goodly part 
of the banquet program was devoted to the theme 
of the Bicentennial Year. Admiral Guepratte pre- 
sided and the honored guests were Commander and 
Mrs. Peck, and Henry W. Dunning. Charles 
Beaumont, of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, and 
Frank P. Lahm, Air Attache of the American Em- 
bassy in Paris, represented the United States. In 
speeches following the banquet, Admiral Guepratte 
and General Niessel, members of the Superior War 
Council, paid homage to the memory of Wash- 
ington. 

Services In Paris Churches 

The churches of Paris honored the memory of 
Washington on Sunday, February 21. At the 
American Cathedral Church of the Holy Trinity, 
Rev. Francis W. Beekman sharply denounced the 
recent biographers of George Washington "who 
seek to tarnish pure gold on the pretext of fidelity 
to truth by regard for cheap sensationalism." 

"Today and tomorrow, wherever Americans are 
gathered," Dean Beekman averred, "Washington 
will be honored. Many think of the great leader as 
a man, others as a soldier, and still others as a states- 
man, but we shall think of him in relation to the 
church. 

"George Washington was neither a saint nor a 
sinner, but a strong, self-respecting, Christian 
gentleman. Baptized in the Christian church, he 
was taught not only from the Bible, but also from 
the prayerbook. In the early days when he was 
besieged at Fort Necessity, he drew up the soldiers 
in formation every day and read the service from 
the prayerbook." 

The dean then traced Washington's career 
through the Revolutionary War when he gave his 
first general orders enjoining attendance at divine 



56 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



service, and when the freezing, discouraging days 
of Valley Forge found him still relying on prayer 
for aid and comfort. Then, too, in his Farewell 
Address, Washington emphasized the personal and 
national dependence on God, the dean pointed out. 

"When I was in New York last summer," con- 
tinued Dean Beekman, "I went into St. Paul's 
Chapel, on Lower Broadway, and saw Washing- 
ton's square pew with the great seal of the United 
States on the wall above it. I pictured him after 
he had taken the oath of office as the new country's 
first President leading the whole assembly of 
notables on foot to that chapel. Would that the 
heads of all governments were men of like faith and 
like spirit!" 

This service was attended by a throng of 
French and American churchgoers and was given 
an official atmosphere by the presence of members 
from the American diplomatic staff, including Mr. 
Normon Armour, Charge d'Affaires ad interim; 
Secretaries Harold M. Williamson and Alan Rogers, 



Brigadier General Stanley H. Ford, Military 
Attache, and Consul General Leo J. Kenna. 

At the American Church of Paris on the Quai 
d'Orsay, three Washington services were held dur- 
ing the day. At the Sunday school session in the 
morning, Mrs. Henri C. Bohle and John Pollock 
conducted a children's program which was built 
around the theme of George Washington. A 
pageant in which George and Martha Washington 
were the principal characters and in which the boy 
and girl scouts of the church participated was 
viewed with delight by the large Sunday school 
audience. 

At the regular church services at 10:45 a. m., 
Dr. Joseph Wilson Cochran, pastor of the church, 
delivered a sermon on "George Washington, the 
Christian." He introduced his discourse with the 
text: "The righteous shall be in everlasting remem- 
brance." He said in part: 

One hundred years ago tomorrow night in the City of 
Washington a distinguished gathering was listening to the 










By courtesy of the European Edition of the New York Herald Tribune. 



AMERICANS MARCHING THROUGH STREETS OF PARIS TO THE STATUE OF GEORGE WASHINGTON 

ON FEBRUARY 22, 1932. In the procession are members of the American Legion, Paris Post; the 

American Diplomatic Corps and the Veterans of Foreign Wars. 



Foreign Participation — France 



57 



impassioned eloquence of America's greatest orator — Daniel 
Webster. It was the climax of the celebration of the Cen- 
tenary of the birth of George Washington. Webster's con- 
cluding sentence framed a prophecy now aptly fulfilled. His 
eyes rested in far vision upon this very event which we with 
all our fellow countrymen throughout the world are entering 
— the Bicentenary of Washington. 

These are his remarkable words: 

A hundred years hence, other disciples of Washington will 
celebrate his birth with no less of sincere admiration than we 
now commemorate it. When they shall meet, as we now 
meet, to do themselves and him that honor, so surely as they 
shall see the blue summits of his native mountains rise in the 
horizon, so surely as they shall behold the river on whose 
banks he lived, and on whose banks he rests, still flowing on 
toward the sea, so surely may they see, as we now see, the 
flag of the Union floating on the top of the Capitol; and then, 
as now, may the sun in his course visit no land more free, 
more happy, more lovely than this our own country. 

Dr. Cochran concluded his sermon by quoting 
extracts from Emerson, Lord Erskine, and Charles 
James Fox, citing the respect and honor with 
which they regarded General Washington. 

In the evening at 8:40 o'clock in the American 
Church the Students Atelier Reunion celebrated 
the bicentenary by singing French and American 
patriotic songs and listening to a Washington ad- 
dress especially prepared for the meeting by the 
Rev. Clayton E. Williams, student director. 
French, British and American citizens attended this 
meeting en masse and by their enthusiasm gave 
evidence of the admiration of the people of the 
three nations for George Washington. 

Ceremony at the Sorbonne 

The bicentennial events of February 21 were 
climaxed by a ceremony beginning at 9:30 p. m. at 
the Sorbonne under the auspices of the Universite 
de Paris and the Comite-Amerique. Ambassador 
Edge, in an official communication to the Depart- 
ment of State, referred to this ceremony as "the 
principal French contribution to the memory of 
Washington." 

Scholars, artists, statesmen, military leaders, 
students and laymen made the great amphitheater 
of the Sorbonne resound with "encores" when the 
name of Washington was mentioned. This cele- 
bration seems all the more significant when viewed 
in the light of the comment made in the February 
22 edition of the new york herald, of Paris, that 
"this tribute came from a nation momentarily in 
the throes of political problems such as Washing- 
ton often had to meet." 

The President of the French Republic, His Ex- 



cellency, M. Paul Doumer, and Premier Tardieu 
were prevented from attending because of the gov- 
ernmental situation in France, but were repre- 
sented by M. Louis Rollin, Minister of Commerce, 
and Colonel Le Bigot, the former presiding at the 
event. An augmented orchestra brought the audi- 
ence to its feet time and again with the strains of 
the French and American National Anthems. 

The speakers and guests of honor, who included 
virtually the entire staffs of the American Embassy 
and Consulate, and the representatives of leading 
American organizations in Paris, were seated in the 
long rows of the estrade, facing the great hall. 
The uniforms and decorations, the capes of the 
academicians, the bright gowns of notables' wives 
blended in a colorful picture. 

In the absence of M. Charlety, rector of the uni- 
versity, Dr. Charles Cestre, professor of American 
literature and civilization in the Faculty of Letters, 
presented the university's message as a "simple note 
in the immense concert of universal applause." 
The speaker affirmed that he saw in George Wash- 
ington the strong character, the honest spirit, the 
calm intelligence of the general and the president, 
who worked in peace and in war to raise up the edi- 
fice of the American Republic. A translation of 
Dr. Cestre's speech follows in full: 

The United States has the privilege of possessing George 
Washington, a national hero who is not too far off in time 
to be known and understood as an ancestor of yesterday, and 
who is not too far above human stature to be revered and 
loved as one would a grandparent held intimately in one's 
memory. He is not enthroned in a Valhalla bastioned with 
lightning; he is not surrounded by an aureole of mystery; 
he is not dressed in the splendor of legend. He is a man great 
through qualities and virtues that the masses can understand, 
though far beyond their reach. The obstacles and tests which 
dishearten common mortals aroused him to action at the 
moment in the history of his country when burning patriot- 
ism and prophetic vision — fuel for his valor — were united 
with a composure, a moral vigor and a calm unshaken by the 
assaults of adversity. There is no need to gild his glory with 
the borrowed worth with which the naive inventions of the 
sanctimonious Parson Weems clothed him at the end of the 
Puritan era. The American of today wishes to see the true 
face of George Washington: a man not infallible, but whose 
faults are submerged in supreme qualities at the sign of 
danger; a man liable to prejudice, but whose firm convictions 
became a rock of safety in the storm; a man of one age, of 
one class and one society, who yielded his personal ideas and 
aspirations to the commands of duty and the call of the 
future. 

We who are voicing on behalf of the University of Paris, a 
simple note in the immense concert of acclamation which 
tonight is raised all over the civilized world, like, above all, 
to behold in George Washington the strong character, the 
honest spirit, the calm intelligence of the general and Presi- 
dent who twice, in war and in peace, constructed, to last 



J! 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



through the centuries, the enduring and majestic edifice of the 
American Republic. 

Of great men of history, George Washington was least of 
all the favorite of destiny. If, at the end of his life, he knew 
triumph, it is because he snatched it from fate by the force 
of his will. Admirable for the breadth of his intelligence and 
the nobility of his conscience, he was not endowed with the 
brilliant qualities which make heroes shine. His genius did 
not spring into being full-fledged with one thrust of the wing, 
one lightning flight: he rose without prowess, in one continued 
ascent to the summit. 

An English aristocrat in a far-off land, he submitted at 
first to the disdain of the British. A gentleman landowner, 
he found himself handicapped in the management of his 
domain, by the fiscal laws of England. A free citizen, he 
felt himself injured by the tyrannic pretentions of the London 
Parliament. Indignation nourished revolt in him. He yielded 
to it with regret. That which sustained him in the struggle 
was his faith in his own country. 

Commander in Chief of the insurgent nation, he had an 
intuition of the splendid future reserved for America. The 
nation did not yet exist: he created it. Congress agitated 
itself in vain discussions; the states, jealous of each other, 
quarreled among themselves; the people rebelled aganst mili- 
tary duty. Washington fortified himself against the chaos. 
With inflexible resolution, during seven years, he rolled his 
stone of Sisyphus, which continually fell back upon him. The 
powerful aid of France permitted him at last to repulse the 
invader. 

He would have desired, as he wrote to Lafayette, to end 
his days in the shadow of his vine and fig tree. Necessity 
constrained him to become a man of state. The greatest need 
of the hour was order. Aristocrat born, he organized the gov- 
ernment of the masses. Patrician in temperament and con- 
viction, he gave an example, at the head of the state, of a 
strong personality. But he renounced as an insult the offer 
of a dictatorship. 

He retired from power, this republican patriot, content in 
the knowledge that he had merited the good wishes of the 
nation. During the last two years of his life he became in 
the eyes of his citizens the symbolic image of patriotism. 
He rejoiced in the peace of a wise man, conqueror of destiny; 
conscious of never having commanded except to serve. 

We bow before this hero — by the right of history, the 
Father of the American Nation; by the right of moral great- 
ness, one of the glories of humanity. 

Washington Eulogized 

In the words of the new york herald, of Paris, 
"the career which Dr. Cestre etched with a few 
incisive lines was painted on a large and brilliant 
canvas" in the official eulogy of Washington by 
M. Firmin Roz, representing the United States 
division of the Comite France-Amerique, who 
summed up his estimate of Washington in these 
words: "George Washington was the father of his 
country because he was first, to an exceptional 
degree, the son of his country." The complete 
text of M. Roz's eulogy follows: 

"A man is found ..." 

Is one not tempted to borrow this famous phrase in order 
to apply it to the hero whom we commemorate this evening? 
There is not, perhaps, another man in history to whom it 
better applies. 



When the thirteen English colonies in America were forced 
to separate themselves from the mother country — to establish 
thus, a new nation whose progress in a century and a half has 
not only astonished a world but has changed the face of it — 
a man also was found who truly appears, from the place where 
we can today, in this second century since his birth, consider 
his role and his deeds, as the very epitome of the predestined 
hero. The secret of his genius lies perhaps in the exceptional 
and almost miraculous accord between the character of the 
man and the circumstances of his time. Character and cir- 
cumstances had a common origin, sprang from the same 
source, issued from the same historic course of events. 
George Washington was the father of his country, because he 
was first, to an exceptional degree, the son of his country. 
Everything occurred as though the country had prepared him 
to be the instrument of the metamorphosis which was to make 
it a nation, and what strikes us most today, in the deeds of this 
incomparable man, is the marvelous relation between all that 
served in the preparation and all that was accomplished. 

Let us look at the preparation. 

The man who most definitely helped to create a common 
consciousness in the American people and to found upon this 
consciousness a lasting government, was born in Virginia, 
the oldest of the thirteen colonies — the "Old Dominion" as 
it was called with affectionate respect. He belonged to that 
aristocracy of land owners which the conditions of the times 
and place had made the directing class impregnated with a 
sense of its rights and privileges although with public spirit 
as well, and famous for furnishing to the community leaders 
capable of defending, and worthy of directing it. Of this 
class Washington was the most eminent and the most illus- 
trious representative, because all of these traits were assembled 
in him to a high degree, and if one may say it, ingrained by 
the circumstances of his own life, which helped to develop 
and accentuate them to bring forth all the qualities of the 
man, gentleman and leader. 

Being bereft of his father at the age of eleven and a younger 
son of the family, he was not sent, as were many of his class 
and his two elder brothers, to England to finish his schooling, 
but remained in his native Virginia, occupying himself from 
the age of sixteen years in- assuring his personal independence. 
He entered the service of his neighbors, the Fairfaxes, the first 
family of the aristocracy of the province, surveying their 
lands in the west, and thus coming into contact with that 
region from which was to come, to the colonists on the coast, 
the call of a continent. He was thus as strongly rooted as 
possible in the soil of America when the death of his elder 
brother, who left him Mount Vernon and its responsibili- 
ties, changed his situation. He became the administrator of 
a large estate, responsible for old and young, and adjutant 
general of the militia of his district. He was twenty years 
old. Heredity, complemented by circumstances, had made 
him a gentleman. Life was charged with making a man; it 
was also going to make that man a leader. 

The gentleman prepared for the soldier, the leader. From 
the very first he showed the qualities and virtues which were 
to characterize his entire career: an astonishing endurance to 
fatigue, a bravery unequalled in battle, an unwavering firm- 
ness in a crisis. The colonial wars were waged in regions 
covered with forests, without roads, where the troops never 
advanced without having to clear the way, where the adver- 
sary was often invisible and, therefore, all the more dangerous, 
especially when the adversaries were Indians, used to hiding 
themselves and adept in all ruses. 

When Washington carried out his first mission, he had to 
journey in the dead of winter eight hundred kilometers 
through unbroken solitudes and his first two campaigns ended 
in reverses. Neither the confidence of the citizens nor their 
admiration were in the least diminished. "Our Colonel," 
wrote one of his companions-in-arms, "is an example of the 



Foreign Participation — France 



59 



power of the spirit in danger and fatigue and by his example, 
his endurance, he has conquered not only the respect but also 
the affection of officers and soldiers." His bravery above all 
impressed his troops most vividly. He seemed to them 
invulnerable. . . . 

An English colonist, he had fought for the mother country, 
but with a feeling of fighting for the colonies, for the free 
expansion of those communities which had organized their life 
in the western hemisphere on the shores of the Atlantic, and 
which, with an instinct keener than that of any of his fellow 
citizens, he envisioned a great future. In the service of Eng- 
land he had already shown himself an American leader. When, 
the crisis approaching, it seemed to these communities that 
they could not pursue the course of their destinies except in 
independence and that, for this independence, it would be 
necessary to conquer the armies of the mother country, 
Colonel Washington found himself the most widely known 
officer in America. He had been, for fifteen years, through 
marriage, the largest land owner in Virginia and by his atti- 
tude in the state House of Burgesses, one of the most respected 
among the representatives, one of the stoutest in sustaining 
the rights of the colonists against the pretentions of the 
British Parliament. 

Of the young Virginia leader, the Continental Congress 
naturally made a national leader; the colonel of militia of a 
province had now become, by choice of the delegates of all 
the provinces, General Washington, commander-in-chief of 
the Continental troops. 

His destiny was making him "first in war." And now 
comes the time of accomplishment. It was a good thing for 
all the country that such a man at such a time, was charged 
with directing the fight. The Revolution, directed by him, 
took on some of his nobility. It was not only that the calm- 
ness and dignity emanating from his person made itself felt 
when he took command of the army, but also a spiritual in- 
fluence. Without doubt the people whose acclamations at 
that moment assumed (according to the beautiful expression 
of an American historian) "the accent of a hymn", felt in 
him that force, superior to all other human greatnesses because 
it has something of the Divine — a directing power which 
works on human society as Creation did on chaos. To direct 
— that was the need and that was his first care. Order in 
the army is discipline. Washington disciplined his troops, 
worked unceasingly to equip them, renewed his efforts time 
and again to keep them under arms, for they were composed 
of volunteers and enlisted for a short time and he was per- 
petually seeing them dwindle under his eyes. Perhaps no 
leader was ever before confronted with so many great and 
recurring difficulties. Perhaps no leader knew better than 
he how to meet them; to make use of the means at his dis- 
posal; to make these go as far as possible; to accept the defects 
of his troops when he could not correct them; to make use 
of their qualities and their merits; to explain with untiring 
patience his difficulties and his needs to those who alone could 
help him surmount or satisfy them. No one has ever shown 
himself stronger and greater than he in adversity. It is that 
which explains to us today his final victory. 

Our ancestors, the men of the eighteenth century, saw in 
him, above all, a champion of liberty. Later, in the nineteenth 
century in proportion as the nation which he founded began 
to fill out the great frame formed for it by nature — one can 
admire even more the hero of national unity. Today what 
strikes us most of all is his strength in a crisis, his steadiness 
in trying days, his faculty of "holding on" and his determina- 
tion to hope, his faith in the future of the people whose 
fortunes, he realized, had been entrusted to him. 

After the capitulation of Yorktown on October 19, 1781, 
the young nation was far from seeing the end of its difficul- 
ties with the triumph of its armies. The Revolution, it is 
true, was over, but its accomplishment carried a more diffi- 



cult task than that of war. There was no national govern- 
ment. The thirteen colonies had adopted during the war a 
sort of Federal Constitution under the name of the Articles 
of Confederation and Perpetual Union but it was concerned 
principally with safe-guarding the autonomy of each group; 
there was no central executive power and the authority of the 
Constitutional Congress was but a shadow. The states alone 
could tax the country to pay the army; their thirteen govern- 
ments were the only civil authority, and this authority was 
so divided that it did not have enough force to be effective. 

It was again the inestimable good fortune of the American 
people that at such a critical moment Washington was there, 
that he kept command and continued to hold affairs in the 
strong reign of his will. The only effective symbol of author- 
ity and of law, he upheld the legal forms of government 
even when they were scarcely more than shadows. He did 
not use his power and his prestige except to enforce respect 
for laws. He infused into them thus the little reality which 
they had. He tried to uphold them when it would have been 
so easy for him (and someone dared to suggest it to him) to 
substitute himself for them. A magnificent example of self- 
control, of prudence and of wisdom! 

By this abnegation, by this high conception of civic duty, 
he who had been the first in war showed himself now first 
in peace. 

After such prolonged efforts and such hard trials, Wash- 
ington thought he would find freedom for himself again. He 
surrendered his command to Congress and delivered an admir- 
able discourse, simple and noble; then he retired to Mount 
Vernon without any other desire than to become again a 
simple Virginian on his estate, a good neighbor and a good 
citizen. Victory meant no more to him; he was content 
merely that the objective had been obtained. But the hero of 
independence was mistaken when he thought he could return 
to his former life. He was now the foremost personage in 
the country, the most famous perhaps of his time. He was 
obliged, in spite of himself, to play a new role in affairs. His 
own lands linked him inevitably to his country, as his trip 
into the West in the autumn of 1784 to visit his properties 
beyond the Alleghenies, proved. What the eyes of this great 
American now saw was the vision "of a world arising". A 
new perspective opened in his mind, at the same time that he 
foresaw the problems of government of a great nation and 
conceived the plan — or the dream — of an empire. 

At that moment, there did not exist even the possibility of 
a new state, of a young nation; there was no Constitution 
to make it live. So long as the thirteen states, jealous of each 
other, continued to show themselves incapable of united 
action, there would be nothing to resemble an American 
nation. The conference at Annapolis in 178 5 made an 
attempt to get together on the question to which Washington 
attached so much importance — that of the opening of the 
west by navigable streams. It succeeded only in revealing 
the necessity for a more general alliance and was followed 
by the conference at Philadelphia, which produced the new 
Constitution, and with it, the organization of a national 
government. 

Washington was elected, by unanimous vote, President of 
the convention. He accepted the office against his will and 
not without declaring openly the inquietude which his polit- 
ical inexperience caused him. We can understand today, 
infinitely better than he could himself, how much his presence 
and his influence meant to the stability of action and gravity 
in deliberation of that assembly, so uncertain, so divided and 
yet invested with such a great responsibility. He was among 
some remarkable men, more accustomed than he to discuss 
political principles and methods, but discussions were only a 
means to an end and the hero of independence, with only his 
prestige, stood out among all these others. Better still, he 



60 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



kept before them the idea of a goal, the imperious necessity 
of attaining that goal. 

It was realized by the Constitution of 1787, which still 
governs the United States. Again the country called to Wash- 
ington; to him alone could be confided the functions of 
President. "We cannot do without you, Sir, wrote the 
Governor of Maryland, and there are thousands who can 
explain to all except yourself why we cannot do without 
you." It took such appeals, repeated on all sides, to overcome 
his resistence and apprehensions. The vote of the electors 
was unanimous and Washington took up his new duties with 
courage. He had not been, up to now, a statesman, but if he 
did not have a trained outlook, he at least had a strong feeling 
of what the new government should be — strong enough to 
maintain international peace, and to make itself respected 
abroad; with powers limited to permit local government to 
exist in every part of the Union. The course of history has 
proved that the first President of the United States gave to 
the political life of his country the exact orientation that it 
needed. It was not always easy to maintain an equilibrium 
between the two divergent tendencies that disputed the right 
to rule; and a still greater difficulty came from abroad when 
the French Revolution placed at sword's point in old Europe 
beyond the seas the former adversaries of the young American 
nation and its former allies. Washington, who was re-elected 
for a second term, did not see how to escape mortal peril 
except by imposing neutrality at any price on the two factions 
which divided the country, and that is why, also, he insisted 
so strongly in his farewell message on the absolute necessity 
of this people, still weak and whose first steps were still 
uncertain, remaining apart from European complications. 

The terrific effort which he had put forth, the difficulties 
that he had encountered, the unjust criticism especially, this 
time made unshakeable his resolution to return to private life. 
But private life no longer sufficed for a public personage who 
had been lifted out of himself for such a long time and who 
had identified his existence with that of his country. The 
last two years of his life at Mount Vernon were saddened by 
a sort of melancholic nostalgia. It is expressed in his letters 
with a singularly moving accent, the more pitiable because 
he could not discern the real origin of his "malaise". Too big 
for a day by day existence, he was out of harmony with it. 
His letters show us that he was obsessed with the idea of his 
approaching end. Instinctively he felt that the hour was 
coming for him to leave the world where he had held such a 
great place, played such a great role, fulfilled such a great 
destiny. Death came suddenly, and he regarded it with the 
same calm, the same strength of soul with which he had 
regarded life. After an illness of two days, he died December 
14, 1799, master to his last breath of speech and action. 

One of the greatest figures of humanity, the greatest figure 
that America has yet precented to the world, entered into 
history, but not into the past, for death did not exhaust his 
creative power. To George Washington was given the great 
privilege of collaborating with the forces of the future; the 
incomparable fortune was given to him of being "first in war, 
first in peace, first in the hearts of his countrymen," and in 
their remembrance. Fortunate above all — when so many 
heroes can do no better than to devote themselves to a doubt- 
ful or lost cause — was he who presided, as did the gentleman 
of Mount Vernon, over the birth of a nation! Fortunate are 
those who realize the fruits of their mortal days in the certain 
glory of their immortality. 

Speaks in Name of French Government 
M. Rollin spoke next in the name of the French 
Government. He recalled the reasons why the 
name of Washington has always inspired sentiments 



of admiration and of gratitude. That which places 
Washington among the great, that which seems 
exceptional and rare in him, he declared, is his moral 
courage — "the elevation of his thoughts, the ab- 
sence of all personal ambition." 
M. Rollin continued: 

For instance, when he no longer thought that his con- 
tinuance as the head of the army was indispensable, he re- 
signed and he would not consent to enter into political life 
and to assume its highest functions until he was firmly con- 
vinced that he could render greater service than another in 
assuring the union of his country. 

The indignant refusal which he gave the proposition made 
in 1782 by his companions in arms that he organize a coup 
d'etat and make himself king, illustrates the lofty conception 
which he had of his duties. 

"Be assured, Sir," he wrote to Colonel Lewis Nicola, "no 
occurrence in the course of the war has given me more painful 
sensations, than your information of there being such ideas 
existing in the army, as you have expressed, and I must view 
with abhorrence and reprehend with severity ... I am much 
at a loss to conceive what part of my conduct could have 
given encouragement to an address, which to me seems big 
with the greatest mischiefs, than can befall my Country. If 
I am not deceived in the knowledge of myself, you could not 
have found a person to whom your schemes are more 
disagreeable." 

It is known that following this and in spite of his own 
disinclination he consented to become the First President of 
the Republic which he had founded. It is known also with 
what noble simplicity he retired to the shadow of his "vine 
and fig tree" far from the intrigues and the noise of the world. 

What were his relations with France? If at the beginning 
they were far from friendly, Washington came little by little 
to modify his first impressions. 

His correspondence with Rochambeau, d'Estaing, Chast- 
ellux, and, above all, with him for whom he had a particular 
affection, Lafayette, is a. source of edification to us for the 
cordiality and the fidelity of the sentiments which they 
express toward us. At the conclusion of peace he expressed 
his gratitude for services rendered with a delicacy and loftiness 
of thought which is worth citing. 

"The articles of the general treaty," he wrote to LaLuzerne, 
"do not appear so favorable to France, in point of territorial 
acquisitions, as they do to the other powers. But the mag- 
nanimous and disinterested scale of action, which that great 
nation has exhibited to the world during this war, and at the 
conclusion of peace, will insure to the King and nation that 
reputation, which will be of more consequence to them than 
every other consideration." 

"As Washington has shown the virtues of mag- 
nanimity and disinterestedness which we have 
always recognized in him, this reciprocity of es- 
teem and of gratitude has created and perpetuated 
between his country and our own 'bonds of the 
highest nature which on two occasions in history 
have proved their unbreakable solidarity.' ' 

General Gouraud, Military Governor of Paris, 
spoke in behalf of the French Army in the absence 
of General Weygand, Commander of the Army. 

"As a symbol of Franco-American comrade- 



Foreign Participation — France 



61 




By courtesy of the European Edition of the New York Herald Tribune. 

FRENCH NOTABLES PARTICIPATE IN BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION. Left to right: Commandante Colette (lean- 
ing on sword), representing the President of France; Norman Armour, American Charge d'Affaires; General Ford, American Mili- 
tary Attache; Louis Renard, Prefect of the Seine; General Gouraud, and M. Bucaille, before the Statue of Washington in Paris. 



ship," he said, "it is significant that the two peoples 
have never crossed the Atlantic except to come to 
the aid of each other." 

General Gouraud "showed us the courage of the 
great American forming itself from adolescence," 
commented the French newspaper a la sorbonne. 
"He evoked the memory of the log-cabin, where 
during the War of Independence Washington and 
Rochambeau met to support each other with the 
same confidence that Pershing and Foch did at 
Chaumont. Washington and Rochambeau by their 
close union saved the independence of America just 
as 137 years later the cooperation between America 
and France saved the independence of our country. 
One envies Washington for having left, when he 
died, a state of whose boundaries he was sure, while 
we, living in a country less well protected by des- 
tiny, are obliged to keep our frontier a 'solid bar- 
rier of protection and of good guardians.' " 



General Gouraud Praises Washington 

General Gouraud's address in full follows: 

On behalf of the Army, the honor of celebrating the Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington, 
should go to Marshal Petain, the companion of General 
Pershing in the year of the victory, or to General Weygand, 
his successor to the command of the French Army. 

The Marshal is absent; General Weygand has been kept 
from these functions by sickness, but thank God he is now 
out of danger and will soon be among us again. 

It is thus that there falls to me the honor of speaking this 
evening in the name of the Army. I feel the weight of this 
honor and yet the task seems easy inasmuch as the two great 
peoples, separated by an immensity of water, not only have 
never made war on each other, but have never crossed the 
Atlantic except to come to the aid of the other. And then, 
also, should I not be helped by the memory of the strength, 
courage, and faith in success which animated the compatriots 
of Washington, who in 1918 fought at Champagne; the brave 
men of the Forty-second, Second and Thirty-sixth Divisions? 

George Washington was born in Virginia in 1732. It is 
said that in his childhood he amused himself by playing at 
war, grouping and commanding his comrades as did the 
student Bonaparte at Brienne. 

He spent his youth in the rude life of the pioneer. He was 



62 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



inured to fatigue and his bravery may be already remarked, 
since in one engagement, when the English General Braddock 
died, he had two horses killed under him and his clothes torn 
by bullets. 

The war over, he established himself at Mount Vernon 
and for some fifteen years was a model family man and good 
farmer. 

But the revolt of the Colonies against the projects of tax- 
ation of the English Government beginning, he left his retreat 
for the good of his country. 

The beginnings of the campaign are full of difficulties; the 
militia are undisciplined, uninstructed. He begins by organiz- 
ing the troops into three divisions of two brigades and assum- 
ing command. The Declaration of Independence, July 4, 
1776, arouses enthusiasm, but the enemy is none the less 
menacing, and the militia have a great deal of trouble in 
resisting the regular troops. It becomes necessary to evacu- 
ate New York and Long Island and go to the other side of 
the Delaware. During the winter of 1776 times are hard; 
the ground is covered with snow and ice; the ranks dwindle; 
morale is low. 

Washington realizes that the destiny of his country lies 
entirely with him, that he has, at all costs, to remedy the 
situation. 

He decides and executes the daring crossing of the Dela- 
ware on the ice, Christmas night, 1776, the picture of which 
is so justly popular in the United States. 

The next day he fights three Hessian regiments at Trenton 
and achieves another success at Princeton some days after- 
wards. These two successful battles awaken new courage. 
Militiamen rejoin the army. Franklin, in France, benefits by 
this return of fortune. Meanwhile, Congress had made Wash- 
ington military dictator. 

However, the situation is still grave. Although the Ger- 
man-English forces, under the command of General Burgoyne, 
coming from the north down the valley of the Hudson, had 
ended by surrendering at Saratoga in October — in the south, 
Washington is forced, in spite of many days of battles, to 
abandon the defense of the Delaware and the Capital City of 
Philadelphia. At the end of 1777 his small army goes into 
winter quarters in wooden huts among the forests of Valley 
Forge. 

The year 1778 brings great help to the insurgents. Febru- 
ary 6, King Louis XVI, signs the treaty of alliance prepared 
by Vergennes and Franklin. France, which had been repre- 
sented up to now only by Lafayette, ranges itself on the 
side of the United States. The first consequence is the 
evacuation of Philadelphia by the enemy which feels the need 
of concentrating; but the forces of the new belligerents were 
coming across the sea and Washington continues to fight 
against a lack of men, lack of money, and indifference. 

The year 1779 ends without a decision. In July, 1780, 
Rochambeau's troops, four regiments of the regular French 
army, disembark at Newport. At the same time important 
helps in the form of money begin to remedy the situation of 
the American troops and permit them to continue the war. 

Later, new anxieties. Washington wrote in his diary: "In- 
stead of having everything in readiness to take the field, we 
have nothing and instead of having the prospect of a glorious 
offensive campaign before us, we have a bewildered and 
gloomy defensive one — unless we should receive a powerful 
aid of Ships — Land Troops — and Money from our generous 
allies. . . . This triple wish is satisfied by France in the 

Spring of 1781. 

Now the question before the allied command is: to deliver 
New York or the South? For during the operations in the 
North, the English forces had invaded the South and taken 
Charleston. Their chief, General Cornwallis, with the help 
of his fleet, had established himself near the mouth of the 
Chesapeake Bay at Yorktown. 



One can still see to the north of New York, in Wethers- 
field, Connecticut, an old wooden house. Here, and later 
before New York, Washington and Rochambeau held discus- 
sions. The arguments in favor of the South were strong, 
above all if the help of the French fleet of Admiral de Grasse 
could be counted on. But would it not return to the An- 
tilles? To begin with, it would be necessary for the land 
forces to traverse twelve hundred kilometers in order to get 
to Yorktown, to cross large rivers and to get by the English 
troops in New York. With all of this, the decision whence 
sprang the independence of the United States was taken with 
a mutual confidence that united the two chiefs. 

The same confidence reigned in 1918 in the conferences at 
Chaumont between Marshal Petain and General Pershing and 
from it was born Victory. Memorable examples! 

On September 5, 1781, the French division having joined 
the American forces, Washington, ordinarily so reserved, took 
Rochambeau in his arms when the latter announced to him 
the great news: The fleet of Admiral de Grasse has arrived 
and is blocking the mouth of the Chesapeake. 

After six weeks of siege and a vigorous assault led by the 
Americans and Frenchmen, side by side, the town capitulated 
on October 19. The war was over. Through the action of 
the Americans and Frenchmen together the independence of 
the United States was established, just as, 137 years later, the 
independence of France was saved. 

The great figure of Washington dominated the War of 
Independence: as a young man, inured to the fatigue, to the 
discomforts, to the dangers of war; as an older man, conse- 
crated to founding a nation. When it was a question of 
right and of the independence of his country he did not hesi- 
tate; he gave up everything, although he wrote to a friend: 

"Unhappy it is, though, to reflect, that a brother's sword 
has been sheathed in a brother's breast, and that the once 
happy and peaceful plains of America are either to be 
drenched with blood or inhabited by slaves. Sad alternative! 
But can a virtuous man hesitate in his choice?" 

Are not the sentiments of this letter those which animated 
the people of France when they arose in 1914 to stop the 
invader? 

The task of Washington was gigantic; an enormous coun- 
try, no army, a troop of brave men, but without instruction 
or discipline. He wrote to Congress: "Men who have been 
free and subject to no control, can not be reduced to order 
in an instant." 

For six years he had to fight not only against the enemy, 
but also against a lack of supplies, munitions, clothing, 
weapons, against discouragement. On certain nights during 
that winter at Valley Forge, others gave themselves up to 
despair, but Washington had a calm, unshakeable character, 
a resolute and sage spirit, a profound faith in his country, in 
the justice of its cause — and in God. 

His military qualities are those of a magnificent soldier and 
a great leader; his decisions to cross the Delaware in the winter 
of 1776 and to march on Yorktown, revealed as much fore- 
sight as energy, and call forth our admiration. 

His end attained, the man of war who had held the destiny 
of his country in his hands, resigned his command, and after 
having the honor of being the First President of the newly- 
born United States, retired to his home, the beautiful and 
simple residence of Mount Vernon, which we have so much 
admired at the Exposition. He could live there, at ease as 
to the future of his great country, protected against all dan- 
ger by two wide oceans. 

There is another country which nature has situated less 
securely. It has seen its frontiers beaten down too often not 
to be obliged to fortify them and to place its confidence in 
solid barriers and good guardians. 



Foreign Participation — France 



63 



Washington's Letters Read 

A diverting interlude in the series of Washing- 
ton's eulogies was furnished by M. Jacques Copeau, 
noted French author, who read with marked effect 
some of Washington's letters to Lafayette. Then, 
rising to sonorous heights, he described how 
Napoleon Bonaparte, as First Consul, had ordered 
that the man who "struggled against tyranny and 
consolidated the liberty of his country," should be 
mourned publicly for ten days, causing the audi- 
ence to break into a furore of applause. 

Senhor de Souza-Dantas, Ambassador of Brazil 
and dean of the American diplomatic corps in 
France, delivered a brief eulogy of Washington, 
citing these words of Chateaubriand: "Washing- 
ton has not created a country, but a world. His 
name lives always in the hearts of free men." 

Mr. Norman Armour, Charge d'Affaires ad 
interim of the American Embassy, then delivered 
an address which has since been described by 
Ambassador Edge in a report to the Department 

of State as "distinctly the most eloquent of the 
evening, an opinion which seems to be borne out 
by the circumstance that figaro printed his re- 
marks in full, a rare tribute from a French paper." 

Mr. Armour, in his address, reminded the dis- 
tinguished audience that in celebrating the 
memory of George Washington, those present 
should keep in mind the fact that the principles 
for which he fought are basically the same as those 
upon which the new France was founded. 

"It is a source of keen regret to my Ambassador," 
began Mr. Armour, "that the delay in the arrival 
of his boat makes it impossible for him to be 
present with us tonight. He has, however, sent a 
radiogram which he has asked me to read to you: 

"I AM DEEPLY SORRY NOT TO BE PRESENT TONIGHT 
AT THE CELEBRATION IN HONOR OF THE TWO- 
HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY OF WASHINGTON'S BIRTH, 
HELD UNDER THE AUSPICES OF THE COMITE FRANCE- 
AMERIQUE AND THE UNIVERSITY OF PARIS. THE AMERI- 
CAN PEOPLE WILL BE DEEPLY APPRECIATIVE OF THIS 
COURTEOUS COMPLIMENT TO OUR NATIONAL HERO, 
PARTICULARLY SO AS THE PRESIDENT OF THE REPUBLIC 
AND OTHER DISTINGUISHED OFFICIALS OF THE FRENCH 
GOVERNMENT HAVE SIGNIFIED THEIR INTENTION OF 
BEING PRESENT. 

"WALTER E. EDGE." 

Mr. Armour's address in full follows: 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen: On February 6th 
last in New York, a banquet was given by the Comite France- 
Amerique upon the date which marked the 154th anniversary 



of the Treaty of Alliance between France and the United 
States of America, one of the most important and significant 
dates in American history, for on that date the French Gov- 
ernment decided to lend its official support to the American 
colonies. On that occasion, Mr. President, you despatched 
a telegram to the Comite France-Amerique in New York, 
calling attention to the significance of that date. Tonight 
the Comite France-Amerique and the University of Paris 
have brought us together here to commemorate the fact that 
tomorrow marks the 200th anniversary of the birth of George 
Washington. Your presence here lends a special significance 
to the occasion. We like to feel that in your presence, as 
head of the French State, we meet once more to pledge our 
friendship and to renew those bonds which have remained 
unbroken through the intervening 154 years. 

Mr. Ambassador (addressing the Brazilian Ambassador) : 
It seems like a happy stroke of genius that this ceremony 
should have been held under the joint auspices of the Comite 
France-Amerique and the Sorbonne, for in our Western Hemi- 
sphere, in considering the results achieved by Washington 
and the significance of his work, we must inescapably think 
of the far reaching effects that the victory secured by his 
arms eventually had in bringing freedom to other peoples in 
our New World. At the name of Washington, there in- 
stinctively comes to our mind that great roll of liberators — 
San Martin, Artigas, Bolivar, Don Pedro, Sucre, and others, — 
who, like Washington, enabled those principles of republican 
freedom to be put into effect in the various colonies of the 
two Americas with the result that today we find ourselves 
a group of sister republics, bound together by common in- 
terest and understanding. 

General Gouraud (turning toward the Military Governor 
of Paris) : When Lafayette paid his last memorable visit to 
the United States in 1824, he was greeted on all sides by vet- 
erans of the Revolution who had served under him as "Mon 
General." Since the Armistice, you have three times visited 
the United States, and like Lafayette you have been greeted 
on all sides by the American officers and men who served 
under you, as "Mon General." The intimate relations which 
you held with these men have bound you to all sections of 
our country. 

I like to think how happy Washington would have been 
to receive you at Mount Vernon as he received Lafayette after 
the war was over, when they talked over the campaign in 
which they had participated together, and so to have talked 
over with you those battles in which French and American 
troops participated in a common effort under your command. 

I know also that no praise, no words of appreciation from 
anyone could have meant more than the words you have 
spoken about Washington tonight, coming as they do from 
another soldier, who like himself, has deserved well of his 
country. 

It is a source of regret to all of us that the Rector of the 
University, M. Charlety, is not here tonight, but we realize 
that his absence is due to the very event which we are here 
celebrating, for we understand that he has gone to the United 
States to attend the inauguration of the statue of Lafayette 
in the Hall of Fame in New York and to participate in the 
celebrations attendant on the Washington bicentennial and 
Franco-American cooperation. 

I can think of no more fitting surroundings in which to 
celebrate the birth of Washington than within these historic 
walls. It was here at the Sorbonne in 1750, — twenty-six 
years before the declaration of our Independence, — that the 
illustrious Turgot, in a striking passage of a great speech, 
prophesied that America would some day detach herself from 
the parent tree. 

But a few months ago a distinguished delegation, headed by 
Marshal Petain and of which the Vice-President of our So- 
ciety — joint host tonight — the Duke of Broblie, was a mem- 



64 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



ber, left France to participate in the celebration of the 15 0th 
anniversary of the victory at Yorktown. At that time, the 
American Government and people sought to demonstrate to 
our French friends how deep is the gratitude, how fresh in 
our minds is the memory, of the material aid brought to us 
by France, — not only at the decisive victory at Yorktown, but 
throughout the Revolution. There is no need for me to men- 
tion that great list of names. They are as familiar to every 
American boy and girl as those of our own heroes, and their 
names are being pronounced tonight throughout our land with 
that of Washington. 

At Yorktown we brought our thanks for the material aid 
extended us by France, but here, in this historic institution of 
learning, which has throughout so many centuries kept burn- 
ing the flame of culture and of thought, we Americans would 
not forget the assistance, the impulsion, brought to our cause 
in those early days through French thought, through the in- 
fluence of that group of philosophers, — Montesquieu, Voltaire, 
Rousseau, Diderot, d'Alembert, and the rest, — who in the 
eighteenth century gave to the world new ideas as to the rights 
of man, political equality and liberty. There would scarcely 
seem to be need for me to point out the influence of these 
writers upon our early patriots. There are, it is true, two 
schools of thought: those who claim that the American 
patriots were more influenced by the British school of philoso- 
phers, notably Locke, and those who stress the French influ- 
ence. But I think it may certainly be said without fear of 
contradiction that the writings of the French group which I 
have mentioned had a very decided effect in America. Cer- 
tainly Jefferson was influenced by Rousseau; in fact, there 
are passages of the Declaration of Independence which show 
clearly the effect exerted by the French writers; and Franklin 
was undeniably influenced by them. When in 1789 the 
drafters of the Constitution of the United States desired to 
make sure of perfect political liberty, they established a tri- 
partite division according to Montesquieu's theory of the 
division of power into the executive, the legislative and the 
judicial elements, ensuring an equilibrium and adjustment. 

The result was the absolute differentiation between Presi- 
dent, Congress and Supreme Court. Less specifically, but 
none the less real, was the influence upon contemporary edu- 
cated thought of the scepticism of Voltaire, the encyclopaedic 
knowledge of Diderot, and the passionate humanism of Rous- 
seau. Surely it is not too much to say that French thought 
brought about in a large degree a situation in the solution to 
which French arms later so materially assisted. 

In the study of natural science there exist two principal 
divisions: pure science and applied science. The latter is 
impossible without the former; the former — so long as a dis- 
covery remains merely in terms of formulae, — incapable of 
application in the lives of men, while none the less remark- 
able per se, yet of little benefit as a contribution to civiliza- 
tion. So in political science, the thoughts of men striving to 
better humanity, no matter how eloquently set forth nor how 
practical the philosophy may seem to be, — one instinctively 
thinks of the Republic of Plato, — are after all of little practi- 
cal benefit to mankind if those ideal conceptions are not trans- 
lated into action or not put to a practical application. One 
of the sources of French genius is the way in which the ideal 
is combined with the practical, — lofty conceptions of thought 
joined to the execution and application of such thoughts and 
ideas to practical life. 

So a group of young Frenchmen, impressed by these new 
thoughts, their imaginations fired by the new world conjured 
up by the conceptions of these philosophers, were quick to see 
in the struggle of the American colonies the possibility of 
putting into practical effect, of planting in virgin soil, these 
new ideas and hopes and dreams. 

That Lafayette himself appreciated the far-reaching sig- 
nificance of the issues at stake, and the possible effect of a 



successful termination of the struggle in putting into execu- 
tion elsewhere the principles involved, is shown in a letter to 
his wife, written after receiving the news of the loss of his 
young daughter: "If the sad news that I received had arrived 
immediately, I should have left on the spot to join you; but 
the campaign which was opening did not permit me to leave; 
besides, my heart has always been convinced that in serving 
the cause of humanity and that of America, I am fighting 
for the interests of France." 

Renan, in his Speech of Reception at the French Academy, 
April 3, 1879, said to the academicians: "Wherein lies your 
unity, Gentlemen? It is in the love of truth." One may say 
that the unity that existed from the first between Washington 
and the early statesmen of America and Lafayette, Rocham- 
beau, and that gallant band of Frenchmen, was the love of 
liberty. It burned like a fire to warm them through that ter- 
rible winter at Valley Forge; it carried them along irresistibly 
when naught seemed left to them but their own indomitable 
courage, — the will to believe; the refusal to doubt. 

Had they failed, what would the effect of such failure have 
been upon the world, upon the cause of liberty, upon those 
ideas and conceptions for the betterment of humanity for 
the practical application of which they were fighting? Would 
the disillusionment caused by such failure have postponed the 
successful proclamation of democratic doctrines in France, as 
was so soon to follow, — and not only in France but later in 
those other colonies of the Western Hemisphere which were 
later to become our sister republics? 

So I like to think that in this celebration tonight you arc 
celebrating not only the birth two hundred years ago of one 
who is to us Americans the Father of our Country, our great- 
est patriot, our first statesman, but that you are celebrating 
the birth of one who, by setting claim to and successfully 
defending the principles in the development of which French 
thought played so important a part, contributed towards the 
carrying into execution of those principles in France, as well 
as in the remaining colonies of the New World. 

Music By Garde Republicaine Band 

Not the least effective part of the Sorbonne 
celebration was the last half of the program, de- 
voted to music of the two republics from the 
time of George Washington. The band of the 
Garde Republicaine played several of these old airs, 
especially thrilling the assembly with a rendition of 
"Yankee Doodle." Roger Bourdin of the Opera- 
Comique charmed the assemblage with two 18 th 
century songs, "Dans Quel Canton Est L'Huronie!" 
and "Lafayette en Amerique." Mile. Mignon 
Nevada, of the Opera, sang Benjamin Carr's 
"Willow, Willow," with lyrics from Shakespeare, 
and "Cupid and the Shepherd." She was accom- 
panied by Irving Scherke, music critic of THE 
tribune. 

Among the prominent persons present besides 
those already mentioned were Mrs. Walter E. 
Edge, Mrs. Norman Armour, Mr. and Mrs. Lau- 
rence V. Benet, Consul General and Mrs. Leo J. 
Keena, Mr. and Mrs. Homer Gage, Dr. and Mrs. 
Edmund L. Gros, Mr. and Mrs. T. Bentley Mott, 



Foreign Participation — France 



65 



Commander and Mrs. Calvin Cobb, Mr. and Mrs. 
Sedley Peck, Dean and Mrs. Frederick W. Beek- 
man, Mr. and Mrs. Benjamin H. Connor, Theodore 
Rousseau, Captain and Mrs. David Le Breton, 
Major General Stanley Ford, Comtesse de Chilly, 
Mme. Jusserand, Mrs. Bates-Batcheller, Mrs. Lily 
W. Converse, Marquise de Talleyrand-Perigord, 
Dr. and Mrs. William Davenport, Mr. and Mrs. 
William Douglas Read, Mr. Herbert Howland, Dr. 
and Mrs. Edward J. Ortion, Mr. Walter Cotchett, 
J. Ridgely Carter, Mr. and Mrs. Harold William- 
son, Miss Genevieve Tyler, Miss Florence Heywood, 
Mme. Lubimova, Comtesse Roussy de Sales, Welles 
Bosworth, Mr. and Mrs. Albert Cudebee and 
Henry W. Dunning. 

Manifestation of Franco-American Good 
Will 

The enthusiasm for the Bicentennial Celebra- 
tion in France, stimulated by Sunday's observance, 
had not abated on Monday, February 22, but had 
gained tremendous momentum. The entire Ameri- 
can colony of Paris and thousands of Frenchmen 
joined in a series of ceremonies and banquets on 
the two hundredth birthday of George Washing- 
ton, which the new york herald, of Paris, on 
February 23, 1932, described as "the greatest mani- 



festation of Franco- American good will ever cele- 
brated on an American national holiday here." 

The American Veterans of Foreign Wars, Ben- 
jamin Franklin Post 605, had the honor of open- 
ing this day's ceremonies. Led by a color guard of 
ten members of the Veterans of Foreign Wars and 
ten French non-commissioned officers, carrying 
twenty American Revolutionary War flags loaned 
by the Invalides Museum and supported by a firing 
squad and more than fifty members of the Vet- 
erans' organization, the contingent proceeded to 
the equestrian monument of George Washington 
in the Place d'lena. 

At the monument a large gathering awaited the 
veterans, including the following dignitaries and 
military officials: Francois Latour, President of 
the Municipal Council, who spoke in eulogy of 
Washington; General Gouraud, Military Governor 
of Paris; General Mariaux, Governor of the In- 
valides; M. Faillot, Vice-President of the Munici- 
pal Council; M. Renard, Prefect of the Seine; the 
blind Deputy Scapini; Colonel Raynal, defender 
of Fort de Vaux; Comte de Chambrun, descendant 
of Lafayette, who also spoke; M. de Neveu, Vice- 
President of the Sons of the American Revolution; 
Comtesse de Chilly, State Regent of the Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, who also ad- 
dressed the veterans; Norman Armour, American 




GEORGE WASHINGTON HONORED IN CELEBRATION AT SORBONNE. General Gouraud is shown delivering an 

ADDRESS BEFORE A NOTABLE ASSEMBLY OF FRENCHMEN AND AMERICANS IN PARIS. 



66 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Charge d'Aff aires ad interim; other members of 
the American Embassy and consular staffs, includ- 
ing Consul General Leo J. Keena, and representa- 
tives of the Medaille Militaire, Croix de Guerre, 
Grands Invalides and other French veterans' or- 
ganizations. 

The flags of these societies, massed about the 
statue of Washington and intermingling with the 
various uniforms created a pageantic scene. While 
the assembled hosts stood in reverential silence, 
three wreaths were placed upon the flower- 
bedecked base of the statue: One by Charles 
Beaumont, Paris Commander of the Veterans of 
Foreign Wars; one by the Comtesse de Chilly on 
behalf of the Daughters of the American Revolu- 
tion, and the third by M. de Neveu for the Sons 
of the American Revolution. Each spoke briefly 
of the significance of the day, lauding the good 
will between France and America resulting from 
the friendship of Washington and the French offi- 
cers who contributed to America's victory in the 
Revolution. 

Immediately after this ceremony the veterans 
and their flag-bearers motored to the tomb of 
Lafayette, in the Picpus Cemetery, where four 
garlands were placed in the name of the national 
and local Veterans of Foreign Wars organizations, 
the Daughters of the American Revolution and 
the Sons of the American Revolution. 

Commander Beaumont, standing at the grave 
of Lafayette, rendered a tribute to Washington in 
which he said in part: 

During his seven years as General and his eight years as 
President, he never lifted a finger for his own advancement 
or profit. In all the human chronicle, there is not another 
man who did so much for his people and asked so little of 
them. Of all creators of nations he was the meekest, most 
modest servant of the public welfare, and therefore the most 
majestic. 

And so we owe Washington multitudinous debts that we 
cannot pay and of which most of us never heard. But our 
greatest debts to him are the creation of our Republic, the 
salvation of it from foreign attack, and from disruption and 
. destruction through domestic discord, but above all, for the 
establishment of a sublime ideal of patriotism. 

Let us remember one of Washington's sentences, "The 
game is yet in our own hands; to play it well is all we have 
to do. . . . Nothing but harmony, honesty, truthfulness to 
our friends and frugality are necessary to make us a great and 
happy nation." 

M. de Neveu spoke of the amicable relations be- 
tween France and America at the time of the 
Revolution, the significance of the continuance of 



this good will to the present and the assurance of 
its perpetuation in the infinite future. 

During the afternoon, as a manifestation of the 
American ideals held in common by the Veterans 
of Foreign Wars and the Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution, the Veterans presented the 
Daughters with an autographed copy of "The 
American's Creed." Comtesse de Chilly received 
the gift and presented each of the bearers with 
an ivy leaf from the home of Washington's an- 
cestors in England, Sulgrave Manor. 

On behalf of Mrs. Hugh Reid Griffin, of Lon- 
don, framed portraits of George Washington and 
pictures of the celebrated manor were presented 
to the Daughters of the American Revolution by 
the Comtesse de Chilly. The new regent, Mrs. 
Frederic Shearer, read an excerpt from Lincoln's 
biography, stating that it was the custom of the 
Daughters of the American Revolution to honor 
Lincoln as well as Washington at the February 
meeting of the chapter. 

The veterans concluded their Bicentennial ac- 
tivities of the 22nd with a dance and buffet supper 
in the evening at the Bohy-Laf ayette Hotel. More 
than two hundred Americans and Frenchmen at- 
tended this social climax to a day of tribute to 
America's First President. 

One of the pleasant bicentennial social inter- 
ludes in Paris on February 22 was a luncheon at 
the American Women's Club. The national em- 
blems on the tables and the general patriotic 
atmosphere of this gathering symbolized the feel- 
ing of American women residents abroad for the 
institutions founded by George Washington. 

Mrs. Walter V. Cotchett, president of the club, 
introduced General Stanley H. Ford, Military 
Attache of the American Embassy in Paris, who 
gave a short talk on George Washington's qualifi- 
cations as a leader, emphasizing the fact that the 
First President was not only a great patriot and 
statesman, but also a great soldier. Mrs. Walter 
E. Edge and Comtesse de Chilly had places of 
honor. The singing of "La Marseillaise" and the 
"Star Spangled Banner" by Mme. d'Argel brought 
the luncheon to a close. 

American Nations Join in Celebration 

The United States invited Canada and the Latin 

American republics of the Western Hemisphere to 

join in celebrating the Bicentennial of George 

Washington in Paris at an official Embassy lunch- 



Foreign Participation — France 



67 



eon on February 22, at which Canadian and 
American diplomats in Paris were the honor 
guests. 

The importance of fraternal cooperation and 
solidarity between the nations of North, South 
and Central America and the hope of adoption by 
all these nations of an identical goal were voiced 
in the principal address on this occasion, written 
by United States Ambassador Edge and read in his 
absence by Mr. Armour, Charge d'Affaires ad 
interim, who acted as host. 

Mr. Armour pointed out that the annual pres- 
ence of these diplomats at the Washington Birth- 
day luncheon afforded striking evidence of the 
fact that the great liberators of the Western 
Hemisphere, widely separated as they were by time 
and distance, belonged by virtue of their common 
ideal not to one people alone but to the American 
nations as a whole. 

The full text of Ambassador Edge's address is 
as follows: 

Year by year, you, my Colleagues of the Western Hemi- 
sphere, join in the commemoration of Washington's birthday. 
In so doing, you not only pay a gracious compliment to my 
country and my country's First President but give striking 
evidence that the great liberators of our continents, widely 
as they were separated by time and distance, belonged by vir- 
tue of their common ideal not to one people alone but to the 
collectivity of American Republics. 

Under these circumstances I am confident that as we fore- 
gather again today you will share with me the solemnity at- 
tached to the present occasion. It is not an ordinary observ- 
ance but the two hundredth anniversary of the birth of 
George Washington. In fact, as we in this room recall the 
significance of that statesman's life, we are joining our 
thoughts and action to those of a hundred and twenty million 
of my fellow countrymen who are inaugurating a period of 
celebration of some nine months which my Government has 
designated for the commemoration of its national liberator. 

There is something inspiring in the realization that so many 
millions are uniting to render homage to a man who was of 
the 18th century but who belongs to all time. No rhetorical 
tribute need be paid George Washington — the observance of 
this bicentennial celebration is in itself at once an epitaph and 
a talisman for the future. In unmistakable terms it proclaims 
that Washington so wrought that the passage of two hundred 
years has not dimmed the gratitude of his country nor altered 
the principles for which he stood. 

At the present moment of passing discouragement — for 
the past year has not been a kind one to any of our nations — 
there is comfort for us in the knowledge that convictions and 
institutions can stand firm through the centuries. It teaches 
us that, while we should scrutinize the year's mistakes for 
their lessons, if we view the march of affairs with sufficient 
perspective we may have confidence in ultimate stability. 
There is comfort, too, in the thought that in the larger sense 
our fatherlands have conceived an indentical goal and that 
this very year, the representatives of all our Republics plan 
to convene at Montevideo in the Seventh Pan-American Con- 
ference in a cooperative effort to solve our mutual problems. 



Let us therefore raise our glasses, not to the past and its 
adversity, save as it gave us great leaders such as Washington, 
but to the future which, if we are guided by the common 
sense, the courage and the spiritual insight of our founders, 
holds forth the promise of material and moral progress and a 
closer unity of nations. 

Senhor de Souza-Dantas, Brazilian Ambassador 
to France, voiced the sentiments of his country in 
response to the address of the American Ambas- 
sador, declaring that Washington's name is glori- 
fied in all free countries as an example of civic 
virtue and patriotism. 

Senhor de Souza-Dantas' speech follows in full: 

It is a great pleasure to my Colleagues and myself to be 
assembled here once again according to a beautiful and fra- 
ternal tradition. We are particularly happy today, due to the 
fact that we are commemorating and celebrating the two 
hundredth anniversary of the birth of George Washington. 

I am confident that it coincides with the desire of all my 
Colleagues to turn our thoughts affectionately toward the 
great ambassador whose guests we have so often been at this 
same table: Ambassador Myron T. Herrick, whose loss we so 
deeply regret, and always will. 

North Americans call George Washington the Father of 
their Country. But George Washington does not belong 
only to the glorious country he founded: he belongs to the 
whole world. He is one of the greatest citizens of Humanity. 
For that reason his name is glorified not only in America, 
but in all free countries, as an example of virtue, civism and 
patriotism. Jefferson said of him that he enjoyed the con- 
fidence of all, and that if his companions were party leaders 
he had the authority of a national chief; and Chateaubriand 
declared: George Washington did not create a nation, he 
created a world. 

Let us drink, my dear Colleagues, to the immortal glory of 
George Washington, to the prosperity of the great and 
mighty nation he founded, to our dear Colleague and friend 
Ambassador Walter E. Edge — and let us pay our most gracious 
respects to his beautiful and virtuous spouse. 

The Minister of Uruguay, Sefior Guani, de- 
livered a plea for unity of spirit among the Ameri- 
can peoples. He said: 

The gathering to which we are so kindly convoked by the 
Ambassador of the United States upon the occasion of the 
anniversary of the birth of George Washington, takes on, 
this year, a very particular significance, since it coincides with 
the bicentenary of that memorable date. 

Just two hundred years ago, there was born in the State of 
Virginia, a great Republican hero, one of the most illustrious 
men of the 18th century, that great epoch of struggle and 
of creation, exceptionally fecund in glorious figures in the 
domain of philosophy and arts as well as in political and mili- 
tary life. 

"Washington," said Chateaubriand, who did not lightly 
eulogize, "was the representative of necessities, of ideas, of the 
enlightenment and the opinions of his time; he seconded, 
rather than opposed, the movement of great minds; he wanted 
that which he ought to have wanted, the very thing for 
which he was called: the coherence and the perpetuity of his 
work. This man, who was so little striking because he was 
of just proportions, merged his existence with that of his 



68 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



country: his glory is the patrimony of civilization; his renown 
rises like one of those sanctuaries wherein flows a copious and 
inexhaustible spring for the people. 

All of the young American democracies represented here 
are happy, I am sure, to render the most fervent homage to 
the enlightened precursor of our liberties and of our destinies 
in the contemporaneous world. 

I also believe that the other democracies of the world will 
join us, remembering that Lafayette, that other great apostle 
of the liberty of the peoples, conceived the idea of sending 
to General Washington a key to the Bastille, saying: "Ameri- 
can principles have opened this bastion of despotism; with you 
the key will be in its right place." 

All this, my dear colleagues, is the history of the past, but 
notwithstanding, it is very necessary that we frequently turn 
toward it, in order to draw therefrom lessons for the present 
and the future. 

The hours through which the world is now passing, as the 
Ambassador has just said in his discourse, are above all, hours 
of discouragement and of waiting. 

Let us not insist too much upon the errors committed, nor 
upon the faults certainly attributable to events which often 
are beyond human foresight. But let us have an optimistic 
confidence, soundly based upon the great and fertile lessons 
bequeathed by the past. 

Let us wish that above the interests, above the passions, or 
the egoisms, there shall soar in the world the spirit of confra- 
ternity and international solidarity which has always prevailed 
in the relations of the peoples of the occidental hemisphere. 
This year, Montevideo will have the honor and the joy of 
bringing together the delegates to the Seventh Pan-American 
Conference, and I am happy in foreseeing and in desiring that 
in the course of this important international manifestation, 
the great principles of collaboration which we wish to see 
dominate throughout the entire world, directed towards peace 
and universal happiness, shall crystallize and blossom among 
the States represented. 

I drink to the health of the Chief of State of North 
America, of his illustrious Ambassador in Paris, Mr. Walter 
Edge, and to all the countries of Latin America, to France, 
that dear and gentle France, whose great examples of political 
liberty and of social equality have nourished our hearts and 
which has always illumined our road with its powerful 
spiritual light. 

Among those present were: Sr. Alfredo Vas- 
quez Cobo, Minister of Colombia; Hon. Philippe 
Roy, Minister of Canada; Sr. Caballero de 
Bedoya, Minister of Paraguay; Dr. Garcia Mella, 
Minister of the Dominican Republic; Sr. Fran- 
cisco Garcia Calderon, Minister of Peru; Sr. 
Manuel Amunategui, Minister of Chile; Sr. Carlos 
Manuel de Cespedes, Minister of Cuba; Sr. 
Eduardo Perez Quesada, Charge d'Affaires of 
Argentina; Sr. Moreno Canas, Charge d'Affaires 
of Costa Rica; Sr. Joaquin Paredes, Charge 
d'Affaires a. i. of Salvador; Sr. Raoul A. 
Amador, Charge d'Affaires of Panama; Sr. Ale- 
jandro Alonso-Rochi, Charge d'Affaires a. i. of 
Nicaragua; M. Henri Laraque, Counselor of the 
Haitian Legation; Sr. Costa du Rels, Charge 
d'Affaires of Bolivia; Sr. Luis Quintanilla, First 
Secretary of the Mexican Legation; Sr. Raoul 



Capriles, Secretary of the Venezuelan Legation; 
Sr. Luis A. Dillon, Special Counselor of the Ecua- 
dorian Legation; Leo J. Keena, United States 
Consul General; Captain David Le Breton, Naval 
Attache of the American Embassy; Fayette W. 
Allport, Commercial Attache; Harold L. William- 
son, Second Secretary; Colonel Frank P. Lahm, 
Assistant Military Attache, and Alan Rogers, 
Third Secretary of the American Embassy. 

American Club Banquet 

More than two days of impressive Franco- 
American ceremonies in commemoration of the 
George Washington Bicentennial culminated in 
Paris on the evening of February 22 with a bril- 
liant banquet at the Hotel Palais d'Orsay. Led 
by the President of the French Republic, Paul 
Doumer, more than 300 French and American 
notables convened at the banquet which was held 
under the auspices of the American Club of Paris 
in collaboration with the Association Amicale des 
Anciens Officiers de Liaison pres l'Armee Ameri- 
caine and the Military Order of Foreign Wars. 

Republican Guards with drawn sabres lined the 
long staircase leading up to the banquet hall. 
Their famous band played "La Marseillaise" and 
"The Star Spangled Banner" as the guests entered 
and later enlivened the dinner with favorite 
American airs, among which "Dixie" and "Yankee 
Doodle" were the most applauded. 

President Doumer occupied the chair of honor 
beside Mr. Norman Armour, American Charge 
d'Affaires, who represented the United States Gov- 
ernment in the absence of Ambassador Edge. 
Above them were the flags of the United States 
and France and a rare original portrait of George 
Washington by Gilbert Stuart from the Lewis col- 
lection hung among the tri-colored folds. 
Marshals Petain and Franchet d'Esperay, Champe- 
tier de Ribes, Minister of Pensions, and Pierre- 
Etienne Flandin, Minister of Finance, were also 
seated at the table of honor, representing the 
French Government and Army. 

Radio carried the program of the banquet to 
the United States and millions of Americans on 
the western side of the Atlantic during the after- 
noon of February 22 heard President Doumer in 
far-off Paris pay "patriotic and fervent homage" 
on behalf of the entire French nation to the mem- 
ory of the First President of the United States. 



Foreign Participation — France 



69 




By courtesy of the European Edition of the New York Herald Tribune. 
BICENTENNIAL BANQUET OF THE AMERICAN CLUB IN PARIS. View of the Speakers' Table. This notable 

FUNCTION AT THE HOTEL DU PALAIS d'OrSAY WAS ATTENDED BY PRESIDENT DoUMER, OF THE FRENCH REPUBLIC. 



The short-wave radio broadcast lasted more than 
an hour. The impressive scene at the Hotel Palais 
d'Orsay was described to the countless listeners in 
the United States and elsewhere by Leland Stowe, 
and four notable speeches in French and English 
interspersed with patriotic airs played by the 
Garde Republicaine Band, were broadcast. 

It was the first time a President of France had 
spoken at a George Washington Birthday Cele- 
bration, and, as reported by Ambassador Edge in 
a letter to the Department of State, "only the 
second occasion upon which the President of 
France has deviated from the general practice of 
not talking over the radio, both instances, inci- 
dentally, being at American gatherings." 

President Doumer's brief but memorable ad- 
dress made a deep impression upon the notable 
assembly at the Flotel Palais d'Orsay, while Ameri- 
cans at home heard with gratitude this tribute to 
the Founder of the American Republic broadcast 
to the world by the official spokesman of the 
French people. 



"On this day," said the President of France, 
"when beyond the ocean the United States of 
America are commemorating the ever-living per- 
sonality of that great citizen, Washington, I am 
happy to associate the unanimous French nation 
with this patriotic and fervent homage. 

"George Washington holds a great place in the 
history of the world. In our eyes he symbolizes 
the noble and generous aspirations that are com- 
mon to our two peoples and which carry them 
forward towards an ever more elevated, more 
human ideal of civilization, through justice and 
through liberty." 

On behalf of the Government and people of the 
United States, Mr. Armour, the American Charge 
d'Affaires, thanked the President of France for the 
friendship he evidenced in attending this banquet 
in observance of the two hundredth anniversary 
of the birth of George Washington and recalled 
amid enthusiastic applause that national mourning 
throughout France was decreed by Napoleon 
Bonaparte when the news of George Washington's 
death was received. 



70 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Message from the Ambassador 

Mr. Laurence Hills, president of the American 
Club, who presided at the banquet, introduced 
Mr. Armour, first reading a radio message from 
Ambassador Edge aboard the steamship lie de 
France, expressing keen disappointment and regret 
at his inability to be present. 

Turning to the President of France, Mr. 
Armour said: 

Mr. President: Allow me to say a few words personally. 

Twice during the past twenty-four hours you have asso- 
ciated yourself directly with ceremonies organized in Paris 
in honor of the Bicentennary of the birth of Washington: 
yesterday evening in being represented at the ceremony or- 
ganized by our French friends, today by coming in person to 
this essentially American meeting. These two gestures on the 
part of the Chief of the French State are an honor, as well 
as a gracious testimonial of friendship by which all Ameri- 
cans are deeply touched, those in France and those in the 
United States. 

So far as I know, once only up to the present time has the 
Chief of the French State taken part in ceremonies of so im- 
posing a nature in honor of Washington. When the news of 
his death on December 14, 1799, reached France, the Republic 
declared national mourning. For ten days, officers of the 
French army wore crepe and flags were placed at half mast. 
A ceremony of unparalleled splendor was held at the Temple 
of Mars — as the Invalides was then called — where Fontanes, 
the greatest orator of the day, delivered a funeral oration in 
the presence of the Chief of the French State. That Chief 
of State was the young Bonaparte. 

When the applause which greeted this brief 
personal response to the President of France had 
died down, Mr. Armour proceeded with the 
principal address of the evening which had been 
composed by Ambassador Edge and was delivered 
by Mr. Armour in his behalf. 

Departing from the tradition of mere eulogy 
customary on such occasions, the Ambassador's 
address, as the Chicago daily tribune (European 
Edition) declared next day, "struck a grave and 
sincere note in outlining America's foreign policy 
as derived from George Washington's historic 
farewell address." 

The full text of Ambassador Edge's speech, as 
read by Mr. Armour, follows: 

Mr. President, Gentlemen: On behalf of my fellow coun- 
trymen, I desire to thank the President of the French Republic 
for joining tonight in our national tribute to George Wash- 
ington. We are beholden to M. Doumer for the high honor 
which he has bestowed on the Americans of Paris by attend- 
ing this banquet. We are deeply indebted to him for the 
gracious compliment which he has paid Americans everywhere 
by associating himself with the celebration of the 200th anni- 
versary of the birth of our country's patriot, founder and 
first President. 

M. Doumer, who has so frequently, so practically, so stir- 



ringly demonstrated his understanding of America and the 
American people, will readily fathom the respect and recog- 
nition which animate us tonight as we look back across the 
years at the towering figure of Washington, who more than 
anyone has come to personify the American Republic. He 
will appreciate the extent of the obligation of the American 
people to the inspiring leader who exemplified, in war and in 
peace, the qualities of patience, fair dealing and harmony with 
neighbor and nation which make for domestic welfare and in- 
ternational tranquility. 

For Washington, to all who love balanced liberty, is, and 
will forever be, a shaft of strength and a pillar of stability in 
our Republic. Our freedom, our ordered democracy, our na- 
tional power are monuments to his inspiring genius. We ad- 
mire him as a man. We revere him as a master. We seek to 
emulate his wise example and to profit from the breadth and 
soundness of his constructive statesmanship. 

To commemorate his place in American history, the Con- 
gress has set apart the year 1932, the Bicentennial of his birth, 
for the celebration of his achievements and the comprehen- 
sive study of his career. The George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission, with a stimulating devotion to its patriotic task, 
has promoted the commemoration; states, cities, public-spirited 
societies and citizens have cooperated in organizing the pro- 
gram. In Paris, we are particularly fortunate in having a 
committee which is set up for the purpose of bringing to- 
gether Americans living abroad in a brotherhood of reverence 
for "the pioneer, the soldier, the statesman, the husbandman, 
the examplar of American citizenship — George Washington." 

In carrying out the program of Congress, many Americans 
during this year of commemoration will seek a better under- 
standing of the Founder. Some will devote their attention to 
his youth or to his first public appearance as a resolute young 
officer. Doubtless, others will describe him as frontiersman, 
surveyor, administrator and colonial proprietor. Many more 
will portray him as Commander in Chief, patriot, statesman 
and president. 

But as Americans resident abroad, all more or less actively 
and all directly, interested in the foreign policy of our coun- 
try, it would seem peculiarly appropriate for us here in Paris 
to weigh the sage counsel of George Washington in the matter 
of American foreign doctrine and to consider its practical 
application to the outstanding problems of our day. 

Two quotations from Washington's Farewell Address im- 
mediately come to mind. The first that ". . . nothing is 
more essential than that permanent, inveterate antipathies 
against particular nations and passionate attachments for 
others, should be excluded; and that in place of them, just 
and amicable feeling towards all should be cultivated." 

The second, that "The great rule of conduct for us in 
regard to foreign nations is, in extending our commercial 
relations, to have with them as little political connection as 
possible." 

In other words, American policy as conceived by Wash- 
ington should, briefly, consist, first, in an impartial, independ- 
ent attitude toward all nations and, second, in no political 
alliances — no meddling which tends to involve us as a nation 
needlessly in other people's affairs and is apt to prove thankless 
and inconclusive, in the end tending to make enemies rather 
than friends. 

The corollary of these conceptions has come to be that the 
United States is willing to associate itself temporarily for a 
given purpose with another Power or group of Powers — the 
cooperation ceasing when the limited end is fulfilled. 

From the time of Washington to the present day, these 
concepts and the corollary have remained the fundamental, 
traditional bases of American policy. They were evolved 
out of our national character and confirmed by our national 
experience. It is under their protection that we have become 
what we are. Born with our Republic, they are of the essence 



Foreign Participation — France 



71 



of America. Reinforced in 150 years and consolidated, they 
constitute the keystone of the arch of American doctrine. 
To ignore, or to forget, the basic principles which have 
preserved American independence and safeguarded our growth 
to a sturdy maturity, is to pave the way for malice and 
misunderstanding. 

Indeed, too often in the war and post-war years, a mis- 
conception of the aims and objects of American policy has 
led to indictment and criticism of the American Government 
and even of the American people. Despite the efforts of 
American leaders and spokesmen to clarify our position, some 
of our friends have failed to understand the spirit in which 
we entered the war, our efforts to prosecute it and the resump- 
tion afterwards of our traditional impartial attitude. From 
this lacuna has arisen the tendency to misjudge our attitude 
toward some of the most pressing of our contemporary 
problems. 

Unfalteringly, the United States converted itself from a 
peaceful industrial community into a mighty war machine, 
a nation in arms in which no one was exempt, in which every 
man, woman and child had his and her part to play, in which 
the sinews of war, men, maintenance, and money were mobi- 
lized to help bring about victory. 

The American Government at the close of the war asked 
neither for territorial aggrandizement nor for political ad- 
vantages. It specifically relinquished all claims to repara- 
tions and thereafter consistently refused to be drawn into a 
position where the American taxpayer could be shown to be 
the direct or indirect recipient of sums due or paid to the 
Allied Governments. This attitude may be said to be in 
keeping with the historic policy of the United States which 
is traced back to Washington. 

Looking upon war debts as engagements freely entered into, 
and subscribed to by the American people with that under- 
standing, the American Government, after the war, examined 
individually with each of the nations which was obligated to 
the United States the funding of its debts and reached a 
separate and distinct agreement with each as to the amount 
of repayment which would be required. Much of this was 
actually loaned after hostilities had ceased. 

In this process, the individual debts were very materially 
scaled down. 

Today, the financial and economic depression, which has 
reached every corner of the world, in which, it is needless 
for me to point out, the United States is a conspicuous suf- 
ferer, has developed a situation which has brought new bur- 
dens and has greatly disturbed and shaken the economic equi- 
librium. As a result our European neighbors are reviewing 
just what this will require of them in the way of possible 
readjustments between themselves. While these conversations 
and negotiations are taking place, it would be improper for 
me to discuss the future in any of its possible phases. Suffice 
it for me to reiterate that the United States will not make 
commitments in advance as to future policies. 

However, the United States, while adhering to its historic 
Washingtonian policy of dissociation and detachment, has very 
clearly manifested its willingness to cooperate, where coopera- 
tion may be productive of constructive results, and to con- 
cede where concession may be conducive to progress and sta- 
bility. Without interfering in other nations' affairs, it has 
sought to establish its own interests in a loyal and effective 
manner. 

As history well records, this does not mean that the United 
States is unwilling to shoulder its responsibilities or desires to 
shirk its part in endeavoring to help solve the many problems 
confronting the world today. A review of American partici- 
pation in various conferences of an international nature during 
the years succeeding the war would disprove that. The 
Washington Conference of 1921-22, which was called on the 
direct initiative of the American Government to discuss limi- 



tation of naval armaments as well as problems arising out of 
the Far East, is but one example. The unselfish policy adopted 
by my country at that time cannot be successfully challenged. 
The Naval Conference at London is another. We have also 
participated in innumerable meetings of an international nature 
held under the auspices of the League of Nations, notably, the 
Preparatory Disarmament Conference at which our delegates 
did their best to help in solving problems, even those in which 
American interests were not directly concerned. Finally, we 
are at the present moment participating in a conference taking 
place at Geneva, the significance of which in influencing the 
future of our international relations can scarcely be over- 
estimated. 

In short, in its recent history the United States has demon- 
strated that, when a cause is just, it can be counted upon to 
do its share with resolution, foresight and courage. 

But when the goal is reached, the United States can equally 
be counted upon, in fulfillment of the injunctions of George 
Washington, to resume the normal course of its impartial 
activity. 

Address of Laurence Hills 
One of the many eloquent addresses during the 
Bicentennial Celebration in France was the brief 
speech of Mr. Hills at this banquet. Referring to 
the President of France, he said M. Doumer em- 
phasized in his character "those qualities of which 
Washington set an example as the founder and 
first head of our Republic." The United States 
and France, said Mr. Hills, have a sentimental as- 
sociation deep in the hearts of the people that 
"burns like a beacon in every school room." His 
address follows: 

Our purpose in assembling here tonight is to commemorate 
one of those events in human history which, unsignalled at 
the time, changed the face of our civilization and deeply 
affected the destiny of mankind. Our beloved country which 
this great man, our immortal Washington, made into a nation, 
was not the only consequence of that event two centuries 
ago. Destiny decreed that this American, who never crossed 
the seas, should by his character and his deeds so stir the minds 
of men as to advance the cause of human liberty and demo- 
cratic government throughout the world and lead other races 
and other lands to attempt to change their form of govern- 
ment and be free. Of these, France was the first. Uniting 
with us in the darkest days of the American struggle for 
liberty, France not only made possible for us the victory of 
Yorktown, but insured for herself her own freedom as a 
democratic republic. 

As we meet here in this country to which the thoughts of 
Washington turned so anxiously in the desperate days of 
Valley Forge, we are impressed not alone by the significance 
for both America and France of the birth of Washington 
which we are celebrating today, but also by the outstanding 
importance, in the fulfillment of his destiny and for future 
civilization, of that alliance contracted here at the lowest 
moment of his fortunes. It is appropriate that collaborating 
with us in this celebration should be the Association of the 
French Liaison Officers with the American Army of the 
World War and also the Military Order of Foreign Wars. 

We, Americans, salute the President of the French Republic 
who, in the simplicity of his life, in the loftiness of his patriot- 
ism, may be said to emphasize those qualities of which Wash- 
ington set an example as the founder and first head of our 
Republic. 



71 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



In the march of human events the permanence of those 
principles for which Washngton contended has become in- 
creasingly manifested until today, the republican form of gov- 
ernment has spread throughout Europe and around the world. 
Despite the floodlight of modern critical research thrown upon 
the character of him who created the American nation, his 
extraordinary fame stands undiminished, his noble figure still 
remains to spread its splendor through the ages and to stimu- 
late those who struggle in the cause of real democracy — "one 
of the noblest lives," said Talleyrand, "that ever honored 
human history." 

Force, resolution and calm were among his astonishing 
qualities. For the problems of the present day what an ex- 
ample for our statesmen! We are proud that America gave 
this great man to the world. We are grateful for the recog- 
nition given his efforts by France. We are grateful for the 
military aid which made possible the accomplishment of his 
mission. In the example of that great republican soul our 
two countries, America and France, have a common heritage. 
Difficulties of the moment may seem to obscure this senti- 
mental association symbolized in our common veneration of 
Washington, but deep in American hearts it exists; it burns 
like a beacon in every schoolroom of our land where our 
future citizens are moulded. 

It is recorded that when the anniversary of the French 
alliance was celebrated in 1783, Washington himself gave the 
motto of the day to his army as "America and France," and 
the countersigns ordered by him were the two words "united" 
and "forever." In the spirit of these two words, may our 
two nations ever go forward in the cause of liberty and 
justice. 

Washington Stands for Good Will 

M. Delsol, Member of the French Chamber of 
Deputies and President of the Association Amicale 
des Anciens Officiers de Liaison pres de l'Armee 
Americaine, delivered an impressive speech, de- 
claring that the name of George Washington 
stands as a symbol of the good will long existing 
between the Republics of France and the United 
States of America. 

"We who have seen the American Army in the 
field," said M. Delsol, "know how greatly it con- 
tributed to victory. Between America's veterans 
and us there can be no cloud of misunderstanding, 
but only an indestructible friendship." 

The ceremonies were brought to a close with an 
eloquent tribute to George Washington and the 
United States by M. Champetier de Ribes, Minis- 
ter of Pensions, speaking for the French Govern- 
ment, who recalled the story of Franco-American 
friendship in war and peace from Yorktown to 
Verdun. He said: 

It is eminently fitting that the French Government should 
be represented in ceremonies which, on the occasion of the 
Washington Bicentennial, testify to the firm friendship be- 
tween our two countries, sealed by common endeavor in war 
and unchanged by the difficulties of peace. 

The pilgrimages made yesterday to the home of Rocham- 
beau, to the monuments to Lafayette, Washington, Franklin, 



and De Grasse, recalled to us the ties which through nearly 
two centuries have bound our two histories together. 

The presence tonight of the President of the Republic and 
our great military chiefs, happy to respond to the invitation 
of the American Club and the French and American asso- 
ciations of liaison officers, bear testimony to the continuance of 
our sentiments of mutual confidence and friendly collabora- 
tion in the causes which we have always defended together. 

Permit me, in my pleasure in recognition of the affectionate 
comradeship between the former soldiers of the American 
Legion and our national confederation of war veterans, to 
express the confidence I have in their effective collaboration 
in the work of peace which we are accomplishing side by side. 

On February 1, 1784, Washington wrote to Rochambeau: 
"I will remember with pleasure that we have been companions 
in the work of war in the cause of liberty, and that we have 
lived together like brothers, in harmony and friendship." 

That is what the soldier of Verdun, 148 years later, wrote 
to the soldier of Saint-Mihiel. As in 1781, at Yorktown, so 
it was that Americans and Frenchmen on the Marne or on 
the Meuse, in 1918, fought for liberty. Like Washington and 
Rochambeau they lived together "like brothers, in harmony 
and friendship." They suffered the same trials, shared the 
same hopes and the same glories. They learned to love one 
another in learning to know one another. 

Our generation has suffered cruelly. We do not regret it. 
The only causes that die are those for which men will not 
die. We have had the glorious privilege of sacrificing our- 
selves so that liberty should not die. 

We gave our whole strength to this noble ideal, in the 
belief that we had a duty to accomplish, but what reward did 
we find in the fraternity which united us? We alone who 
knew the comradeship of the trenches know what the fullness 
of friendship can be. 

We desire today that this friendship may serve in the organ- 
ization of peace, for we know that our task was not finished 
with the demobilization of troops. 

The work of the liaison officers of wartime is being carried 
on in peacetime by war veterans, who are serving as liaison 
agents between the peoples of the world. 

Ambassador Edge summed up the impression 
made in France by the remarkable series of George 
Washington Bicentennial Celebrations that ended 
with the banquet at the Hotel Palais d'Orsay in 
the glowing report already quoted at the begin- 
ning of this article. His opinion that these cere- 
monies in honor of the First President of the 
United States "could hardly be surpassed in a for- 
eign country" was shared by the newspapers of 
Paris. 

The American and French press of the capital 
seemed unanimous in believing that the far-reach- 
ing influence for good of these George Washington 
Bicentennial observances in France could not be 
over-estimated. 

"Week of American Nations" 

France later in the year participated again in 
the worldwide celebration of the George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial during the observance of "The 
Week of American Nations." This is an annual 



Foreign Participation — France 



73 




AMERICAN NATION GROUP DEDICATES BUSTS. Likenesses of George Washington and Simon Bolivar were un- 
veiled in the House of the American Nations in Paris by North and South Americans visiting the French Capi- 
tal. The photograph shows a few of the participants on the steps of the building. Left to right: Norman Armour, 
United States Charge d Affaires; General A. Vasquez Cobo, Minister of Colombia; Gabriel Henotaux, Paul Leon, Director of 
Beaux Arts; M. Honorat, French Senator, and M. Aronson, sculptor of the busts. 



festival in Paris in honor of all the countries of 
North, Central and South America. "Further 
emphasis" was given to this occasion in 1932, the 
United States Embassy reported, because it fell 
within the period set aside for observing the two 
hundredth anniversary of Washington's birth. 

A large group of French and American officials 
convened on the afternoon of June 30 at the 
Maison des Nations Americaines and took part in 
the unveiling of busts of George Washington and 
Simon Bolivar, famous South American liberator. 
The busts were presented to the Comite France- 
Amerique by the French Government. They are 
of marble, the work of the famous French 
sculptor, Aronson. 

At this function the French Government was 
represented by M. Paul Leon, Director-General of 
Fine Arts, who made the official presentation. M. 
Gabriel Hanotaux, president of the Comite 
France-Amerique, and General Vasquez Cobo, the 
Colombian Minister, spoke briefly, accepting the 



gifts, both emphasizing the similarity in the char- 
acters and achievements of Washington and Boli- 
var and praising them for their undying devotion 
to the cause of liberty. 

The United States Government was again rep- 
resented by Mr. Armour, Charge d'Affaires of the 
American Embassy, who spoke of the hardships 
suffered by Washington and Bolivar in their 
struggles to bring liberty to their peoples, and re- 
ferred particularly to the fact that Bolivar was 
inspired to fight for the freedom of South Ameri- 
cans by the success of George Washington and of 
the French Revolution. 

Mr. Armour spoke as follows: 

M. le President [Gabriel Hanotaux], MM. les Ministres: 
On February the twenty-second the Government and people 
of France paid gracious and moving tribute to the founder 
of my country upon the occasion of the two hundredth an- 
niversary of his birth. What was then so eloquently said in 
homage of George Washington is today being given concrete 
form in the dedication of the bust by that distinguished 
French sculptor, M. Aronson. May we not conclude that 
this bust, which lends permanency to the recent celebration of 



74 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



the birth of the first President of the United States, symbolizes 
the enduring character of the confraternity of those Repub- 
lics which are represented at the Maison des Nations Ameri- 
caines, both as between themselves and with that sister nation 
which houses us at this moment? 

To me it seems a most happy coincidence that the statues 
of Washington and Bolivar should be simultaneously inaugu- 
rated, since their names must forever be coupled in the inspir- 
ing movement which at length made possible the putting into 
effect of those principles of republican freedom which are the 
birthright of all the countries of the Western Hemisphere. 
Nor does the analogy end there. While for six years Wash- 
ington fought for his country's independence, hampered by 
lack of arms and men and by the poverty of the colonies in 
the north, Bolivar struggled for thirteen years through simi- 
lar discouragements and hardships at last to liberate what is 
now Venezuela, Colombia, Bolivia, and Peru, and to contri- 
bute to the enfranchisement of Ecuador. Both men, when 
peace was won, became the first presidents of their respective 
homelands and both, in laying aside their swords, knew how 
to lay the cornerstone of the enlightened constitutional gov- 
ernment which today and for the future supports the struc- 
tures of our democratic systems. 

Those early statesmen who dreamed of independence on the 
North American continent were undoubtedly influenced by 
the group of 18 th century French philosophers, and it was 
Washington who, by his indomitable courage and his refusal 
to admit defeat was finally to bring to a practical reality 
those principles which, up to that time, had been ideal con- 
ceptions. And once success had crowned his efforts, the prin- 
ciples that had found expression in the New World returned 
to take root in the Old. 

But destiny was not yet satisfied with its accomplishments 
in France and the United States; the movement commenced 
in the eighteenth century had not yet run its course. It 
would seem indeed that some guiding force directed the steps 
of Simon Bolivar to France where he witnessed some of the 
last stirring scenes of the Revolution. Later in 1809 he 
visited the United States where he had the opportunity of 
studying the functioning of free institutions. Significantly, 
it was the following year that he definitely identified himself 
with the cause of independence in South America. 

It is an encouraging manifestation this — that the thought 
of the Old World should have contributed to the liberty of 
the New World and that the echo of independence in America 
should have sounded back across the ocean to inspire the 
French people to achieve that social progress which they had 
so long enunciated. Surely a movement which has emanated 
from the same fountain of thought must, like a subterranean 
stream, have its influence in linking together our republics 
which it has fed. To the busts of Washington and Bolivar 
before us, would it not be a happy thought some day to see 
the images of those other liberators of the South American 
continent as well as of one of the great statesmen of France 
in order that those of us who enter here may not forget either 
our mutual debt of the past or our common obligation for 
the future. 

Public Square Renamed 

Three days later, on July 3, the City of Paris 
again honored the memory of Washington and 
the American and French soldiers of his army by 
renaming the square at the intersection of Frank- 
lin and Vineuse streets, calling it the Square de 
Yorktown. This is one of the principal inter- 
sections in the city, near both the famous French 



Trocadero and the one-time residence of Benjamin 
Franklin and other distinguished Americans. 

At the inaugural ceremony, when the new name 
was officially bestowed on the square, the Muni- 
cipality of Paris was represented by M. de Fonte- 
nay, President of the Municipal Council, who 
delivered the following address: 

The great American Week which Paris never fails to cele- 
brate with enthusiasm takes on, this year, a particular 
significance. 

It is not only that we celebrate a day of the year which 
saw expanding under the July sun those great movements 
destined to bring the people to independence and liberty. The 
two hundredth anniversary of the birth of Washington, which 
the city will celebrate tomorrow at the Hotel de Ville, moves 
us, besides, to acts whereby may be expressed our desire to 
perpetuate the lessons given to their descendants by our valiant 
ancestors. 

In compliance with this desire, the City Council has decided 
to name a square in memory of the event which recalls the 
name of Yorktown, the decisive victory of the combined 
forces of the two allied countries. 

It has seemed to the Assembly that no place is better suited 
than this little garden in a section where, from the time 
of Franklin, our friends from across the Atlantic during their 
sojourn among us, have always selected, with marked predi- 
lection, as a domicile. Henceforth, in the shadow of the 
statue of the diplomat-philosopher, principal author of the 
negotiations from which came victory, the flowers of the 
Parisian soil will always flourish in honor of the brave men to 
whom fortune gave success under the folds of the starry 
banner and the lilies of France. 

There is no battle which has exercised on the fortunes of 
the young Republic an influence comparable with that of 
Yorktown. It demonstrated beyond question the triumphant 
value of union: union between the combined forces of earth 
and sea accomplishing a siege and blockade with a precision 
outstanding in the annals of strategy; union between Wash- 
ington and Lafayette, between the militiamen of the New 
World, the soldiers of Rochambeau and the sailors of the fleet 
of Admiral de Grasse. 

If even today, the precision of the maneuvers conceived by 
the chiefs remains an object of admiration by military critics, 
if in spite of changes in armament, the orders of Washington 
are still considered the finest of models, comparable to the 
commentaries of Caesar and to the proclamations of Napoleon, 
we know also the role of the master of the sea. 

It pleases us today to turn a thought to the conqueror of 
that naval battle of the Chesapeake to whom Washington 
rendered homage as to one of the principal instruments in 
the surrender of Yorktown and whose monument, recently 
unveiled, stands not far from here in the garden of the Tro- 
cadero. Our communal pride doubles our patriotic pride. It 
recalls the vessel which was flying the flag of the chief of the 
naval army at the moment when the enemy ship, The London, 
hoisted the signal of retreat. The name which shone in letters 
of gold on the poop in testimony to the donors of the most 
beautiful unit of the fleet was none other than The City of 
Paris. 

It is now from the geography of the New World that we 
borrow the name engraved on this plaque. One cannot ignore 
the symbolic significance used in the decoration of this cor- 
ner of Passy. In the future a new road, thanks to the 
lengthening of Muette Avenue, will open into this place. 
Then the traveler who comes into the city by its newest and 
most monumental routes will find affirmation of the historic 



Foreign Participation — France 



75 



communion which has always united the United States and 
France, Paris, and America. 

Washington Honored on July 4 

American Independence Day, always publicly 
observed in Paris, was made a special occasion in 
1932 for honoring the memory of George Wash- 
ington. In its decorations, patriotic exercises and 
bicentennial social functions, Paris on July 4 
rivaled many a large city of the United States. 

"The spirit that united America and France in 
the War of Independence," stated the new york 
herald, of Paris, next day, "was manifested in a 
series of July 4 ceremonies. Throughout the day 
the Stars and Stripes fluttered with the Tricolor 
on public buildings and Franco-American shrines, 
and the deeds of Lafayette and the courage of 
Washington were recalled." 

Lafayette's tomb in Picpus Cemetery was the 
focal point of patriotic rites at 10:00 A. M. under 
the auspices of the Comite France-Amerique. 
The ceremonies included addresses by Edward H. 
de Neveu, Vice-President of the Sons of the 




FLOWERS ON THE TOMB OF LAFAYETTE IN 

MEMORY OF WASHINGTON. At the right is 

Charles Beaumont, President of the Veterans of 

Foreign Wars in Paris. 



American Revolution, and the American Charge 
d'Affaires, Mr. Armour, who read the last two 
letters exchanged by Washington and Lafayette. 

Albert Lebrun, President of France, was repre- 
sented by Captain Le Bigot. Other notables 
present were General Gouraud, Military Governor 
of Paris; General de Trentinian, of the Order of 
Cincinnati; members of the Daughters of the 
American Revolution and the Colonial Dames of 
America; the American Military and Naval 
Attaches, Brigadier-General Stanley H. Ford and 
Captain David M. Le Breton; the Marquis de 
Rochambeau; the Marquis de Grasse and Dr. 
Maurice Hanotte. 

The American Legion Color Guard, Paris Post, 
led by Sergeant Ralph H. Garner, conducted a 
formal salute before the tomb. 

Following the ceremonies at the tomb of La- 
fayette, the officials repaired to the statue to the 
American Volunteers in the French Army, Place 
des Etats-Unis, where they were joined by the 
Baron de Fontenay, President of the Municipal 
Council; Jules Jusserand, former Ambassador to 
the United States, and members of the Association 
of French Liaison Officers with the American 
Army. Here again the American Legion Color 
Guard saluted, and William S. Davenport, General 
de Trentinian and Baron de Fontenay voiced 
tributes to the American war dead, extolling 
Franco-American relations. This ceremony was 
under the direction of the American Volunteers in 
the French Army, 1914-1917. 

The address of the Baron de Fontenay follows: 

Ladies and Gentlemen: 

In coming to affirm, once more, before this monument 
dedicated to the American volunteers who died for France, 
her gratitude and emotion, Paris obeys a sacred dictate of 
her heart. In rendering the homage due these heroes who, 
for the triumph of an ideal, freely made the sacrifice of their 
lives, we hear the voices that arise from the tombs where 
repose the bodies of these brave men. They exhort us in 
these troubled hours to remain united by sentiment and by 
reason; to give to the problems of the moment, to passing 
difficulties, the secondary rank which they deserve among 
human values and to maintain intact the sacred patrimony 
of our joys and sorrows. 

The memory of the friendship of Washington and of 
Lafayette was lodged deep in the souls of these brave and 
robust youths who in 1917 left their western shores with 
their populous cities to come to the aid of a wounded France. 

In our turn, we relied on a past still vibrant with shared 
sufferings, with common hopes, for the continuance of our 
indissoluble ties. 

From the fronts of our public edifices, from the tower of 
our Hotel de Ville (City Hall), fly at this moment the folds 
of the proud standard of the United States together with our 



76 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



own tricolor. We cultivate as a precious thing this friend- 
ship between our peoples, sanctified twice by the blood of 
our sons. 

The circumstances that bring about this pilgrimage, which 
this year takes place during the many celebrations organized 
by the Comite France-Amerique to recall the bonds between 
our two countries, offer a symbolic and spiritual s'gnificance 
which can escape no one. 

Honor Paid to Americans 

A signal tribute was paid to prominent mem- 
bers of the American colony at a Fourth of July 
Bicentennial reception at the Palace of the Legion 
of Honor, when General Dubail, Grand Chan- 
cellor of the Legion, pinned an officer's rosette on 
the breast of Charles G. Loeb, president of the 
American Chamber of Commerce in France, who 
took a prominent part in planning the bicenten- 
nial celebrations in Paris. Mr. Loeb was described 
by General Dubail as "a child of Paris and faithful 
friend of France." 

The American Women's Club of Paris gave a 
George Washington luncheon on July 4 with the 
American Charge d 'Affaires, Mr. Armour, as the 
guest of honor. Mrs. Benjamin H. Connor pre- 
sided and those present included the Comtesse de 
Chilly and Mrs. Frederic Shearer, national and 
Paris regents of the Daughters of the American 
Revolution. 

Mr. Armour said in part: 

"This is the time when the American woman 
can play her most important role, when she can 
make her influence most felt. If she stands firm 
and insists that in spite of everything there shall 
be no deviation from the patriotic path of Ameri- 
can citizenship; that regardless of what is hap- 
pening, she stands by the side of her husband, 
father or brother, for the support and defense of 
the Constitution versus all enemies foreign and do- 
mestic, for the upholding of our laws and the 
honor of our flag, then she is performing the duty 
of citizenship as it should be performed. 

"It behooves us as patriotic Americans on this 
double anniversary — the 15 6th anniversary of our 
Independence and the 200th anniversary of the 
birth of Washington — to pause to consider for a 
moment our position in the world today, to make 
in army parlance 'an estimate of the situation,' 
and having made it, to resolve that if our country 
needs our help we stand ready for the call." 

The American University Women's Club held 
a reception during the afternoon of July 4 in Reid 



Hall, at which William L. Finger, American Trade 
Commissioner, addressed more than one hundred 
and fifty members and guests. 

Students Lay Cornerstone 

American students in Paris seized upon this 
occasion of honor to George Washington and the 
celebration of American Independence to lay the 
cornerstone for their new social center at 261 
Boulevard Raspail. Here again the officials of the 
Municipality of Paris rendered the occasion his- 
toric by their presence and were paid a high com- 
pliment for their interest in American projects by 
the American Charge d'Affaires. 

Other Ceremonies on July 4 

At the same time that the laying of the corner- 
stone of the American Students Social Center was 
taking place, there were assembled at Dun-sur- 
Meuse, a town on the Meuse River not far from 
Paris, a group of French and American notables 
who had journeyed thither to dedicate a memorial 
to the Fifth Division of the American Army. The 
memorial was built into a new bridge across the 
Meuse River, along which some of the crucial 
battles of the World War were fought. 

Captain Peter P. Zion presented the officials of 
the town with a special copy of the history of 
the gallant Fifth, and recalled what General 
Pershing described as "one of the most brilliant 
feats of the A. E. F." 

Ever since the Unknown Soldier of France was 
interred in the magnificent tomb at the Etoile in 
Paris there has been burning there an "eternal 
flame." On the evening of July 4 the color guard 
of the American Legion, Paris Post, marched to 
this famous sarcophagus, placed a wreath, saluted 
the departed hero and "attended to the re-kindling 
of the eternal flame." Commander Henry W. 
Dunning and R. L. Miles officiated. 

Chamber of Commerce Banquet 

With President Lebrun occupying the chair of 
honor beneath a cluster of French and American 
flags and more than 300 French and American 
notables as guests, the annual banquet of the 
American Chamber of Commerce in France — 
dedicated this year to the theme of the George 
Washington Bicentennial — was held on the eve- 



Foreign Participation — France 



77 



ning of July 4 at the Hotel Palais d'Orsay. 
Among the guests were General John J. Pershing; 
Hon. Frank B. Kellogg, former Secretary of State; 
M. Rene Renoult, Vice President of the French 
Council of Ministers; Mr. Armour, American 
Charge d'Affaires; and Charles G. Loeb, president 
of the Chamber of Commerce. 

"Distinguished military and civil leaders of 
France sat in an aura of historic good-will with a 
gathering of Americans, pledging anew faith in 
the work of the two sister republics for war's end," 
said the European edition of the new york 
herald next morning. "The banquet was one of 
the greatest demonstrations of Franco-American 
good-will ever witnessed in Paris." 

Special importance was given to the event by 
the presence of President Lebrun, who in accept- 
ing the invitation of the American Chamber of 
Commerce, followed the precedent of attendance 



of the French Chief of State at American Fourth 
of July banquets established by the late President 
Doumer. Before his assassination in May, Presi- 
dent Doumer had signified his intention of at- 
tending this function in honor of George 
Washington. 

Mr. Loeb, presiding at the banquet, called upon 
the President of France to say a few words as "an 
additional sign of international friendship." The 
President's short address was enthusiastically 
applauded. 

Thanking the American Chamber of Commerce 
for its invitation and for thus associating, in ac- 
cordance with tradition, the Chief of the French 
State with the manifestation of Franco- American 
amity, President Lebrun expressed the hope that 
the two sister republics, following their destinies 
on opposite sides of the Atlantic, "always shall be 
able to evolve from memories justly evoked and 




AMERICAN CHAMBER OF COMMERCE IN FRANCE HONORS GEORGE WASHINGTON. This was one of the 

outstanding events OF THE Bicentennial Celebration in France. At the main table left to right, beginning under 

"A" in the background are Former American Secretary of State Frank B. Kellogg, Charles G. Loeb, President Lebrun of the 

French Republic, and Norman Armour, American Charge d'Affaires. 



78 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



from their long confraternity the means of solving 
their problems and settling their respective inter- 
ests according to full justice, bearing in mind the 
sacrifices they made for the sacred cause in the 
great conflict a few years ago." 

The President concluded his speech with these 
words: 

"Gentlemen, it is in such a spirit that I in turn 
ask you to raise your glasses in honor of the 
Franco-American friendship of today and for its 
fruitful periods to come. May that friendship 
serve to bind still more closely and more pro- 
foundly the mutual relations of our two great 
nations." 

Premier Edouard Herriot had declared his inten- 
tion of being present, but found it necessary to 
leave that same evening for Lausanne. He was 
represented by M. Renoult, who spoke in behalf 
of his government, confirming the hope for peace- 
ful adjustment of all problems expressed by Presi- 
dent Lebrun. The following is a translation of M. 
Renoult's address: 

George Washington believed in the world's great moral 
forces, and the heroes of the war of independence were vic- 
torious because they knew that the ideal always would van- 
quish force. . . . 

Magnificent history, which continues to bear fruit, for 
from that epopee was created the Franco-American friendship 
which we are celebrating today! It has resisted all tests during 
more than two centuries, for the very reason that it was 
founded upon mutual moral bases, superior to those of inter- 
est. At the present time the necessity of such friendship is 
greater than ever, for it finds its justification in the actual 
interest of all nations. 

As strongly attached as is the United States to the Pact of 
Paris and to the principles of arbitration and the pacific set- 
tlement of conflicts, France never has ceased to prepare the 
work of organization of peace. France adhered to the facul- 
tative clause of obligatory jurisdiction of the Permanent 
Court of Justice, the scope of which Mr. Kellogg himself is 
best placed to appreciate, and to the General Act of Arbi- 
tration by which all disputes, judicial and political, are as- 
sured of judicial or arbitral settlement. 

Even though (as Mr. Kellogg himself has recognized) the 
particular situation in which she finds herself, past experience 
and legitimate care of her interests justify on her part the 
greatest degree of prudence, France did not wait for the con- 
ditions of her security to be entirely realized before entering 
into the way of a limitation of her national armaments — she 
reduced her military service to one year and collaborated 
actively in the elaboration at Geneva of the limitation and 
reduction of armaments. 

Toast to French President 

Mr. Loeb proposed the health of the President 
of the French Republic, with the music of the 
"Marseillaise," and that of the President of the 
United States, with the music of "Stars and 



Stripes." Speaking in French, he then emphasized 
the special importance of this year's July 4 cele- 
bration because of its association with the observ- 
ance of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the 
Birth of George Washington. He paid tribute 
to the memory of the eminent Frenchmen, Mar- 
shal Joffre, Marshal Foch, Aristide Briand and 
President Doumer, who at repeated Fourth of July 
Celebrations had honored the Americans in Paris 
with their presence. 

Among the sentiments expressed by Mr. Loeb 
and most warmly applauded was: "I am con- 
vinced personally that if ever the territory of 
France was again invaded, her security endangered, 
or her national life threatened, the Americans 
would rise tip and hasten to fight at her side." 

Translated, Mr. Loeb's address was, in part, as 
follows: 

The anniversary of the independence of the United States 
of America is treated as a national holiday in France, and on 
this day the American flag floats at the side of the French 
flag on French public buildings and monuments. Therefore, 
I need not say to the Frenchmen who are here what the Fourth 
of July means, but only to thank them to have collaborated 
so closely not only in celebrating our independence, but in 
creating it. 

The American Government decided to give to the celebra- 
tion of the two hundredth anniversary of Washington's birth- 
day an exceptional character — for the event to be celebrated 
not only in one fete but to cover the entire year of 1932. 
Naturally, the culminating point of these celebrations is the 
Fourth of July, the anniversary of the declaration of the in- 
dependence of the United States of America for which George 
Washington fought victoriously, and to the maintenance of 
which he consecrated himself in war and peace. . . . 

In my opinion, the most beautiful homage to George 
Washington, the most magnificent synthesis of his work and 
of his life, was made by Napoleon Bonaparte in the order of 
the day addressed to the French army on the occasion of the 
death of Washington: 

"Washington is dead. This great man fought against 
tyranny. He consolidated the liberty of his country. His 
memory will always be dear to the French people as to all the 
free men of the two worlds and especially to the Frenchmen 
who, like him and the American soldiers, fight for equality 
and liberty. Consequently the First Consul orders that during 
ten days black crepes shall be attached to all flags and stand- 
ards of the Republic." 

We cannot think of Washington without thinking of 
Lafayette, and their friendship symbolizes the unalterable 
friendship between France and the United States. It is certain 
that, in spite of financial questions, economic and tariff prob- 
lems, and in spite of the agitations of internal politics in 
America, the friendship of the United States for France has 
remained as intact and sincere as was that of Washington and 
of Lafayette. 

Although the Franco-American friendship, from a stand- 
point of sentiment, is established beyond discussion and so 
deeply rooted in our country that this friendship has resisted 
the most poisonous campaigns, we must nevertheless admit 
that our cooperation is far from being perfect. People may 
love each other without really helping each other sufficiently, 



Foreign Participation — France 



79 



and the main effort of the American Chamber of Commerce 
in France has been, and always will be, directed toward creat- 
ing a closer solidarity and a more intimate collaboration be- 
tween the United States and France in the economic, financial 
and commercial fields. 

The American Chamber of Commerce is particularly happy 
to state that two agreements have been signed recently be- 
tween our two countries which constitute milestones on the 
road to Franco-American collaboration — the convention which 
was signed during the month of April abolishing the double 
taxation of American corporations and the convention signed 
during the month of May relating to the quotas, — constitut- 
ing the important progress in our hope that our two countries 
will settle all differences and solve all their problems at one 
time by a general treaty of commerce. . . . 

I know that all Frenchmen will be happy to see that Ameri- 
can politics point toward the revision of the Prohibition Law. 
There is in America a great movement of public opinion 
against the application which is being made at present of the 
Eighteenth Amendment of the Constitution, and it appears 
possible that France may soon see the doors reopen in America 
to one of its important commerces. 

It is from the intimate collaboration and close cooperation 
of our two countries that a return of prosperity can be ex- 
pected, and I trust that, in accordance with the words of 
Viviani, our two nations will know how to rise in every way 
above the narrow furrows of egotism. 

American Melodies Played 

A pleasant deviation from the speechmaking at 
the banquet was furnished by the Garde Repub- 
licaine Band, which under the baton of M. Pierre 
Dupont played such favorites as "Dixie," "Over 
There", "Songs From the Old Folks," "Campus 
Melodies," and music from American Civil War 
and World War collections. 

General Pershing, dressed in mufti and wearing 
the Legion grand cordon, and General Gouraud, 
Military Governor of Paris, were the subjects of 
stirring demonstrations whenever their names were 
mentioned. 

The Government of the United States was rep- 
resented by Mr. Armour who referred to the 
bonds uniting France and America through 
Lafayette and praised the Kellogg-Briand Treaty 
as leading the way to peace. He said: 

We all regret the absence of our Ambassador tonight. 
However, it is needless for me to assure you that it is a great 
privilege and pleasure to me to be here with you all. 

These dinners on the Fourth of July have become a tradi- 
tion in our life in France, particularly because of the oppor- 
tunity that they afford for an expression of Franco-American 
friendship and understanding. The dinner this year possesses 
a particular significance, marking as it does not only the 
156th year of our independence as a nation, but the 200th 
anniversary of the birth of George Washington. We are 
therefore particularly honored to have with us as our guests 
of honor tonight the President of the Republic, the Vice- 
President of the Council of Ministers, and so many distin- 
guished representatives of French life and thought. We are 
also happy to greet our former Secretary of State, Mr. Kellogg, 



now judge on the International Court of Justice at The 
Hague. 

Mr. Secretary, for that is the name that comes most 
naturally to my lips in addressing you, our former chief, — 
it is with something akin to emotion that we greet you here 
tonight. Your name, together with that of the great French- 
man [Briand] whom you saw borne to his final resting place 
at Cocherel yesterday, is forever associated with the pact, 
which although officially bearing the name of Paris, is and 
will always be more familiarly known to us as the Briand- 
Kellogg Pact. Almost four years have passed since you came 
to Paris to attend the solemn ceremony connected with the 
signature of that pact. Since that time you have left the 
office of Secretary of State, but you have continued on in the 
cause of international justice, giving the benefit of your ripe 
experience to the great court now functioning at The Hague. 
I like to think that it is more than a coincidence that our last 
two Secretaries of State both went from that office to two of 
the highest courts of justice — Mr. Hughes to become Chief 
Justice of the Supreme Court of the United States, and your- 
self to be the American Representative on the Permanent 
Court of International Justice at The Hague. Is this not 
evidence of the fact that it is the will of our country that 
the post of Secretary of State — that the handling of our in- 
ternational relations — be put in the hands of men who bring 
to their work the impartiality of the bench; the finest and 
highest traditions of the law. The fact that the present Sec- 
retary of State was also a lawyer of distinction before assum- 
ing his present office, is further evidence of this fact. 

Less than six months ago, it was my high privilege to be 
seated at this very table, in fact, in this very place, beside 
the President of the Republic. He came to do honor to Wash- 
ington and I had the pleasure to recall to him on that occa- 
sion that he was the second Chief of State of France to 
render by his presence such homage to our first President — the 
other having been the young Napoleon Bonaparte as First 
Consul. Three months later, America mourned with France 
the terrible act that removed this great and kind figure from 
her public life. 

Mr. President of the Republic, we are deeply honored by 
your presence here tonight. Like your predecessor, you have 
always shown yourself to be a true friend of my country and 
we like to interpret your presence here tonight as further evi- 
dence of that fact. With my Ambassador I had the pleasure 
to accompany General Pershing when you received him re- 
cently at the Elysee and I had the privilege then of hearing 
you describe your visit, as Minister of the Liberated Regions, 
when you accompanied President Poincare into Saint Mihiel 
just after it had been occupied by American forces. 

Mr. President, you come from that portion of France that 
has given so many of your countrymen to the service not only 
of France but of the world. We Americans shall never forget 
that it was from Lorraine that Pere Marquette came to dis- 
cover the inner wildernesses of our country. 

It is a great source of pride to all of us Americans here to- 
night, as I know it will be to our compatriots across the sea, 
that the head of the French State should honor us with his 
presence on this particularly significant occasion, and on be- 
half of my Government and of our people, I wish to express 
our deep appreciation for this gesture of friendship. 

Mr. Vice President of the Council, it is a cause of regret 
to us all that the President of the Council who had hoped in 
spite of his many and onerous duties to have been with us 
tonight should at the last moment have been called away, but 
we appreciate the reasons which have made it impossible for 
him to be here and we are happy to greet you in his place 
as representing the French Government. You have many 
friends among the members of the American colony in Paris, 
all of whom are delighted to welcome you here tonight. We 
are particularly gratified, Mr. Vice President of the Council, 



80 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



that you should have taken this time to join in our celebration 
tonight and we beg you to accept our thanks. 

I should be grateful to Your Excellency if you would be 
kind enough in my behalf to transmit the following message 
to M. Herriot, which had he been here tonight I had expected 
to address him personally. Would you tell him that, since 
taking over the high office which he now holds, we realize 
that he has had charge of delicate and difficult international 
negotiations which we all hope will lead to the solution to 
questions of an importance that have perhaps never before 
confronted the world. Upon the solution to those questions 
will perhaps depend whether or not our civilization as we have 
conceived it is to continue. Would you tell him that his 
breadth of vision and the sympathetic understanding which 
he has shown in approaching these questions have been deeply 
appreciated by the Government and people of the United 
States and that we feel sure that in this spirit, and with the 
desire prompting us all to reach a solution to these problems, 
an issue satisfactory to all will eventually be found. 

I raise my glass to our two Republics and to the friendship 
which, unbroken through 156 years, will unite them forever. 

Notable Address by Mr. Kellogg 

The candor with which the problems confront- 
ing the United States and France were discussed 
during the bicentennial celebrations in Paris is 
illustrated by the principal address at the Chamber 
of Commerce banquet. It was delivered by Mr. 
Kellogg, former American Secretary of State 
and co-author of the Pact of Paris. 

Mr. Kellogg referred freely to international 
policies, war memories, economic conditions and 
President Hoover's disarmament plan which, he 
said, had kindled anew the peace hopes of man- 
kind. There follows the full text of Mr. Kellogg's 
speech: 

Since the last celebration of the Fourth of July, France has 
lost two of her great statesmen. The tragic death of Presi- 
dent Doumer has stirred the world with horror and has awak- 
ened in the minds of the peoples of all nations a sense of deep 
sorrow and sympathy for France and the members of his 
family. Stricken at the height of his fame, he was a man 
beloved of all, and I know that all Americans join with 
France in paying tribute to his memory. Another French 
statesman, M. Briand, of whom I speak with a sense of per- 
sonal loss, has gone. For him I had a deep affection and ad- 
miration. He was the greatest influence for peace in this 
troubled post-war period. His death was an irreparable loss 
and all lovers of peace will bow their heads in sorrow. 

And yet, we must live our lives, fulfill our destiny, visit our 
national shrines and celebrate our national holidays. 

There is a peculiar significance in the celebration of the 
Fourth of July this year as it is the two hundredth anniver- 
sary of the birth of George Washington, whose name is 
honored in every land. And how appropriate that we should 
celebrate in Paris — the capital of the nation which rendered 
such signal assistance in the establishment of the independence 
of a new nation — an event which has been fraught with the 
most far-reaching influence in the world's civilization! 

I can say nothing new about the relations of France and 
the United States, but often it is useful to say over and over 
again the things that all know, so that we may not forget 
the lessons that history teaches, or fail to view the future in 



the proper perspective. In all the years that have passed since 
the breaking of the dawn on that memorable Fourth of July, 
1776, France and the United States have never been at war 
and I have faith they never will be. The two nations have 
had their differences — sometimes serious ones — but those dif- 
ferences have never brought our countries into armed con- 
flict. This is an example worthy of emulation by the nations 
of the world. 

If our countries, originators of the only world-wide decla- 
ration against war, cannot settle their disputes by negotiation 
or arbitration, I should despair of the outlook for peace. Do 
not let us be disturbed by the clashes of opinions — serious as 
they seem at times. Do not let us be disturbed by speeches 
of some of our public men — often made for local consump- 
tion — nor by the press which occasionally may stir the pas- 
sions of the people. These incidents can probably not be pre- 
vented, but they can be minimized. I know that in the end 
the calm influence of reason will prevail and that the states- 
men, who, from time to time, may hold the destinies of these 
nations in their hands, will not lightly take any step which 
might ultimately lead to world disaster. 

It was with the background of this history, and looking 
confidently to the future, that France's great statesman and 
apostle of peace proposed to the United States a perpetual 
and unalterable covenant that France and the United States 
should renounce war and should settle all their differences by 
pacific means. It was with this grand conception and from 
this beginning that the Pact of Paris grew, whereby sixty 
nations have solemnly pledged themselves to peace. I often 
wonder if we fully realize the responsibility these two nations 
have assumed to the rest of the world. I sometimes doubt, 
and yet I know that deep in our national consciousness we 
must realize the appalling consequences if France and America, 
whose peoples are devoted to peace, should forget their solemn 
pledges and fail to exert to the utmost their influence as the 
world's greatest republics to prevent another conflict. 

The question foremost in the public mind today is: How 
are we to maintain peace? 

We are still in the shadow of the great war. The minds of 
the people and of their leaders in public life are still oppressed 
by the fear of war, and statesmen are groping, as it were, in 
the dark for some means of prevention. It would seem im- 
possible that the recollection of the greatest cataclysm the 
world ever knew can have faded from the minds of men. 
Who can describe the horrors of that war? Imagination is 
baffled when we think of the millions of men and women 
sacrificed, of the appalling destruction, of ruined lands and 
desolate homes, and of the trail of poverty and misery which 
has followed in its wake. One can hardly believe that men 
contemplate the possibility of the clash of nations which 
would produce another such catastrophe. When we consider 
the awful devastation of that conflict and the development 
of science in the improvement of the instruments of destruc- 
tion, we cannot conceive the result of another war. I doubt 
if our boasted Western civilization would survive it. And 
yet, we hear today influential men predicting a war as in- 
evitable, and advocating the building of great navies and the 
increase of armament as a means of defense. 

I do not believe that the present political unrest in the 
world indicates another war. In my opinion, the cause of the 
unrest, the agitation and the disturbances, which have shaken 
many nations to their foundations, is economic rather than 
the growth of the war spirit. It is the natural consequence of 
the great upheaval through which we passed. 

Now — what are the remedies? Some advocate alliances of 
the great nations armed to police the world; some, the arming 
of a super-state, and some, military sanctions. I do not be- 
lieve in the efficacy of any of these remed : es. War has never 
been prevented by armed alliances; they have only broadened 
and deepened and intensified the conflict when it came. If 



Foreign Participation — France 



;i 



you cannot trust individual nations in their dealings with one 
another to settle their difficulties by pacific means, you cannot 
trust them banded or held together by alliances to maintain 
peace by arming to the teeth. We know that many wars 
have been brought on through an exaggerated chauvinism, 
jealousy, racial hatreds and the personal ambitions of rulers. 
But can anyone say that the great and powerful nations are 
less liable to aggression or to the abuse of power than the 
smaller nations? I do not, for a moment minimize the fears 
of peoples and their longing for security, but I do not believe 
that security can be had by alliance, balance of power and 
armament. For centuries Europe has depended upon these 
primitive methods to maintain peace. They have been dangers 
rather than safeguards. In the last great war, the then exist- 
ing alliances prevented localizing the conflict and this fact, 
with the competition in armament was undoubtedly to a large 
extent, if not entirely, responsible for what happened. 

What does the history of the last war teach us? It was 
started by a crime, a murder in Sarajevo, which of course, 
should have been and was punished under domestic law. 
Shocking as the crime was, it was not an adequate cause for 
plunging most of Europe into a desperate struggle from which 
our civilization will not recover for generations. It started 
as a feeble flame and spread like a mighty conflagration until 
it involved in its cometary sweep the whole continent — in 
fact, most of the world. The murder was the excuse for the 
war and not the real cause. The real cause lay deep in the 
political system. National jealousies and aspirations, racial 
hatreds, distrust and fear had divided Europe into armed 
camps. Her statesmen had attempted to prevent war by mili- 
tary alliances and ententes calculated to maintain the balance 
of power and entailing inevitably a competitive increase in 
armament. As a result, peace was not maintained but most 
of the nations of the world were involved in a conflict in the 
direct cause of which many of them had no interest. 

One of the most cynical doctrines in the whole political 
armory is that which passes under the title of "balance of 
power." It means nothing more nor less than the building up 
and setting off of one armed force against another through 
alliances and counter-alliances. It is the direct negation of 
disarmament. This vicious system was one of the first fruits 
of the intense militant nationalism which emerged from feu- 
dalism uncontrolled by any recognized law of nations; it 
reached its highest development on the continent of Europe 
during the eighteenth century; and, to the disgrace of man- 
kind, it has lingered on to our day. It cannot be reconciled 
with the enlightened conception of a world governed by law, 
and it has been thoroughly discredited by its results. Indeed, 
history records no failure so conspicuous, so complete, and so 
disastrous. 

The way to security and peace is through disarmament; and 
the way to disarm is to disarm. Does any rational human 
being doubt the verdict of a universal plebiscite on this sub- 
ject if such a thing were possible? Do you and I know any- 
body who actually wants another war? Where is the man in 
any civilized community who cares to pay his earnings over 
to his Government to buy guns and build battleships? And 
yet this overwhelming sentiment against armaments has thus 
far succeeded in producing little more than pious declarations 
of principle. 

Thirteen years ago in circumstances of utmost solemnity, 
the Covenant of the League of Nations was framed with a 
clause laying down the basic principle that 

The maintenance of peace requires the reduction 
of national armaments to the lowest point con- 
sistent with national safety. 

Today, land and naval armaments are greater than ever in 
times of peace and are increasing at an alarming rate. The 
nearest approach to a definite accomplishment has been the 
Washington Treaty of 1922 in which five Powers fixed a 



limit for battleships — much higher than was really justified by 
their needs. The London Conference of 1930 made little 
progress in real disarmament. It failed to produce agreement 
among all of the big Powers and fixed the limits of permis- 
sible naval tonnage so high in certain categories as to allow 
increases instead of decreases. 

How long will the patience of the waiting masses hold out 
in the face of these discouragements? Hope is a good break- 
fast but a bad supper. 

In speaking today, however, I am profoundly moved by the 
conviction that another great advance on the road to world 
peace, political appeasement and economic relief is under way. 
The suggestion of President Hoover for a reduction by ap- 
proximately one-third of the armaments of the world has re- 
kindled new hope. There is not a nation whose people are not 
breathing more freely at the thought of the relief from the 
crushing burden which the universal acceptance of some such 
plan might bring to them. The general acceptance of a 
project of this nature is naturally very near to my own heart 
since it is the logical working out of those ideas which ani- 
mated the conclusion of that Treaty which forever proscribed 
wars of aggression and made defense the only legitimate use 
for arms. Therefore each step which tends to decrease the 
forces apt for aggression and consequently makes possible a 
decrease of those maintained for defense, hastens the day when 
war shall exist only as a word in our histories. A striking 
program of this nature is a further indication, if any is needed, 
of the fact that America is desirous, heart and soul, of co- 
operating in the solution of the world's problems. Moreover, 
in the conclusion of such a Treaty now lies real security, 
since it would reduce the means of aggression, unite the world 
in a joint undertaking to maintain that reduced level, and give 
all nations of the world a common interest in the solution of 
any difficulties that might disturb this equilibrium. 

In these times of ruinous cost of Government, with the 
crushing burden of taxation which is sapping the economic 
life blood of peoples and blocking the return to prosperity, 
the expenditure for armament is not only responsible to a 
large degree for this taxation, but it is a menace to the peace 
of the world. 

L realize that the United States is more fortunately sit- 
uated than many of the nations of Europe and that we should 
not assume to measure the actions of all countries by the 
standards of our public opinion. I am not, therefore, criti- 
cizing the statesmen of any nation, whose fears for the safety 
of their respective countries lead them to advocate what I 
believe to be a worn-out policy of past generations. 

Peace will come to the family of nations when the people, 
their leaders and the publicists have finally come to the con- 
clusion that there are better means of settling international 
disputes than the bloody arbitrament of war. People must 
be educated to appreciate that war is a crime against the law 
of nations and the law of nature. It cannot be expected that 
the abolition of war will be accomplished in a day, when war 
has been considered the legal and justified prerogative of na- 
tions from time immemorial. But war is a different thing 
today from what it was centuries ago. It has ceased to be a 
mere clash between two or three nations from which the rest 
of the world is immune. A conflict today in any part of the 
world is a menace to the peace of all the rest of the world. 

I believe that greater steps have been taken in the last 
decade to maintain peace than in any period of the world's 
history and it has come through mutual understanding, con- 
ferences, conciliation, arbitration and judicial settlement of 
disputes. Time does not permit me to discuss in detail those 
measures which have occupied the attention of statesmen. 
Hundreds of treaties of conciliation and arbitration have been 
made; the League of Nations is constantly engaged in the 
adjustment of international disputes; the Locarno Treaties 
went far towards the stabilization of Central Europe; and the 



82 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Pact of Paris was the first broad declaration of all nations for 
renunciation of war and for the peaceful settlement of inter- 
national disputes. It is the unconditional solemn pledge of 
more than sixty nations backed by the united voice of all the 
peoples of the world not to resort to war for the settlement 
of disputes. It is a declaration of principles, a reversal of the 
policy of nations, a foundation stone on which can be built 
the temple of peace. I know it is said by many that it is 
nothing but a treaty which may be broken as many others 
which have gone before it, and that it did not prevent the 
conflict between China and Japan. M. Briand, the author 
of this great conception, did not claim for it absolute pre- 
vention of war, but he never lost faith in its efficacy. I 
desire to point out that neither China nor Japan has been 
willing to admit they were at war, and twenty years ago 
what has occurred there would probably have involved all of 
the East in the flame of war. Who knows the restraining in- 
fluence this treaty has had? We know of the strenuous efforts 
of all the nations to settle this conflict and to preserve peace, 
how by concerted action the public opinion of the world was 
focused upon the two nations who were threatening the viola- 
tion of their treaties. When, in any crisis, in the past has 
this been done? Had it been done in 1914 the great conflict 
might have been averted. Had the opinions of all nations 
been mobilized and brought to bear, how different might have 
been the result. But at that time, as during all ages, war was 
considered the private affair of the belligerents with which 
neutral nations had no right to interfere. 

It is true there were statesmen in Europe who foresaw, at 
least dimly, the consequences of a European conflict, but the 
world at large was not only ignorant of it, but passive. I am 
a great believer in the ultimate force of public opinion. It is 
the ruling factor in our national as well as international life. 
I am, therefore, of the unalterable opinion that permanent 
peace will not come until the public mind is trained to think 
in terms of peace. Every conference to avert war and every 
treaty for conciliation, arbitration or judicial settlement of 
disputes adds to the weight of public opinion which will out- 
law a nation which violates its treaties. 

I am reminded of an incident which happened before the 
signing of the Peace Pact. I was received at Havre by a 
delegation consisting of the Mayor and the officials of the 
city, who presented me with a pen and on the case were 
inscribed the words: "Si vis pacem para pacem" — if you wish 
peace prepare for peace. How much wiser than the old say- 
ing "If you wish peace prepare for war." Through all the 
ages nations have staked their security and safety upon build- 
ing armaments. How futile has been the result! I believe 
there is nothing today more dangerous to our peace than the 
competition in armament. 

I know there are scoffers who say that these views are 
idealistic and that we must follow the old practice of arma- 
ments limited only by the resources of a nation. That was 
not the view of one of France's greatest statesmen, who saw 
the horror and perils of war and whose foresight visioned a 
better day. I would remind my hearers that all the reforms 
of the world have been started by idealists like Briand. 

American and French Colors Mingled 

The banquet table was elaborately decorated 
with American and French colors and a beautiful 
Stuart portrait of George Washington adorned the 
program. Those seated at the head table at the 
banquet were Hon. Norman Armour, American 



Charge d'Affaires; Very Rev. Frederick W. Beek- 
man; Laurence V. Benet, Past President of the 
Chamber; M. Bequet, President du Conseil 
General de la Seine; M. Aime Berthod, Ministre des 
Pensions; General Braconnier, Secretaire General 
Militaire de la Presidence de la Republique; Due 
de Broglie, Membre de Plnstitut, President of 
French Section, Order of the Cincinnati; M. 
Albert Buisson, President du Tribunal de Com- 
merce de la Seine; M. Gratien Candace, Sous-Sec- 
retaire d'Etat aux Colonies; Brigadier General 
Stanley H. Ford, American Military Attache; M. 
Pierre de Fouquieres, Ministre Plenipotentiaire, 
Chef du Protocole; M. Germain-Martin, Ministre 
des Finances; M. Justin Godart, Ministre de la Sante 
Publique; General Gouraud, Gouverneur Militaire 
de Paris; M. Doynel de St. Quentin, Ministre 
Plenipotentiaire Sous-Directeur d'Afrique; M. 
Ducos, Sous-Secretaire d'Etat au Ministere de 
l'Education Nationale et Charge de l'Enseigne- 
ment Technique; General Dubail, Grand Chancel- 
ier de la Legion de Honneur; M. Gabriel Hano- 
taux, de l'Academie Francaise, President du 
Comite France- Amerique; M. Hubert, President 
de la Chambre de Commerce de Marseille; Hon. 
Leo. J. Keena, American Consul General; Hon. 
Frank B. Kellogg, former Secretary of State of 
the United States; Captain David McDougal Le 
Breton, American Naval Attache; M. Albert 
Lebrun, President de la Republique; Mr. Charles 
G. Loeb, President of the American Chamber of 
Commerce; M. Andre Magre, Secretaire General 
de la Presidence de la Republique; M. Paul Mar- 
chandeau, Sous-Secretaire d'Etat a la Presidence 
du Conseil; M. Marcombes, Sous-Secretaire d'Etat 
a l'Education Physique; M. Margaine, Sous-Secre- 
taire d'Etat au Ministere des Travaux Publics; Gen- 
eral Maurin, Membre du Conseil Superieur de la 
Guerre; M. Lionel Nastorg, Vice-President du 
Conseil Municipal de Paris; M. Maurice Palmade, 
Ministre du Budget; M. Raymond Patenotre, Sous- 
Secretaire d'Etat a la Presidence du Conseil; M. 
Henry Peartree, Past President of the Chamber; 
M. P. Peixotto, Past President of the Chamber; 
General John J. Pershing; M. Rene Renoult, Garde 
des Sceaux, Ministre de la Justice; Hon. Philipe 
Roy, Minister for Canada; Mr. Robert M. Scotten, 
First Secretary of the American Embassy, and Mr. 
Bernard J. Shoninger, Past President of the 
Chamber. 



Foreign Participation — France 



83 



Reception at Hotel de Ville 

One of the most brilliant events of the Bicen- 
tennial Celebration in Paris was a gala soiree at the 
Hotel de Ville during the late evening of July 4, 
when Paris played host to American and South 
American diplomats, residents and visitors. The 
hall was ablaze with lights; a detachment of Re- 
publican Guards in full and colorful attire took its 
stand before the historic building; and shortly 
after nine p. m. a long line of motor cars driving 
through great throngs of cheering spectators 
brought top-hatted men and brilliantly gowned 
women to the reception. 

The notables who had attended the American 
Chamber of Commerce banquet repaired to the 
Hotel de Ville and were there greeted, with the 
other guests, by Baron de Fontenay, President of 
the Municipal Council of Paris, who with M. 
Edouard Renard, Prefect of the Seine, was at the 
head of the receiving line. The guests assembled 
first in the ornate reception hall where Baron de 
Fontenay delivered the following address of 
welcome: 

I have as my first duty to salute our hosts of this evening 
and more particularly the Ambassadors and Ministers of North 
and South America, who do us the great honor of assisting at 
this celebration. 

A strong bond of friendship exists between France and the 
States that they represent. Equally dear are the bonds which 
unite Paris and a great number of cities of those countries. 
I address myself to the Ambassadors and Ministers at the 
same time that I thank them for the kindness with which 
they have accepted the invitation. 

Permit me also to salute and to thank General Pershing, 
the great Commander in Chief of the American Armies, whom 
we have had with us here during the past year and whose 
name is borne by one of the streets of the capital, as well as 
Mr. Kellogg, whom we had equal pleasure, after the war, in 
receiving at the Hotel de Ville in connection with the cere- 
mony celebrating the peace pact which bears his name. 

I wish to express the sentiments of pleasure which we have 
in their presence. 

In this year of 1932, marked by the 200th anniversary of 
the birth of Washington, the Hotel de Ville owes it to itself to 
take part in the commemorative celebrations. While on the 
other side of the ocean an entire nation turns to the cradle of 
the founder of its independence, our capital, recalling the 
veneration which our ancestors had for him, joins in render- 
ing homage to him as one of the greatest figures of his time 
and of all time. 

To be sure, our city possesses no building which a sojourn 
of the great man has dedicated specially to his memory. 
Franklin, the philosopher, visited France and was one of the 
glories of Passy. The conqueror in one of the most decisive 
wars in history held on the immense theatre of the New 
World, never left the shores of his native land. But, though 
he never came to Paris, our common habitation, where the 
memory of the dearest of our companions in arms is always 
vivid, is not this city well chosen as an assemblage place today 



for the compatriots of Washington and the fellow-citizens of 
Lafayette? 

It is in order that we may unite in the same outburst of 
enthusiasm and fidelity that we have invited you this eve- 
ning. We are conscious of exalting in this way a patriotic 
and humane ideal. 

In an epoch when society too often seems to be uncertain 
which route to follow, the respect, knowledge and — in the 
fullest sense of the noble word — the Example of great men 
are an encouragement and a sacrament. Pioneer, surveyor, 
military chief, premier civil magistrate, Washington was a 
guide of the people because he was the perfect model of that 
which his century called "an honest man." 

This hero of a time when political emotion was so rife, was 
the incarnation of the calmest and most resolute reason and a 
lover of the simple life. When he retired to Mount Vernon, 
it was not through fatigue, vexation, nor even to imitate 
Cincinnatus — with whom he is so often compared — it was in 
order to get in touch again with his home, with his land, 
with those inexhaustible sources of virtue and strength which 
make vigorous individuals and healthy races. The solid for- 
mation of his personality, his taste for family life, his devotion 
to his native land and to public interest, composed in him an 
harmonious whole from which educators cannot too often 
draw inspiration and hold up to the admiration of future 
generations. 

As for us, Parisians and Frenchmen, we cannot evoke the 
lasting work that he accomplished, in conjunction with our 
ancestors, without a tender pride. It is gratifying to us to 
recall that this collaboration was not only made practical by 
the intermediary of Lafayette, but, moreover, it was rendered 
morally possible by the sympathy which united, immediately 
they saw each other, the two representatives of the two 
countries. 

One of Washington's biographers has defined as miraculous 
the transformation brought about in Washington's soul — so 
little prepared by former events for an intimate and total 
alliance — by his first contact with the delegate of France. 
The accord sealed at the critical hour for the common good 
has never ceased since that time and these private affections 
have contributed to direct the course of history, for all time, 
towards unhoped-for realizations. May the nations not for- 
get the teaching of these heroes! May France and the United 
States find in the confidence which bound Washington and 
Lafayette to each other the golden rule for their relations, 
and in the multiplicity of their prodigious acts, sure guaran- 
ties for the future promised to their entente. 

Our capital will not fail in the duty dictated to it by its 
past. Complying with the wish of the Parisian population 
and in response to the gesture of the State of Virginia — which 
had ordered a bust of Lafayette so as to offer it to the City 
Hall — Houdon went to the other side of the Ocean in order 
to reproduce in a pure chef-d'oeuvre the features of the 
father of the American republic. 

In 1791, Pillon was entrusted with the same task by our 
municipality which wished to transmit to the General of its 
national guard the gift by which he would be most deeply 
touched. 

Today, in our turn, we have the joy of giving the house of 
Mount Vernon a picture due to the painter of the marine, 
Gaston Alaux, representing the three-decked vessel, La Ville 
de Paris (The City of Paris), which was built in the second 
half of the 18th century at the expense of the Parisian alder- 
men in order to reinforce the French fleet and which covered 
itself with glory before Yorktown. 

Thus the exchange of relics and souvenirs, which revivifies 
the trials and spendors of old, continues. Thus marble and 
canvas, talent and art, perpetuate the great men and the re- 
markable events; our populations, for their part will continue 



84 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



to assure for these heroes a more touching and extensive im- 
mortality by ceaselessly reanimating in their hearts their grati- 
tude, love and their infinite admiration. 

Stirring Expression of Friendship 

The applause during Baron de Fontenay's speech 
created the atmosphere for one of the most stirring 
scenes of Franco-American good will ever wit- 
nessed in Europe. 

M. Renard, speaking after the Baron, addressed 
the enthusiastic audience as follows: 

We are happy to celebrate this evening the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington and to of- 
fer to the founder of the United States of America the homage 
of our admiration. 

When in 1732, in the rich colony of Virginia, George 
Washington was born, Europe was still plunged in dissen- 
sions as obscure as they were without grandeur. International 
events occurred and were settled according to processes or 
forms of outworn laws that did not even have the value of a 
pretext. The people were beginning to feel vaguely the of- 
fenses to their national ideals of such conception of politics. 

Washington, meanwhile, was growing up in that pioneer 
and strong America where the love of independence had led 
so many English subjects. The loyalty which it manifested 
for such a long time toward the mother country struggled 
in its heart with the sentiments of honor and justice. Its 
revolt was but an expression of its offended moral decency. 
The wound was so vital that it served to break old and 
honored bonds — bonds which were not more deep than a re- 
spect for contracts. 

France, which its illustrious thinkers had been preparing for 
a long time to understand this gesture of liberty, recognized 
with joy in the American insurrection the exercising of a 
right which was already deeply rooted in all free consciences. 
The glory of Washington reached its height in our country 
with its first blow. 

Washington was forty-five years old when there came to him 
the enthusiastic Marquis de Lafayette, that French officer who 
was only twenty years old and who exposed himself volun- 
tarily to the worst dangers simply for the glory of being a 
soldier of liberty. He [Washington] found himself filled 
with a deep admiration and affection for this young hero. 

Unforgettable hours, in the course of which all the cham- 
pions of the most sacred of causes — nobles and plebians, old 
and young — realized that the welfare of America as well as 
that of France was intimately linked with the welfare of 
humanity! 

While the young American Republic was organizing itself 
under the direction of Washington, the French Revolution 
was spreading its generous doctrine to the four corners of 
Europe. 

Thus was founded, on common principles, on the respect 
for law and international honor, the invincible spiritual union 
of America and of France, which one hundred and thirty 
years later was to balance in decisive manner the destinies of 
the world. 

These memories are present in the remembrance of all 
French citizens who find in the noble figure of Washington 
an exceptional model of the two virtues which are dear to 
them: a chivalrous generosity and a republican simplicity 
dignified of old. The figure of the great American patriot 
has its place in the pediment of every institution founded on 
reason and equity. 

In 1784, during the celebrated scene of the farewells of 
Lafayette and Washington, it was truly the soul of the two 



nations which found expression in the thoughts of the two 
illustrious companions in arms. "In taking leave of you," 
Washington, who had difficulty in hiding his emotions, might 
have said, "I seem to see departing from me the image of that 
generous France that we have loved so much and which I 
have loved in loving you." 

May the intimate union of France and of America, symbol- 
ized by the brotherly love of Washington and Lafayette, by 
the intimate association of the soldiers of Pershing and of 
Foch in the War, and in the peace of Briand and Kellogg, be 
perpetuated forever throughout the ages. 

Painting of De Grasse Flagship 

As a tribute from the City of Paris to the 
memory of George Washington, a painting of the 
Ville de Paris, flagship of Admiral de Grasse, the 
French officer who brought his fleet to the aid of 
Washington's army at Yorktown, was presented 
by Baron de Fontenay to Mr. Armour, American 
Charge d'Affaires, to be forwarded to the Mount 
Vernon Ladies' Association. The painting is the 
work of the French artist, Gaston Alaux. 

Accepting the painting for the association, Mr. 
Armour assured the Municipality of Paris that it 
would be placed at Mount Vernon as intended. 
He said: 

Mr. President: This tribute from the City of Paris to the 
memory of Washington on this two hundredth anniversary 
of his birth will go straight to the heart of every American. 
The painting which is so graciously offered to Mount Vernon 
and which will be handed by our Government to the ladies 
of the Mount Vernon Association, will be received by them 
as a very precious souvenir and given a place of honor in the 
shrine of Washington. In the choice of this beautiful paint- 
ing by the distinguished French artist, Gaston Alaux, I see a 
happy symbol. On the arms of the City of Paris, we see a 
ship in full sail. When my country was in need this great 
city plucked from its arms its symbol, and creating it into 
a living ship, despatched it to our aid. 

We all remember the part played by the Ville de Paris in 
the battle of Yorktown — worthy of the great city whose 
echevins had built and contributed her to the cause of liberty. 
We know what were the feelings of Washington when word 
was brought to him that De Grasse had arrived. We can 
imagine the scene when the Ville de Paris, bearing the brave 
admiral, rounded the point and victory at last seemed to be 
within the realm of possibility. To you and to the de- 
scendants here tonight of those heroes whom France sent to 
us, we bring our thanks. 

When Washington heard the happy news, accompanied by 
Rochambeau, Lafayette, de Broglie, Chastellux and du Portail 
he at once boarded the Ville de Paris, where, after an ex- 
change of affectionate greetings, he spent the afternoon 
planning with the chief of the French fleet the siege of York- 
town. While it is true that Washington never crossed the 
Atlantic to visit your country, it cannot be said that he never 
put foot on French soil. And while it is true that he was 
never able to gratify his desire some day to come to Paris to 
thank the people of France for their great help rendered in 
the hour of need, and to greet once more his dear friend the 
Marquis de Lafayette, nevertheless, he preserved to his dying 
day the memory of the hours spent on the French ship as well 



Foreign Participation — France 



85 



*," 



^x 





"THE CITY OF PARIS," FLAGSHIP OF ADMIRAL DE GRASSE. This painting was executed by Gaston Alaux and 

WAS PRESENTED TO THE MOUNT VERNON LaDIES ASSOCIATION OF THE UNION BY THE MUNICIPALITY OF PaRIS AT A 

Bicentennial Ceremony in the Hotel de Ville, Paris, July 4, 1932. 



as a grateful souvenir of the city which had been so gracious 
in its reception of Franklin and Jefferson. 

Today we accept this picture as another noble gesture that 
truly symbolizes the friendship and affection between our 
two peoples. 

M. Gabriel Hanotaux, president of the French- 
American Committee, next addressed the gather- 
ing as follows: 

Mr. President; Mr. Prefect; Excellencies; My General: 
Permit me to associate the French-American Committee with 
the words that you have just addressed to our American 
friends and to thank with all my heart, in the name of the 
Committee, the Municipality of Paris which has received us 
as crowning the Week of American Nations in this mag- 
nificent hall where all the great commemorations of France 
are wont to assemble. 

On hearing evoked the bonds which bind the United States 
and France there comes to me the words of Washington saying 
to de Grasse, "You are the arbiter of the war." He was in 
effect the arbiter of the war not only through assistance 
rendered to a common victory but also through the wisdom, 
the care for detail, and the attention wholly worthy of a 
great leader with which he applied himself in order to know 
to the minute when to arrive and to take part at the critical 
hour, according to instructions. 

These are characteristics of a great leader and it was these 
qualities which made Washington, himself so competent, say 



to de Grasse whose help at exactly the right hour was so im- 
portant: "You are the arbiter of the war." 

But in going over the circumstances in which was born 
the movement that carried French armies to American ter- 
ritory, at a time when voyages took a little longer than in 
the time of Lindbergh, I recall also those words that 
Louis XVI addressed to de Grasse: "France asks nothing, 
absolutely nothing, not even Canada, which was for so long 
a French colony and which was taken by that same common 
adversary that we have today. France asks nothing except 
that between our two peoples there be a friendship that 
nothing will ever affect, that no cause will ever break." 

Such were the very words spoken by Louis XVI. The 
years that have passed since then have been a happy con- 
firmation. 

I do not know whether you will permit me to add a simple 
anecdote which the presence of Mr. Kellogg recalls to me. 
Tradition tells it as a story on the Ministry of Foreign Affairs 
and, like all traditions, it is subject to caution and demands, 
perhaps, to be interpreted. I reserve to myself the right to 
make the interpretation. 

Mr. Kellogg, you discussed and signed the pact of Paris 
with M. Briand on the Quai d'Orsay. But between you there 
was a table and this table is always there. It is the table 
before which Vergennes received Franklin. Here is the story; 
pardon me for reciting it: 

Franklin was a little embarrassed in the beautiful court of 
Louis XVI (called then the greatest king in Europe), which 
had the extremely beautiful Louis XVI furniture. He hesi- 
tated a little in approaching M. Vergennes. He knew that 
the French are nimble-witted and somewhat given to long 



86 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



conversations and that in consequence it was more prudent 
to let the Frenchman speak first: "You speak, Gentle- 
man of France." He advanced to the table and seated him- 
self. He was received politely by M. Vergennes; he was 
silent a moment. Vergennes waited as well. At any moment 
it seemed that a sort of delicate coolness might be produced, 
but gentlemen of the time of Louis XVI were resourceful. 
Vergennes took his tobacco pouch from his pocket and offered 
some to Mr. Franklin. Mr. Franklin took some. M. 
Vergennes also. He saluted Mr. Franklin politely. Mr. 
Franklin saluted M. Vergennes politely. And they separated 
without having exchanged a word. The next day the alliance 
was made. 

I should like to point out the moral, because without a 
moral my anecdote would be a little inappropriate. 

We Frenchmen have the reputation of being talkers, but 
what is less well-known is that we are talkers who know how 
to be silent. It is said that in Germany we are called 
"Monsieur Immediately". Well, "Monsieur Immediately", 
knows how to take his time in order to get where he proposes 
to go. 

M. Vergennes represents one of the traits of our national 
character: that of a man who knows how to wait and reflect 
in order not to decide too soon and then have to compromise. 

That is my moral. I wish that France could be better 
known on the least known side of her character and that it 
be realized that in her, "reasoning does not forget reason", 
as our great poet has said. 

Gentlemen: I thank you for having listened to me during 
perhaps too long a discourse, but in memory of Franklin and 



of Washington, the great Americans who are with us, the 
great friends of France who have sustained us as we have sus- 
tained them in our hearts, I know you will pardon me. 

Opera Stars Sing in Concert 

After the addresses a concert was given under 
the direction of M. Henri Busser, chef d'orchestre 
de I'Opera, consisting of vocal selections by several 
members of the Parisian Grand Opera, a series of 
luminous ballets by the famous French danseuse, 
Mile. Souleima, and orchestral selections. The 
program, which was printed in the official bulletin 
of the Municipality of Paris in September, 1932, 
was as follows: 

1. Marche du General Washington, reconstitute par — 
Henri Busser 

2. Ouverture d'Olympe de Cleves — Max d'Ollone 

3. Air du Roi de Lahore — Massenet 

M. Endreze, de I'Opera. 

4. Air de la Walkyrie — Wagner 

M. Jose de Trevi, de I'Opera. 

5. L'enfant prodigue — Debussy 

Mile. Marcelle Denya, de I'Opera. 

6. Air de la Traviata — Verdi 

M. Endreze, de I'Opera. 

7. Manon (duo de Saint-Suplice) — Massenet 

Mile. M. Denya, M. Jose de Trevi. 




By courtesy of the European Edition of the New York Herald Tribune. 
PLACE D'lENA, PARIS, FEBRUARY 22, 1932. A general view of the assembly of French and American citizens to 

HONOR THE MEMORY OF GEORGE WASHINGTON AROUND HIS STATUE AT THE OPENING OF THE BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION. 



Foreign Participation — France 



87 



8. Ballets lumineux. 

Danses par Mile. Souleima, de l'Opera, et ses 
Demoiselles de ballet. 

a. Cake-Walk — Debussy 

b. Papillons blancs — Saint-Saens 

c. Au matin — Grieg 

d. Le voile mysterieux — Shubert 

e. Les petits papillons — Grieg 

f. Les feux follets — Rimsky Korsakow 

g. Les flammes — Wagner 

9. Marche americaine — Widor 

Bicentennial Helpful in World Crisis 

That the series of brilliant events in France in 
celebration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary 
of the Birth of George Washington, beginning in 
February and reaching a high point in the sum- 
mer during "The Week of American Nations," 
made a deeply favorable impression on the French 
people is evidenced in the numerous speeches by 
French officials and articles in the French press. 
The bicentennial celebrations afforded many 
opportunities, which were seized upon by the 
representatives of both republics, to renew their 
pledges of mutual friendship and esteem. 

In addition to the newspaper references hereto- 
fore quoted, le temps on July 6 published an 
editorial, headed "Franco-American Friendship," 
a translation of which was sent to the Department 
of State by the American Charge d'Affaires with 
this comment: 

"An editorial from le temps of July 6 merits 
special attention, le temps, after voicing grati- 
fication at the expressions of Franco-American 
friendship, comments on the mutually existing 
misunderstanding between the United States and 
Europe which prevents effective use being made 
of the inherently cordial relations. The paper, 
nevertheless, believes that with the present world 
crisis confronting the two continents they must 
inevitably strive to comprehend one another and 
through common sacrifice reach an accord on 
pressing problems, which will contribute to the 
solution of these problems and place Franco- 
American amity on a fruitful basis." 

The editorial from le temps follows: 

Franco-American Friendship 

There was celebrated yesterday with much brilliance the 
national fete of "Independence Day": One knows, too, that 
the American people have consecrated the whole of the year 
1932 to the commemoration of the second centenary of the 
birth of George Washington. 

At the banquet organized at Paris on this occasion by the 
American Chamber of Commerce — which was honored by 
the presence of M. Albert Lebrun, President of the Republic — 



speeches were made by Mr. Albert Loeb, President of the 
Chamber of Commerce, Mr. Norman Armour, Charge 
d'Affaires of the United States, Mr. Frank B. Kellogg, former 
Secretary of State (whose name, with that of Briand, is in- 
separable from the general pact against war) and by Mr. 
Rene Renoult, Keeper of the Seals and Vice-President of the 
Council, all of whom eloquently expressed the sentiments 
that the traditional Franco-American friendship, born of two 
epopees gone through together, inspires on both sides of the 
Atlantic. As the President of the Republic — who was en- 
thusiastically greeted by our American friends — said yesterday 
evening, the sister republics must know how to find in their 
common souvenirs the solution and just settlement of their 
present interests by recalling equitably the sacrifices which 
they made in the sacred cause of the liberty of the world 
during the great tempest which passed over it a few years 
ago. 

In reality, it is these souvenirs which prescribe that the 
duty of both nations is to live in friendly and trusting col- 
laboration. The conception of the great problems of the 
hour may not be the same on both sides of the ocean; interests 
may diverge, but the aspirations of both nations towards 
greater dignity, with liberty, increased moral grandeur, with 
prosperity, are identical and hence their efforts must be co- 
ordinated so that they may tend more efficaciously towards 
the common aim. In this connection there are some inter- 
esting remarks in the speech given yesterday evening by Mr. 
Frank B. Kellogg, in particular, the words by which the for- 
mer Secretary of State expressed his conviction that the politi- 
cal uneasiness from which the world is at present suffering does 
not presage a new war and that, in reality, great progress has 
been made in the direction of general peace, improvement of 
the political situation, and economic recovery. In the same 
way, when the Charge d'Affaires of the United States, Mr. 
Norman Armour, made it known how the Government and the 
American people appreciate the breadth of view and the desire 
to comprehend of which the President of the French Council, 
M. Herriot, is giving proof in the difficult negotiations he is 
engaged in at Lausanne, French opinion could not fail to be 
touched by this delicate attention. As M. Rene Renoult 
said, at the present time the necessity of Franco-American 
friendship is making itself felt more strongly than ever, for 
it finds its justification in the common interests of all nations. 

These are the ideas on which stress should be laid and which 
one should strive to propagate on both sides of the Atlantic. 
The task of statesmen who assume the heavy responsibility of 
the settlements which impose themselves at the present time 
is often rendered difficult by the reciprocal incomprehension 
of the American and European peoples of their respective 
needs. On this side of the ocean, one generally forms a 
wrong idea of the politics of the United States, which are 
dominated by preoccupations of a domestic order from which 
no American Government can free itself entirely on account 
of the very special structure of the Union and of the funda- 
mental principles on which a very great power has been con- 
stituted — which has not, properly speaking, national unity 
such as we conceive it in our countries where races, owing to 
the diversity of their origin, their characters, their languages 
and their moral and intellectual formation, are absolutely 
distinct. On their side, the Americans find it difficult to 
understand the opposed tendencies, the passions which run 
counter to each other, the clash of the mentalities which we 
possess by reason of struggles sustained for many centuries, 
during which political Europe, such as we see it today, has 
been slowly and painfully formed. Having, on account of 
their geographical position, no menace to their independent 
existence, the Americans do not know the anxieties which 
the safeguarding of our security creates for us, and they do 
not understand — or they do not understand well — why we 
should subordinate everything to what is, however, for us a 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



prime necessity. They deplore our differences and sometimes 
imagine that our greatest disputes are only about words; they 
affect to be no longer interested in a Europe which, they con- 
sider, does not want to make the effort which is indispensable 
for its own salvation. But these are only outbursts of ill 
humor, to which one should not attach the importance which 
is too often given them in international controversies and 
polemics, since however definite the positions taken on either 
side may be on certain questions, an hour must come when 
the rapproachment of the theses is necessary, where com- 
promise is enjoined by the force of circumstances as it is a 
question of saving the whole world from catastrophe, of 
preventing the death of our civilization. 

This hour has come for the American as well as for the 
European nations. Either we must work together in complete 
solidarity for the salvation of civilization, or perish together 
in the political disorder and economic chaos — there is no 
half-way. Peace can only be organized by the common 
effort of all nations. Now political peace is not possible 
without economic peace and the latter can only find a solid 
foundation in a return to confidence, which is the supreme 
remedy for all the evils from which we are suffering today. 
The United States can no longer disinterest themselves from 
this work — any more than any other power — and it is pre- 
cisely because the American nation is a great nation, because 
it has an immense future before it, that it has imperative 
duties towards a civilization which has made its own prodigi- 
ous progress possible. When Lausanne has drawn up the plan 
of European settlement which will testify to the will of old 
Europe to work sincerely for its own salvation, young 
America, in its turn, will have to take its responsibilities with 
a view to the universal settlement, without which all that 
one might attempt in favor of general recovery would be in 
vain. In accomplishing this duty, with the full conscious- 
ness imposed by the tragic circumstances of the present hour, 
the American nation, freely associated with other nations 
for the common good, will mark its real place in the general 
evolution and its increased moral, political and material 
grandeur will be evident to all the nations as well as to itself. 
It is in this decisive test that Franco-American friendship 
should produce its best effects. 

Thanksgiving Day in Paris 

A Thanksgiving Day service in the American 
Church and a commemorative ceremony con- 
ducted by the Veterans of Foreign Wars, Benjamin 
Franklin Post, before the statue of George Wash- 
ington in the Place d'lena brought the celebration 
of the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth 
of George Washington in Paris to an impressive 
conclusion on November 24, 1932. 

Reverend Joseph Wilson Cochran summoned 
his congregation to devotion in the American 
Church at 10:45 a. m. to observe the annual 
American festival of Thanksgiving and to pay 
honor to the memory of George Washington on 
the occasion of the official termination of the 
Bicentennial. 

With bowed heads and hearts filled with grati- 
tude and the spirit of brotherhood, the assembled 
American and their French friends voiced a solemn 
amen to the following invocation: 



Almighty God, who of all didst raise up leaders of Thy 
people and captains of Thy host, and didst not withhold the 
same good providence from our fathers in their need; we 
gratefully call to remembrance the virtues and excellencies 
of Thy Servant George Washington. We cherish for our- 
selves and hand down to our children the memory of this 
great and good man. We thank Thee for the noble ideals 
of civil and religious liberty conceived by him. We pledge 
ourselves to maintain and preserve them. We pray that so 
long as our nation endures its citizens may revere his courage 
and faith, and that the principles for which he served our 
nation in its youth be the possession of its maturer years. 
Let his trust in Thee as Ruler and Judge of the nations con- 
trol the hearts of all who are set in authority, to the end that 
righteousness, justice and peace shall illumine all our ways; 
and Thine shall be the glory and the praise and the thanks- 
giving from generation to generation. Amen. 

The 1932 Thanksgiving Proclamation of the 
President of the United States, in which was em- 
bodied the first Thanksgiving Proclamation, issued 
by President Washington, was read by Leo J. 
Keena, American Consul General. Theodore J. 
Marriner, Charge d'Affaires of the United States, 
extended an official greeting to the large audience. 
The scriptural readings, anthems, hymns and organ 
music were all chosen with special reference to the 
occasion; and an attractive program, bearing ex- 
cerpts from Washington's writings, was issued. 

Dr. Cochran's Thanksgiving Day address, en- 
titled "The Genius of Washington," was as 
follows: 

On this particular Thanksgiving day, whatever else con- 
strains the American people to give thanks to Almighty God, 
it is appropriate that we should celebrate our nation's ines- 
timable heritage — the memory of Washington. Two hundred 
years ago was born the man to whom above all others our 
country owes its existence. 

So wise a leader, so exalted a patriot had he become when 
inaugurated the First President of the Republic, that the men 
of that time bestowed upon him the title of Father of His 
Country. And thus he remains and will remain as long as 
human history is written. 

It was an inspired thought that brought into being through 
act of Congress the Bicentennial Commission, which has 
labored so faithfully and successfully to bring to fresh re- 
membrance the heroic stature of this man wherever American 
citizens and American ideals play their part in the world of 
affairs. 

Mediocre minds have sought to dim the lustre of his name 
and drag him from his pedestal. The so-called "debunkers of 
history", with pens dipped in the muck of their own foul 
imaginings, have ransacked every nook and cranny of the 
Washington legend to discover low motives, sordid actions 
and compromising situations. But their work will soon be 
forgotten while the character of this illustrious man will 
sh ; ne ever brighter through the ages. 

Washington, it must be said, has suffered at the hands of 
over-zealous biographers, who robbed him of warm and 
human qualities, carving him into a figure stiff, glacial and 
apart from life. 

The sentimental adulation of our first President began by 
the ridiculous Parson Weems and others was bound to suffer 
reaction in the light of historical criticism and it came to 



Foreign Participation — France 



89 




AMERICAN VETERANS OE FOREIGN WARS AND REPRESENTATIVES OF VETERANS ORGANIZATIONS OF THE 
ALLIED NATIONS HOLD JOINT CELEBRATION BEFORE WASHINGTON STATUE IN PARIS. 



pass that Washington was reduced in stature and denied a 
place in the front rank of the world's greatest men. It was 
declared that he was not a genuis, but simply a person of 
excellent common sense, admirable virtues and rare judgment. 

But what is genius? Is it a fair appraisal to award the 
distinction to one who discourses eloquently on liberty and 
to deny it to one who achieves it for a whole people? Shall 
we call Napoleon a genius because of his superlative military 
strategy which plunged a continent in a sea of blood, and 
withhold it from Washington who never had an army of 
more than 18,000 ill-equipped men in the field yet won in- 
dependence from the strongest nation of that day? Is bril- 
liancy of mental gifts genius while superlative strength of 
moral qualities is but a commonplace affair? Is great art 
alone sublime and ineffable, but not so great, ideas issuing in 
great acts? 

No, my fellow-countrymen, the great philosophers, the 
great poets, the great musicians, the great painters, the great 
warriors cannot claim a monopoly of genius. Too often their 
god-like qualities fail to prevent their fall from high heaven 
like Lucifer, son of the morning. 

The greatness of Washington did not lie in the mastery of 
a special technique, or the dazzling qualities of a prodigy. 
Had he been that sort of a genius he would have failed. 
Hamilton was a better financier, Franklin a better diplomat, 
Samuel Adams a better politician, Jefferson a better writer. 
Washington towers above them all because he combined in 
admirable proportions all those qualities of mind, and heart 
and soul which produced a character so symmetrical, so 



balanced between the practical and the ideal that men in- 
stinctively turned to him as their leader. 

The genius of Washington was the genius of character, 
and what genius is greater than that, measured by the test 
of service to humanity — character raised to its highest level? 

Permit me briefly to analyze the marks of his genius, as 
they afford us of this generation shining examples and needed 
lessons for our guidance. 

A great painter was once asked why he had on his easel a 
row of shining jewels — rubies, sapphires, emeralds. 

"Those are the true colors," he answered. "They keep my 
eye from losing the color value I need for my work." 

The qualities of Washington are like those jewels. They 
keep the eye of patriotism true to the essential values of 
citizenship. 

First of all the 
I. Vision of Washington stands out against the murky 
background of conflicting interests and selfish compromises. 
Without his clear foresight of national unity as against the 
pretensions of thirteen small sovereignties, our infant republic 
would have perished in its cradle. Amidst all the assaults of 
passion, suspicion and intrigue, he stood like a rock in defence 
of the Union of the States. "It is only in our united char- 
acter," he declared, "that our independence can be acknowl- 
edged, our power regarded, or our credit supported among 
foreign powers." 

The ratification of the Constitution by the States was a 
tense and bitter struggle, but when achieved Monroe wrote 
to Jefferson: "The conduct of Washington has been right 



90 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



and meritorious ... Be assured his interest carried this 
Government." 

Would that this stern foe of sectionalism might speak 
again to those who make the halls of Congress a cock pit for 
the display of local jealousies and partisan interests. May his 
lofty patriotism rebuke the spirit which divides East from 
West and North from South. Let the soul of Washington 
reanimate the whole body politic, destroying that base con- 
ception of National Government as a feeding trough for 
special privilege. 

Washington's genius embraced the rare quality of 

II. Disinterestedness. He scorned power for its own 
sake. He despised personal glory. He accepted the high 
office of President with unconcealed reluctance. And when 
compelled to face the call of duty he went as a free man. 
"Should it be my fate to administer the Government, I will 
go to the chair under no prcengagcmcnt of any kind or nature 
whatever" he wrote to an office seeker. 

It would be too much to hope that the United States could 
ever again have a President with such a record. The forces 
that determine who shall be our leaders, the ideas that control 
our party system are too "practical", too tainted with vulgar 
trickery and corrupt bargaining to warrant much expecta- 
tion of a return to that unpurchasable integrity, that austere 
virtue which characterized the administration of our first 
President. We sing of "the faith of our fathers", but it 
would be well for our future as a nation were we to show 
that faith by cleaner political works! 

Once again Washington rises above our time in his 

III. Pure Conception of Liberty. He believed in the 
inalienable rights of the individual, of which no government 
could deprive him unless those rights had been forfeited by 
criminal conduct. He recognized the limitations of the civil 
power when the supremacy of conscience was at stake. He 
would never have thought of making Congress the supreme 
arbiter of a man's duty to his God, as has been done in 
various decisions since his day. 

"If I could now conceive that the general government 
might ever be so administered as to render the liberty of 
conscience insecure, no one would be more zealous than 
myself to establish effectual barriers against such horrors," 
he wrote. 

To Quakers who refused to bear arms he wrote that liberty 
of conscience belonged to them as a right which rulers were 
bound to respect. 

He was unalterably opposed to making religion a test for 
eligibility to public office. 

We are quite familiar with Washington's wise warnings 
against "entangling alliances," in the struggle for the pres- 
ervation of our liberties, menaced as they were at that time 
by powerful European states. But even more pertinent to 
our times are the warnings he uttered against the invasions of 
personal liberty, civil and religious within the bonds of our 
own commonwealth. The inherent danger was, as he said, 
"the love of power and proneness to abuse it." 

And that danger is as acute in our day as in his, but a 
danger largely concealed to the common eye. 

But Washington's moral genius rose to sublime heights in 

IV. Serenity of Soul. While fighting the enemies of 
his country with tragically unequal forces, meeting internal 
dissensions, treachery and open treason, establishing stable 
government out of unstable elements; through all the stirring, 
critical years in which he had to play the varied parts of 
engineer, military strategist, financier, statesman, govern- 
mental administrator, and prophet, this man possessed his 
soul in patience and fortitude, giving to the world the ex- 
ample of serene wisdom and exalted strength. Out of that 
terrible maelstrom of conflicting passions he emerged bearing 
no scars, unembittered in his patriotism, unchilled in his 
enthusiasm for humanity. As Whipple says: "In him 



America has produced at least one man whose free soul was 
fit to be Liberty's chosen home." 

But it would ill become this day were we to omit that 
characteristic which animated all his thinking, his willing, 
his acting. This was 
V. The Faith of Washington. 

Almost every letter and every state paper contains his 
acknowledgement of his belief in the directing and sustaining 
hand of God. Religion was not a formal thing with him. 
It was his life. To his soldiers he said: "To the distinguished 
character of Patriot it should be our highest glory to add the 
more distinguished character of Christian." 

All honor, then, to Washington! We as Americans honor 
ourselves when we honor him. As yonder wreath will be laid 
in all reverence at the foot of his statue in the Place d'lena 
may we lay the tribute of our love and devotion before his 
great achievements and his lofty principles, pledging our- 
selves to a fresh dedication to the country he loved, the 
cause he served and the God he worshipped. 

The gold striper, official publication of the 
Benjamin Franklin Post No. 605, Veterans of 
Foreign Wars, issue of December, 1932, described 
the Thanksgiving Day ceremony at the Washing- 
ton statue and subsequent events as follows: 

"After the services held at the American Church 
of Paris on the Quai d'Orsay, the uniformed Color 
Guard of the Veterans of Foreign Wars, Post 605, 
accompanied by Commander Charles A. Beau- 
mont and Dr. Joseph W. Cochran and a delega- 
tion, marched to the statue of George Washington 
in the Place d'lena where wreaths were placed to 
commemorate the Two Hundredth Anniversary 
of George Washington. In the evening a dinner 
dance was given by the V. F. W. at the Hotel 
Bohy-Lafayette where entertainment was given 
by the V. F. W. Broadcast Artists. Commander 
Charles Beaumont spoke in memory of the occa- 
sion, as did Commander-elect Colonel Bernard A. 
Flood, who arrived in Paris Thanksgiving Day 
from the Sacramento Encampment, and who 
entertained with a snappy talk. Comrades Maigret 
and Gaillon were our guests of honor." 

Celebrations in Other French Cities 

Although the focal point of the Bicentennial in 
France was Paris, the French Capital was by no 
means the only place where the people of France 
and America conjoined to do honor to George 
Washington. 

Reports that are admittedly incomplete indicate 
that wherever a group of Americans was located 
in France there was a Washington celebration and 
that in many cities and towns the people of France 
themselves undertook to celebrate on their own 
initiative. 



Foreign Participation — France 



91 



Nice 

Every Winter hundreds of American tourists 
flock to the French Riviera and hundreds of other 
Americans make this a temporary or permanent 
residence. For that reason in Nice, Cannes, and 
Monte Carlo — those glittering resorts on the 
Mediterranean — the spirit of America is not alto- 
gether foreign. When the Frenchman celebrates, 
the American gives him a hand; when the Amer- 
ican celebrates the Frenchman comes to the party. 

It was in this spirit that the George Washington 
Bicentennial was celebrated in Nice and the other 
Mediterranean watering places. Informal social 
functions were devoted to the Washington theme; 
women's clubs heard lectures about George Wash- 
ington; churches and schools made him the subject 
of sermons, studies, and eulogies; fraternal 
organizations honored his memory. 

Of special interest was the Washington's Birth- 
day dinner on the evening of February 22, 1932, 
in the Palais dc la Meditcrranee in Nice, the largest 
casino in this famous French port. The American 
Consul, Robertson Honey, reported that this din- 
ner was attended "by several hundred American 
visitors and others." American national anthems, 
military airs and Sousa's marches enlivened the 
dinner and "the third phase of a play competition, 
'La Semaine de la Femme,' kept the audience 
attentive until a late hour. 

During the afternoon the Municipal Band of 
Nice played a concert in the public park composed 
entirely of American music. A large audience 
attended, and Americans and French joined in 
enthusiastic demands for encores, particularly for 
such tunes as "Yankee Doodle," "Dixie," and "The 
Star Spangled Banner." Everyone present joined 
in singing "La Marseillaise." 

Strasbourg 

In Alsace, whose chief city is Strasbourg, a 
regiment of French soldiers was recruited to cross 
the sea with Count de Rochambeau and fight 
under General Washington for American Inde- 
pendence. This regiment figured conspicuously in 
the American-French victory at Yorktown. John 
Q. Wood, American Consul at Strasbourg, called 
attention to this fact when reporting upon the 
Bicentennial activities in that part of France, and 
also pointed out that for almost a century Alsace 
has been a large emigration center for the United 



States, and that the people of Strasbourg and other 
nearby cities of the province are naturally Amer- 
ica-conscious. 

This, he said, is particularly true of the great 
university settlement in Strasbourg, where many 
American students are enrolled and where political 
science and international affairs, with particular 
reference to the history of the United States, are 
emphasized. 

Although no formal George Washington Bicen- 
tennial celebrations were held in Strasbourg, the 
consul reported that many social and semi-social 
functions were devoted to the memory of 
Washington. 

Two copies of the Atheneum portrait of George 
Washington were sent to the consulate by the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission. One of these was hung in the recep- 
tion room of the consulate and the other was 
framed and placed with due recognition in the 
American Library at the University of Strasbourg. 

Mr. Wood also reported that a French wall- 
paper concern resumed in 1932 the manufacture 
of a wall-paper, first made in 1897, depicting 
scenes from American history reproduced from 
paintings executed by a French artist in 1834. 
One scene illustrates the capture of a British 
redoubt on Weehawken Heights by American 
volunteers, assisted by French troops, and shows 
Lafayette personally seizing a cannon. The skyline 
of New York City is shown in the background. 
Another scene shows the triumphant entry of 
General Washington into Boston. The artist's evi- 
dent desire to include America's natural wonders 
is manifested, with a fine disregard of geography 
and history, in the picture of an imaginary battle 
between Hessians and American forces beneath the 
Natural Bridge in Virginia with Niagara Falls in 
the background. 

Calais 

From the thriving little French port of Calais 
on the English Channel the chalk cliffs of Dover 
can be seen in the distance and it was against the 
background of these cliffs that the French people 
beheld in 1917 and 1918 transports carrying 
American troops across the channel from England 
to France, repaying the debt of honor the United 
States owed to France for having sent Lafayette, 
Rochambeau and De Grasse to aid General Wash- 
ington in the War of Independence. 



92 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Few Americans now live in this French city and 
no definite Franco-American Bicentennial Cele- 
bration was held there, but one of the well known 
organizations of the city, the Groupe d'l liter pretes 
Benevoles (Group of Benevolent Interpreters), 
requested the American Consul, James G. Carter, 
to speak on the subject of George Washington. 

This organization, which is typical of many 
such groups in France, meets regularly for the 
purpose of self-improvement, particularly to 
study other languages and happenings in other 
nations. The members also undertake voluntarily 
to assist foreigners arriving in France to make 
themselves understood at hotels, stores and other 
places. 

Mr. Carter addressed a meeting of the Groupe 
^Interpreter Benevoles the evening of March 2. 
The leading newspaper of Calais, le phare, 
reported that the audience listened with rapt 
attention while the American consul told the story 
of the life and work of George Washington and 
the winning of American independence. Mr. 
Carter sent the following outline of his speech to 
the Department of State: 

I expressed pleasure for the opportunity of being associated 
with this group on the occasion of its weekly meeting and, 
even though somewhat tardy, I desired to take advantage of 
that occasion to express the wish that its members had reason 
to feel satisfied for the progress made during the year, 1931, 
and had reason already in 1932 to feel encouraged for the 
work undertaken during this year. 

I stated that I felt particularly pleased to be able to accept 
their invitation for that evening and desired to take advantage 
of the occasion for mentioning an event which was held 
dear to all Americans at home and abroad: That I referred 
to the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth of George 
Washington; that I might have said "The First President of 
the United States," but because of the high esteem in which 
Americans generally had been brought to regard George 
Washington as a man, even before he became President of 
the United States, he was generally referred to as "George 
Washington" and loved and appreciated as such, as well as 
the First President of the United States; that in consideration 
of a joint resolution of the two Houses, that is to say, the 
Senate and the House of Representatives, on the Second of 
December, 1924, it had been decided that the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington, "The Father 
of His Country," would be celebrated for a period of about 
nine months, beginning with Washington's birthday on the 
Twenty-second of February and ending on Thanksgiving 
Day, the last Thursday in November of this year; that not 
only Americans of all walks of life were called upon and 
were joining in the celebration, but that peoples of all nations 
were very sympathetically regarding this occasion and were 
taking part in the celebration which was participated in at 
Paris on the Twenty-second of February by the President of 
France, Monsieur Doumer, as well as other prominent French 
officials; that while revering Washington for his character 
and the inspiration that he had wrought throughout the 



United States, Americans were also appreciative of the 
friendship and assistance rendered by the sons of other nations 
during its struggle for independence; that France sent its 
own Lafayette and Rochambeau and their soldiers, and that 
reference may be made to Carroll and those Irishmen, and 
Pulaski and Kosciuszko and other Poles, Von Steuben and de 
Kalk from Germany, and others. 

I mentioned that the celebration of the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington was not 
being undertaken for the purpose of commemorating the Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of the First President of the United 
States, but is to commemorate the two hundredth anniversary 
of one who had accomplished so much good and whose in- 
spiration had not only been felt and appreciated in the 
United States, but, I might venture to say, throughout the 
world. 

It was mentioned that Washington was industrious; that 
his early profession was that of a surveyor, and that he was a 
farmer, business man and shipper as well as a soldier and a 
statesman; that his large estate was Mount Vernon, which 
had doubtless come to the attention of most of the persons 
present during their visit to the Colonial Exposition in Paris; 
that he was beloved and appreciated by all men and that all 
classes of people, all religious and civic organizations in the 
United States were endeavoring to show reverence for him 
during this present celebration; that in connection with the 
participation of churches and religious organizations in this 
celebration, it might be mentioned that Washington was a 
vestryman in the Church and a Master of Masons; that in 
May, Masons in the United States were going to dedicate a 
shrine to his memory, valued at five million dollars; that 
Richmond, Virginia, perhaps possessed the most valuable 
souvenir of Washington in the famous Houdon statue, for 
which that state has refused the sum of five million dollars. 

Finally, the desire was expressed that the persons to whom 
I was speaking would not only in their capacity as inter- 
preters of words and languages endeavor to explain whenever 
the occasion would present itself, who George Washington 
was, but that they might endeavor to learn to study and 
inculcate as many as possible of the principles lived by Wash- 
ington and be able to interpret through their own lives some 
of these principles for their own good and for the good of 
others with whom they might come into contact. 

Nantes 

The name of Washington was recalled on Feb- 
ruary 22, 1932, not only on his native River 
Potomac but in far off France on the River Loire. 
In the thriving French seaport of Nantes, up the 
river from the Bay of Biscay, an organization 
known as the "Amities Internationales" sponsored 
a fitting tribute to Washington on the two hun- 
dredth anniversary of his birth. 

Mr. W. J. Yerby, the American Consul, 
reported that members of the organization and 
practically the whole of the American colony, 
including the staff of the Consulate, were present. 
The Prefect and the Mayor sent to represent them 
M. F. Miqueau and M. Soil. 

The meeting hall was draped in French and 
American colors and a large portrait of George 
Washington hung in a conspicuous place of honor. 



Foreign Participation — France 



93 



Professor R. W. Craven, an American student- 
teacher at the Ecole Normale de Savenay, had the 
principal part on the program. He gave an 
account of the life of Washington and of his asso- 
ciation with Lafayette, and styled the friendship 
of these two patriots as the "origin of one hundred 
and fifty years of Franco-American friendship 
which small misunderstandings must not tarnish." 

Another feature of the program, as reported by 
LE phare, a Nantes newspaper, was an address by 
M. Maitre, manager of the Establissements J. J. 
Carnand and Forges de Basse-Indre, who "related 
with much spirit his impressions of recent trips 
made in the United States and criticized remarks 
about our American friends made by Georges 
Duhamel [a French author] in his famous book." 

Bordeaux 

Under the joint auspices of the American Con- 
sulate and Bordeaux Post No. 2, American Legion, 
a reception was held at Bordeaux on February 22 
to honor the memory of George Washington. 
Among those present were many American dough- 
boys who remained behind when their buddies 
sailed for home after the World War. They had 



married French girls and made homes for them- 
selves and their families in and near Bordeaux. 

John G. Erhardt, the American Consul, who 
acted as host, reported that "the members of the 
American colony of Bordeaux and the surround- 
ing region" attended the reception. The program 
included French and American patriotic music, 
several short addresses and toasts to the memory 
of George Washington. 

Dramatic Panorama By Sacha Guitry 

Popular interest in the George Washington 
Bicentennial was aroused in France, as it was in 
America, long before the Bicentennial Year 
officially opened on February 22, 1932, and was 
not confined to organized groups whose activities 
have been recorded. French writers, artists and 
historians devoted a large part of their time to 
activities inspired by the memory of George 
Washington. 

Appreciating the dramatic possibilities in the 
life of Washington, Sacha Guitry, the famous 
French playwright and actor, composed, directed 
and acted in a dramatic panorama of the life of 
the First President of the United States. 




SCENE FROM GEORGE WASHINGTON PAGEANT IN PARIS. George Washington, played by Sacha Guitry, 

welcoming Lafayette to Mount Vernon. 



94 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Before a brilliant audience in the Theatre des 
Chawps-Elysees, the pageant was performed on 
the evening of March 12, 1930. To further 
exemplify the Washington spirit, the entire pro- 
ceeds of the performance were devoted to the 
Accueil Social Franco- Americain, which cares for 
the poor children in several of the arrondissements 
of the capital of France. Commenting on the 
pageant, the London daily mail, Paris edition, 
March 13, 1930, said that "Franco- American 
amity was seldom better exemplified than last 
night at the brilliant charity fete at the Theatre 
des Chawps-Elysees." 

A review of this impressive dramatic event was 
printed in the Chicago tribune, Paris edition, 
March 13, 1930, from which the following 
account is taken: 

It would be impossible to imagine any considerable public 
gathering of Franco-American interest in which the names of 
Washington and Lafayette were not invoked. But it is safe 
to bet that, at the charity affair last night in the Theatre des 
Champs-Elysees, these great personalities were woven, as 
never before, into a vital and moving symbol. The brilliant 
and representative audience came with high expectations, and 
they were more than fulfilled. The spectators themselves 
formed a striking picture in the ample auditorium, with so 
many officers and diplomatists wearing their decorations and 
gold braid, while the women were positively resplendent. 
When President Doumergue's representative arrived, the 
Garde Republicaine band played the Marseillaise as only they 
can play it; there was a scamper from the foyer to the boxes; 
and in an atmosphere of almost painfully tense anticipation, 
the curtain rose, after an orchestral prelude, on Sacha Guitry's 
much-heralded evocation of a reception given by General 
Washington at Mount Vernon to Lafayette and a group of 
his French comrades. 

It is no exaggeration, but sober fact, to say that Guitry, 
both as playwright and actor, quite surpassed himself. A 
lesser dramatist might have made the occasion too stodgy; 
but he infused it not only with high and moving eloquence, 
born of the situation, but with rich wit and humor. His 
device for making Washington speak French was much ap- 
preciated; and then when Guitry himself, who impersonated 
the General so magnificently, endowed his French with a 
Franco-American accent, the result was an Accucil de tout 
premier ordre, as they say in Brooklyn — sometimes, or perhaps. 
The piece oscillated, in masterly fashion, from grave to gay. 

An underlying note of sadness marked the occasion. 
Everyone was thinking of the terrible calamity which had 
just befallen the towns in the South of France. For this 
reason President Doumergue did not appear in person, while 
Ambassador Edge, in mourning for the late American Presi- 
dent and Chief Justice, sent a representative. He also com- 
municated a message of sympathy for the French disasters, 
which was read from the stage. 

Immediately after the close of this striking play depicting 
the reception, with a moving finale recalling the days of 1917, 
money was raised for the relief of the flood sufferers. Pro- 
grams signed by Marechal Joffre and General Gouraud 
brought, one seven thousand, and the other five thousand 
francs. Sacha Guitry volunteered the manuscript of his 
piece, which brought nine thousand francs, for the Accueil, 




YVONNE PRINTEMPS AND SACHA GUITRY. They 
are shown as they appeared in a scene in the great 
George Washington Pageant presented in Paris. 



while Paul Morand turned over the manuscript of his latest 
work, "New York," which brought ten thousand, to the 
flood relief. 

The entertainment provided by Washington for his French 
guest included several divertissements which were received 
with great applause. The Pickaninny dance began the fete, 
followed by the youthful cellist, Michelin, and then two 
dancers, M. Alexis Dolinoff and Mile. Trevania, the daughter 
of the American Consul General. Os-Ke-Non-Ton, the 
Mohawk Chief, gave two songs, accompanying himself on his 
water-drum; one was a kind of religious chant, the other a 
hunting song; both of them created a deep impression, with 
the chief in his full tribal costume. The Virginia Reel was 
cleverly executed by a number of young women of the 
American colony. Mme. Wanda Landowska, wearing a dress 
of colonial times, played the clavecin with her unique talent. 
She was followed by two dancers from the Opera. The 
crowning number of this divertissement was entrusted to 
Mile. Yvonne Printemps, and she sang, in a French version, 
Scotch ballads, with the orchestra playing a harp-like ac- 
companiment to recreate the eighteenth century atmosphere. 
Her costume, especially devised for her by Mme. Lanvin, with 
its delicate mauve tint and blue sash and her Leghorn hat 
trimmed with pink roses made a dainty picture. While the 
auctioneer was presiding, Sacha Guitry and Yvonne Printemps 
paid their respects to Marechal Joffre in his loge. 

In the loge of honor with Marechal and Mme. Joffre were 
General Gouraud and several French officers. General and 
Mme. Taufflieb and Mr. and Mrs. John Ridgley Carter shared 
a loge, having as their guests Mrs. George Munroe and the 
Due de Montmorency. In the next box were Mr. and Mrs. 
Bernard Carter, the Comte and Comtesse Wachtmeister, Mrs. 



Foreign Participation — France 



95 



William G. Sharp, Mr. and Mrs. Henry Downe, Comtesse de 
Ganay and Comte and Momtesse de Marenches. Mrs. Dwight 
W. Morrow and her daughter Elizabeth and their guests 
occupied a loge; in another were Mrs. Henry Symes Lehr, 
Marquis and Marquise de Chambrun, Mrs. Lawrence Paul and 
Mr. Herbert Howland; M. and Mme. Maurice Boyer were 
hosts in a loge as were the Comte and Comtesse Costantini 
entertaining Admiral and Vicomtesse de Faramond and sev- 
eral others. 

Also in the audience were Baron and Baroness Robert de 
Rothschild, M. and Mme. Ernest Mallet, Mr. and Mrs. Ernest 
Carter, Mrs. Wayne Cuyler, Mrs. Legrand Benedict and her 
daughter; Mr. and Mrs. Pitt Duffield, Mrs. Benjamin Thaw, 
Mrs. Frederic Jennings Parsons, Mr. and Mrs. John B. Robin- 
son, Mr. and Mrs. W. V. Cotchett, Mr. and Mrs. L. V. Benet, 
Mrs. Charles Cushman, Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Webner, Mr. 
and Mrs. Tarn McGrew, Mrs. William Harts, Princesse de 
Faucigny-Lucinge, Mrs. Honore Palmer, Mrs. Dudley Olcott, 
Dean and Mrs. F. W. Beekman, Mrs. Elisha Dyer, Mrs. Lee 
Childe, Baron and Baronne de Villiers Terrage. 

Pageant Is Praised 

The United States Ambassador, in a dispatch to 
the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission, commented on the Pageant: 

Historical details were faithfully reproduced, and Guitry 
for the occasion was at his dramatic best. He was also 
inclined to be dramatic when permission was asked to take 
pictures, still and moving, since it is not his usual custom 
to be photographed by any one except by first-class com- 
mercial photographers of his own choice and never by movie 
operators. When, however, it was explained that the pic- 
tures were to be taken for the George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission, he very gracefully consented to have 
photographers admitted to the Theatre. 

French Archives Yield Historical Data 

As a result of the new interest in the life of 
Washington and the history of the American 
Revolution aroused by the Bicentennial Celebra- 
tion, the French Government granted permission 
to French and American historians, and others 
interested in the history of that period, to search 
the government archives for unpublished material 
relating to George Washington and his con- 
temporaries. Among those who took advantage 
of this opportunity was Mr. Warrington Dawson, 
Special Assistant to the United States Embassy at 
Paris. 

In an official report to the Department of 
State Mr. Dawson wrote: 

In the course of my researches among the hitherto unex- 
plored records of the Paris Ministry of War, I have found 
some biographical facts concerning a French officer of the 
Royal Engineers Corps who played a prominent part at 
Yorktown and has left a famous manuscript journal, and 
yet concerning whose personal record nothing had yet been 
discovered. 

This officer was the Chevalier d'Ancteville, whose name has 
hitherto been given erroneously even by Viscount de 



Noailles as "d'Aucteville." The records attributing to him 
his pension and reporting upon his death would appear to 
leave no doubt as to the correct spelling with an "n" and 
not a "u." 

It may be mentioned that there was only one d'Aucte- 
ville recorded among French officers at the time, and he 
spelled it d'Octeville and was never in America. The officer 
of the Royal Engineers Corps who accompanied Saint-Simon 
to America was named Louis Flexel de Cantel, Sieur 
d'Ancteville. 

His application for a pension, and the grant made, as well 
as his death certificate, enable me to give for the first time 
a few details about this interesting historical character. 

Born at Turteville-en-Boscage, in the diocese of Coutances 
in Lower Normandy, on December 5, 173 7, he became Lord 
of the estate of Beaugrand, Clerbeg "and other places," 
Chevalier or Knight of the Order of Saunt Louis, Seigneur 
de la Bretonniere, Major in the Royal Engineers' Corps, and 
Director General appointed by the King for the fortifications 
of Santo Domingo. 

His pension, amounting to four hundred francs per year, 
was granted to him on December 5, 1782, "in consideration 
of his services during the last war, in the Colonies, as well 
as of the conduct by which he distinguished himself at the 
Siege of Yorck Town in Virginia." 

The only further fact I have been able to ascertain about 
the Chevalier d'Ancteville is that he died on January 14, 
1785, in Paris, in what was then the fashionable diocese of 
Saint Eustache, near the Central Halles or Markets. 

Another of Mr. Dawson's historical delvings led 
him to the correspondence between Rochambeau 
and Washington. He stated as a reason for this 
research that the original letters should reveal any 
errors of translation that might have led to "mis- 
conception in the matters of policy." 

Dr. Worthington Chauncey Ford, head of the 
European Mission of the Library of Congress, 
Washington, D. C, asked Mr. Dawson for a com- 
plete inventory of the original letters in the 
Archives of the Chateau de Rochambeau, specify- 
ing those which were entirely in Washington's 
hand and those which were written by a secretary 
but signed by Washington. The discovery was 
made that several of the letters investigated by Mr. 
Dawson were not in the records of the Library of 
Congress, and photostat copies of these letters 
were made to complete the Library's collection. 

Mr. Dawson stated in his report to the Depart- 
ment of State that the editors of the newspaper 
figaro, of Paris, requested him to contribute an 
article, and, profiting by this opportunity, he 
wrote an article to discuss the friendship between 
Washington and Rochambeau, as revealed by these 
letters, "and also to strike a note of a nature to 
promote friendly relations between the United 
States and France in this paper which has been so 
bitterly anti- American." 



96 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Figaro published his article in full, said Mi". 
Dawson, even to an excerpt quoted from Wash- 
ington's letter of welcome of July 16, 1780: 
"These lines, addressed by a great American to a 
great Frenchman, bring evidence of the friendship 
and the confidence which serve as basis for a 
fraternity between peoples the like of which the 
world has certainly never seen, and deprived of 
which our poor world would become a very sad 
dwelling place for humanity." 

Mr. Dawson also contributed an article to 
legion d'honneur, published by the American 
Society of the French Legion of Honor, July, 
1932 edition, entitled "New Washingtonia, Un- 
published Letters Discovered in the Rochambeau 
Archives," which was in part as follows: 

The "Rochambeau Papers" at the Congressional Library in 
Washington are so famous and they cover the period of his 
American activities so thoroughly that it seemed as if noth- 
ing new could be found by historical research workers from 
a study of these papers, or from an examination of the docu- 
ments preserved in the historic Chateau de Rochambeau, at 
Thoire, near Vendome, where Marshal de Rochambeau lived 
and where his personal relics are still kept. 

And yet, it was among these Rochambeau archives that I 
found, in September 1930, an unknown plan of Williams- 
burg, Virginia, which gave details existing on no other plan 
concerning the quarter situated beyond the Capitol. And it 
is among these archives, in the correspondence addressed by 
George Washington to Rochambeau between 1780 and 1784, 
numbering approximately a hundred letters in all, that I have 
just found what would appear to be totally new documents, 
some entirely in Washington's hand, and hitherto unknown 
to historians. 

These documents, no other record of which seems to exist 
in France, and which do not figure in available lists of the 
papers at the Congressional Library, consist of seven letters 
and three memoranda of conferences. 

Three of Washington's letters are autograph, all three being 
dated from New Winsdor, respectively February 27, April 8, 
and April 30, 1781. The others, in the hand of a secretary 
but signed by Washington, are dated Lebanon, March 16, 
1781; Hartford, 18 March, 1781; New Windsor, 7 April, 
1781; and New Windsor, April 30, 1781. 

For the most part, they deal with military and naval plans, 
and they are interesting as showing Washington's firm desire 
to go to the rescue of Virginia while ever considering New 
York as the main objective. 

But in the autograph letter dated April 30, 1781, on which 
day he furthermore sent to Rochambeau a letter drafted by 
his secretary, Washington gives Rochambeau a very dignified 
and courageous explanation of the intercepted letter which, 
published by the British, caused such harsh feeling at the time 
among the French. While suggesting that the language had 
been deliberately altered in some respects, Washington says 
that he had kept no copy of it, but admits frankly that the 
published text was true in tenor to what he had written of 



Rochambeau, arguing merely that it was a private letter 
addressed to one of the Washington's in Virginia, and declar- 
ing that he had not so expressed himself to any public body. 

The three memoranda, signed by both Washington and 
Rochambeau, and written partly in the hands of both, with 
an appended letter and annotations by Barras, are dated re- 
spectively Newport, May 16, 1781; Dobbs Ferry, July 18, 
1781; and Philadelphia, July 19, 1782. 

These also show Washington's wish to pursue an energetic 
campaign in Virginia with the help of the French army, as 
well as his plans for the use of the fleet of Admiral de Grasse, 
and for attacking Canada in the autumn of 1782. 

Only a thorough examination of the photostats of these 
new documents, by comparison with the complete set of 
Rochambeau Papers at the Congressional Library, can reveal 
exactly how much of this material has remained so far un- 
known. But it already seems safe to say that of the ten 
letters and memoranda, at least seven are new. 

Mr. Dawson informed the State Department 
that he had prepared several articles which were 
printed by French journals, notably an article in 
le correspondent of January 25, 1932, clarify- 
ing certain portions of a recent widely read book, 
"George Washington," by the French author 
Bernard Fay. Of Mr. Fay's book he wrote: 

This book will not only arouse in France a far greater 
interest in George Washington, but it should be excellent 
for Franco-American relations, because of the fairness shown 
by the great author. He has the courage to state Washing- 
ton's side of the case in the unfortunate death of Jumonville, 
and it is a particular relief to know that he attributes to 
Washington his due share in the victory of Yorktown, 
whereas the tendency of the French writers has been to rele- 
gate him to a wholly unimportant position. 




FRENCH MEDAL IN HONOR OF GEORGE WASHINGTON. 
This medal, designed by Lucien Brazor, famous French 
sculptor, was struck by the french mlnt in 1932 as part 
of the French Government's participation in the George 
Washington Bicentennial Celebration. 



Foreign Participation — France 



97 



American College Given Stone From 
Pasteur's Birthplace 

Visitors to one of the world's most sacred shrines 
of science, the birthplace of Louis Pasteur, in the 
town of Dole, France, may now read the following 
notice on one of the walls of the house: 

La Pierre Ici Manquante A Ete Extraite 

Le 22 Fevrier 1932 

Et Offerte A Cette Date Anniversaire 

Du 2 e Centenaire De La Naissance De Washington 

Au Rollins College De Winter Park 

En Floride (U. S. A.). 

Pour Son Allee De La Gloire 

The translation of this inscription reads: "The 
stone missing from this spot was removed on Feb- 
ruary 22, 1932, and offered on this Bicentenary 
Anniversary of the Birth of Washington to Rollins 
College of Winter Park, Florida, U. S. A., for its 
walk of fame." 

It was a happy thought on the part of the 
Rollins College, Winter Park, Florida, to couple 
the securing of a stone from this famous house 
with the George Washington Bicentennial Cele- 
bration. The facts connected with the presenta- 
tion of the stone are set forth in the following 
letter to Ambassador Edge by M. A. Ventard, 
president of the Societe Des Amis De La Maison 
Natal e De Pasteur (Society of the Friends of the 
House Where Pasteur Was Born) : 

Dole (Jura) April 28, 193 2. 

To His Excellency Mr. Walter Edge, 
Ambassador of the United States to France. 

The sympathetic attention with which you follow all the 
events of our country, the large part that you take in all 
manifestations at which the sentiments of esteem and affec- 
tion of our two countries are consolidated, permits me to 
think that you will be interested in a recent event which is 
significant in its simplicity. 

A short time ago, the Director of Rollins College of Win- 
ter Park, Florida, solicited the town of Dole, cradle of Pas- 
teur, to send a stone from the house where the illustrious 
scientist was born for its Walk of Fame. Immediately this 
desire was communicated to me. I hastened to satisfy it. 

A very fortunate coincidence enabled the inhabitants of 
the little town of Dole, and the friends of the "Maison 
Natale" of Pasteur, to offer this precious relic to the young 
American suidents on the very day on which they were 
enthusiastically rendering homage to Washington, hero of 
the independence of your noble country. 

In our province, far from official ceremonies, we discreetly 
participated in your enthusiasm and we thus associated our- 
selves with you in respectful homage to the great man whom 
you venerate. The attached communication, which appeared 
in the local and regional papers, will bring you the simple 
echo of our homage. In the space left by the removal of the 



stone from the "Maison Natale" of Pasteur, an inscription 
has been placed, of which I also send you a copy. 

My colleagues of the Board of Directors of the Society 
have thought, as I do, that you would be sensible to this proof 
of friendship, from a little French town, for your com- 
patriots. Many of the inhabitants of Dole fought side by 
side with your valiant friends during the sanquinary days 
of the horrible war. We guard, and shall always guard, the 
souvenir of your generous aid to our wounded, to all who 
suffered. We therefore gave wholeheartedly this very humble, 
though eloquent pledge, of our fidelity and gratitude. 

After having despatched the stone destined for Rollins 
College, it seemed to me I ought to inform you of this ex- 
change of friendship. 

Kindly appreciate it in all its sincerity, and believe, Mr. 
Ambassador, in the assurance of my very respectful senti- 
ments. 

(Signed) A. Ventard 

11, Avenue de la Gare, 

Dole, (Jura) 

Notable Franco-American Radio Program 

One of the most important features of the 
world-wide celebration of the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington 
was an international radio program sponsored as 
a joint activity by the Governments of France 
and the United States on the two hundred and 
tenth anniversary of the birth of Comte de 
Grasse. Notable addresses were delivered by Mr. 
Jules Henry, Charge d'Affaires ad interim of 
France, and the Honorable Sol Bloom, Director of 
the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission. 

The program was broadcast from Washington, 
D. C, September 13, 1932, over an international 
hook-up arranged by the National Broadcasting 
Company. 

The radio program consisted of an opening 
number "The Stars and Stripes Forever," by the 
United States Marine Band, followed by Director 
Bloom's address and the playing of "The Mar- 
seillaise." Mr. Henry's address was followed by 
the playing of "The Star Spangled Banner" by the 
United States Marine Band. 

Mr. Bloom, as Director of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission and 
representing the United States Government as host, 
spoke first in presentation of the distinguished 
French diplomat, Mr. Henry. Mr. Bloom said: 

Since February 22, 1932, the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission has marked for special honor 
various anniversaries of those patriots who helped George 
Washington to win the War of the Revolution. We have 
now come to a date of special significance, the 210th anni- 
versary of the birth of the man whose timely action made 
possible the final blow which brought victory to our arms. 



98 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



It is well known among students of history that many 
great men of foreign birth came to America to join George 
Washington and his patriot army in a glorious but discouraged 
cause. 

Without detracting in the least from the honors due to 
those other patriots of foreign birth, we may well pause today 
to give a thought to the man whose unselfish and patriotic 
impulses, whose prompt and vigorous cooperation, brought 
victory to the allied armies upon the American continent and 
forever sealed the liberties of the American people. 

Comte de Grasse, a nobleman of France, brought his men 
and ships to our coast at the extreme of our necessity, and 
it is well to remember that this great French Commander 
not only placed his fighting forces at Washington's service, 
but brought with him a large sum of much needed money 
which he offered as a free gift to the American cause. 

We must also remember that the Revolutionary War had 
dragged six years of its course, during which time Wash- 
ington's patriot army was almost continuously awaiting the 
uncertainties of British movements. That army lacked prac- 
tically everything that an army needed, except courage. 

Rochambeau with his French troops had landed on Ameri- 
can shores and was cooperating in an attempt at organizing 
more energetic operations, but George Washington realized 
the hopelessness of an effort to defeat the pick of British troops 
upon American soil unless he struck a great decisive blow. 

Therefore, in the Spring of 1781, Washington and Rocham- 
beau were cooperating in planning a movement against New 
York which was held by the British. What would have been 
the outcome of a determined attack such as they seemed to 
contemplate we will never know, but it was quite evident 
that George Washington did not have great faith that such 
an action would provide the decisive victory to American 
arms which was necessary to final success. 

What must have been the exaltation in the heart of George 
Washington during these dark hours and after all those long 
years of war and almost fruitless maneuvering, when there 
was placed in his hands a letter written by the French Foreign 
Minister to the French plenipotentiary in America, which said: 

... "I may say to you M., and you may confide to M. the 
General Washington exclusively, that M. de Grasse has express 
orders, after having provided for the safety of our islands, to 
detach or take the greater part of the fleet to the continent 
of North America and to lend himself to all operations judged 
practicable for as long as the season will permit him to remain 
in those parts. If the Spanish are not in need of reinforce- 
ments from our troops, all of them will join you. It will be 
well that General Washington prepare to make the greatest 
possible use of this help and that he take measures in advance 
to assure their subsistence. . . ." 

The promise of prompt and adequate naval aid concen- 
trating in Chesapeake Bay, in a letter from Comte de Grasse 
received August 14, turned the entire plan of action. 

The proposed attack upon New York was abandoned and 
the American troops journeyed to Virginia, where Lafayette 
had practically bottled Cornwallis and his Army on the 
peninsula of Yorktown. 

We know that story now and how the British in New York 
were misled into an expected attack while the allied troops 
hurried to Virginia. We know of the timely arrival of 
De Grasse and his mighty naval force and how that arrival 
prevented the rescue of Cornwallis or his escape from York- 
town. 

We know of the gratitude felt and expressed by George 
Washington and his fellow Americans at this magnificent 
stroke which practically ended the American conflict with 
the surrender of Cornwallis. 

Today as part of the Celebration of the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington we pay 
tribute to the memory of Comte de Grasse. The suggestion 



that we do this came from Mrs. George Durbin Chenoweth, 
Regent, Comte de Grasse Chapter, National Society, Daugh- 
ters of the American Revolution, at Yorktown, Virginia. It 
is a celebration, jointly, by the French and the American 
Governments and we are honored today by the presence here 
of the official representative of the French Government, Mr. 
Jules Henry, Charge d'Affaires ad interim of France, in the 
absence from our shores of His Excellency, M. Paul Claudel, 
the French Ambassador. 

Before making this introduction, however, I can not refrain 
from referring to a recent testimonial of the people of France 
which is most touching in its significance and which fits so 
perfectly into the tribute which we are paying to the memory 
of Comte de Grasse today. 

On July 4 last, Baron de Fontenay, President of the Munici- 
pal Council of Paris, presented to the Mount Vernon Ladies' 
Association of the Union, Mount Vernon, Virginia, a painting 
representing "La Ville de Paris," the flagship of Comte de 
Grasse, which played such a heroic part in the siege of York- 
town. It is interesting to know that this flagship was thus 
named because it was presented to Louis XVI by the Parisian 
people. It was said to be the most beautiful ship of the time 
and served as flagship of Admiral de Grasse until its mag- 
nificent and dramatic end, when ablaze from stem to stern, it 
sank beneath the waves in the great battle with the English 
in 1782. 

That painting is another and fitting reminder of the historic 
friendship between the people and governments of France 
and the United States. It recalls a glorious chapter of our 
long history and vividly indicates the essential character of 
the help which France gave to us in our time of need. 

I can not leave this subject without referring to the attitude 
of George Washington toward Admiral de Grasse after the 
siege of Yorktown, as indicated by his final expression of 
thanks to the Admiral. 

No one knew or felt more keenly than George Washington 
the value of the services performed by Admiral de Grasse. 

Presumably many of his compatriots, as well as we of 
today, considered the arrival of De Grasse at Yorktown a 
happy coincidence, yet Washington knew that this circum- 
stance was directed by that Providence which had guided 
him and protected his countrymen through all the long years 
of that terrible war. 

De Grasse, it is true, was working under general orders 
from his government, but had he not been sincerely devoted 
to the American cause he could easily and conveniently have 
delayed his action or terminated his service without achieving 
the glorious results which came with the surrender at York- 
town. 

I do not believe that we Americans have ever expressed 
proper appreciation for the service rendered by De Grasse, and 
the thought comes to me that I do not remember of having 
seen or heard of a monument to Comte de Grasse upon 
American soil. 

If this is true, it is a regrettable omission and a neglect 
that should be promptly and adequately rectified. 

In this capital city of the nation, where many beautiful 
monuments stand as memorials to other great foreigners who 
aided George Washington and his patriot army, there should 
be a suitable memorial erected to one of the greatest of these 
men — Admiral Comte de Grasse. 

Just recognition of his service has been too long delayed to 
this French hero whose presence at Yorktown, whose personal 
interest and strong support, made the victory possible which 
virtually ended the war of the Revolution. 

And now, as the Director of the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission, it is my privilege and 
pleasure to present the Representative of the French Govern- 
ment and to express through him, to his countrymen, the 
lasting gratitude of the United States of America for this 



Foreign Participation — France 



99 



supreme act which crowned our Revolutionary arms with 
success, and brought freedom to our beloved land. Mr. Henry 
will speak after the United States Marine Band plays the 
French National Anthem. 

I now take great pleasure in presenting Mr. Jules Henry, 
the distinguished Charge d'Affaires of France, representing 
the French Government. 

Mr. Henry, responding on behalf of the French 
Government, spoke as follows: 

Let me first assure the Honorable Sol Bloom of my profound 
gratitude for the feelings expressed in his address. I know 
how sincere they are and I would not fulfill a most pleasant 
duty if I did not tell him that through his splendid and 
successful efforts to commemorate, during the celebration of 
the 200th anniversary of the birth of George Washington, 
the Franco-American cooperation of the period of the War 
of Independence, he has earned the admiration and friendship 
of my compatriots. 

Last year, on the occasion of the Celebration of the 15 0th 
anniversary of the surrender of the British forces at York- 
town, the American Government extended to my Govern- 
ment the invitation to participate in the never to be forgotten 
festivities that were held on the same spot where Franco- 
American friendship was first cemented. A French mission, 
headed by Marshal Petain and composed of the descendants 
of those gallant Frenchmen who fought for American inde- 
pendence, came to this country and, for a few days, in the 
presence of the President of the United States and General 
Pershing, all the common glories and common sufferings of 
both nations during the War of Independence were evoked 
and described. 

Today the Bicentennial Commission and its eminent Di- 
rector, Hon. Sol Bloom, are celebrating the 210th anniversary 
of the birth of Admiral de Grasse. Knowing as they do the 
essential part played by him in the capitulation of Yorktown, 
the members of your Commission have deemed it proper, 
nearly a year after the Yorktown festivities, to honor his 
memory by a special tribute. 

I need not point out how grateful my country will be 
for this tribute to the gallant sailor who was "a great for- 
gotten man" until in 1931, when the Daughters of the Ameri- 
can Revolution had the pious thought of dedicating a monu- 
ment to him. 

May I take this opportunity of recalling the important part 
which my former chief, Ambassador Jusserand, took in the 
endeavor to make De Grasse's personality better known to 
the American and French public? In doing so, the man who, 
for 24 years, represented France in the United States, was 
prompted not only by his devotion to one of his outstanding 
countrymen, but also by his love for America — a love so dear 
to his heart that shortly before his death, his last words were 
to express the wish that the country of his birth and the 
country where he had lived for so long, never should tear 
apart the ties that were formed by the victory of De Grasse 
at Yorktown. 

Francois Joseph Paul, Marquis de Grasse, Tilly, Comte de 
Grasse, was born in 1722, the third son in a family of the 
ancient nobility of Provence, and early destined to a naval 
career. During the Seven Years War, he attained the rank 
of Captain and, as Commander of the "Robuste," took part 
in the battle of Ouessant, fought off the coast of Brittany, 
June 17th, 1778, which ushered in French participation in 
the American War of Independence. In 1781, he was made 
Commander-in-Chief of the French fleet which, on May 21st, 
set sail from Brest to the American shores. 

At the end of July, De Grasse, whose fleet was stationed 
in the Antilles to protect the French colonies in that section 
against English attacks, decided after surmounting consider- 



able difficulties, to sail for Chesapeake Bay for the purpose of 
aiding the land forces of Washington and Rochambeau. 
These difficulties were two-fold: 

1. De Grasse was leaving the French West Indies unpro- 
tected and disobeying an order from the French Government 
to have nine of his ships convoy the merchant vessels bringing 
to France the annual merchandise exports from the Antilles; 
and 

2. De Grasse decided to embark on his ships 3,400 men 
garrisoned at Santo Domingo, for the purpose of attacking 
Florida. In so doing, he was violating a Convention signed 
between the French and Spanish Governments and liable to 
disciplinary measures. 

In taking the blame for the momentous decision he had 
reached, De Grasse displayed all the qualities of a great man 
of war. As a French military writer expresses it: "He dared 
being weak everywhere so that he might apply the maximum 
of his strength on the most important spot." 

On the 5 th of August, 1781, the French fleet, composed of 
28 battleships, left Santo Domingo, heading for the Chesa- 
peake Bay. On August 31st, De Grasse lay anchor off Cape 
Henry in the Chesapeake, sending some light vessels to block 
the mouth of the James and York Rivers, thus cutting Corn- 
wallis from his source of supply while the 8,000 men from 
St. Simon and Lafayette were guarding the entrance to the 
Williamsburg peninsula. 

On September 5 th, the British fleet was signaled at the 
precise moment (11 o'clock in the morning) when De Grasse 
was proceeding with the disembarkation of the 3,000 men 
brought from Santo Domingo. Without losing for a moment 
control of the situation, the French Admiral decided to let 
90 officers and 1,800 of his sailors, together with 3 of his 
vessels, proceed with the disembarking operations. A moment 
after, he ordered the main body of his battleships to sea and 
met the British off Chesapeake Bay. After two days of 
fighting, he defeated the British so badly that five of their 
vessels were out of condition. Their losses amounted to 3 36 
killed or wounded and they were compelled to sail on the 9th 
for New York. There was an outburst of enthusiasm in 
Philadelphia. The main body of Franco-American troops 
under Washington and Rochambeau had arrived on Septem- 
ber 2nd and everyone was discussing the clever strategy of 
De Grasse which would henceforth allow these troops to 
proceed to Yorktown and to complete the blockade already 
begun by Lafayette and De Grasse. Cornwallis' position was 
considered hopeless and as the man of the street expressed it: 
"Washington will go on to catch Cornwallis in a mousetrap." 
On October 19th, that prophecy was realized by the sur- 
render of the British land and sea forces to Washington and 
De Grasse. 

The main part De Grasse played in the Yorktown battle 
consists in the tremendous help he gave the forces of Wash- 
ington and Rochambeau, adding 2,000 men to the French 
forces of 7,800 soldiers and making a total of 9,800 French- 
men fighting on the side of the Americans whose troops 
numbered around 9,000 soldiers. 

De Grasse's momentous decision deserved him the unani- 
mous thanks of his comrades-in-arms and the best conclusion 
I can find to this short address is to quote here the words of 
commendation which your first President addressed to my 
countryman the day after the surrender of the British: "The 
capture of Yorktown, whose honor is due you, has exceeded 
all our expectations. . . . Allow me to present to you my 
truest and sincerest congratulations on the happy issue of 
the war. . . . Your timely intervention has given America 
independence and liberty. . . . Your skill and talents are 
responsible for the final success." 

I am happy that this tribute rendered my countrymen by 
the founder of this Republic is today, after so many years, 
emphasized once more by the generous initiative of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission. 



Algeria 



|$jHE notable series of Bicentennial Cele- 
7k brations in France were supplemented 
; by George Washington observances in 
France's possessions. Algeria heard the 
message of the Washington Year at an official 
George Washington reception in Algiers, capital 
and chief seaport, on February 22, 1932. 

The spacious ball room of the Hotel St. George 
was the scene of the event. Mr. Oscar S. Heizer, 
American Consul in Algiers and host at the recep- 
tion, reported that there were two hundred invited 
guests present. Besides the American colony and 
the entire consular corps, a large number of the 
leading officials of the French administration at- 
tended. 

The Governor General was represented at the 
reception by M. Jarre, Administrator of the 
Colonies and Director of the Civil Cabinet, and the 
Secretary General of the Government was repre- 
sented by M. du Pac. Other notable persons at- 
tending were: M. Atger, Prefect; Admiral de 
Montcabrier and Madame de Montcabrier; Mayor 
Brunei and Madame Brunei; the Rector of the 
University; the President of the Chamber of Com- 
merce; the Archbishop of the Cathedral; the 
Bishop of the Anglican Church, and the Consuls 
of various foreign nations. 

The Chicago daily tribune, European edition, 
described the event as, 

one of the most interesting and enjoyable functions ever 
held at Algiers ... all present being impressed by the air of 
quiet dignity and cordiality befitting such an occasion. 



Governmental officials conveyed their compli- 
ments to the American Consul upon the signifi- 
cance of the day and spoke of George Washington 
as one who is dear to the hearts of all mankind. 

One of the foreign officers who attended the re- 
ception, Hon. Dollin du Fresnel, Consul of Hon- 
duras, came away from the affair impressed to the 
extent that he wrote a special article on George 
Washington for la antena espanola, an Algiers 
periodical, issue of February 29, 1932, which was 
given wide circulation. A translation of part of 
this article follows: 

The moment is well chosen to speak a little of this great 
man who was the first President of the United States of 
America. George Washington was truly an outstanding char- 
acter, enjoying before the whole world a unique prestige that 
comes, it seems, from that serenity of soul, that reflection with 
which his smallest acts were impregnated, and, in addition, 
that simple and noble attitude which gives him incomparable 
grandeur. . . . George Washington's love of country was a 
profound instinct in his life. This great citizen gave to his 
country stable institutions of government. He was unique in 
that he governed only to serve. He enforced obedience, but 
he knew how to lead men rather than to drive them. 

During the evening of February 22 a gala 
Washington dinner was served at the Hotel Aletti 
in Algiers to the leading members of the American 
and French communities. The Star Spangled 
Banner and the French Tricolor were displayed 
side by side and a life-size portrait of Washington 
hung over the banquet table. 



100 



French Indo-China 




>)HE sun of the Far East cast long shadows 
through tropical trees upon a group of 
Americans, Frenchmen, native citizens 
and soldiers in picturesque white uni- 
forms and straw helmets, gathered in the city of 
Saigon, French Indo-China, on October 29, 1932, 
for a celebration of the two hundredth anniversary 
of the birth of George Washington. The occasion 
was the official naming and dedication of a square 
in the city in honor of the Great American and the 
presentation of a bronze bust of Washington, 
mounted on a marble pedestal, to French Indo- 
China by the American colony in Saigon. 

The authorities of Cochin-China, the province 
in which Saigon is located, speaking through their 
Governor in January, 1932, suggested that the 
Place d'Espagne, a beautiful square directly in 
front of the Palace of the Governor, would be the 
appropriate one to be given the name of George 
Washington. This square is a place of historical 
interest in Saigon, according to dispatches from 
the American Consul, Mr. Henry S. Waterman. 
The French, in taking possession of Cochin-China, 
including the capture of Saigon in 18 59, were aided 
by a force of Spaniards from the Philippine Islands. 
After the settlement of Saigon by the French and 
their choice of a suitable location for the erection 
of the Governor's palace, a place directly in front 
of the proposed palace was given, in gratitude to 
Spain as a site for a consulate. Inasmuch as Spain 
did not desire to erect a consulate, a public square 
was laid out on the site and named "Place d'Es- 
pagne." Later, through direct negotiations with 
Spain, Great Britain acquired this square, but ex- 
changed it for another site in Saigon. In March, 
1932, Governor General Pierre Pasquier, the lead- 
ing French governmental authority in the country, 
approved the renaming of the square in honor of 
George Washington. 

Governor Eutrope, of the Province of Cochin- 
China, Consul Waterman and Mr. Goutes, Chief 
of the Governor's Cabinet, exactly at 4 o'clock on 
October 29, walked ceremoniously across the street 
from the Governor's palace to the square. There 
had been erected in the square a bronze plaque 
bearing the name, "Square George Washington." 



While the native military guard stood at attention, 
Mr. Goutes read the following official decree of 
the Governor of Cochin-China: 

The Resident Superieur in Indo-China, Governor 
P. I. of Cochin-China, Officer of the Legion of 
Honor, 

In View of the Decree of October 20, 1914, Defin- 
ing the Powers of the Governor of Cochin-China and 
the Residents Superieurs in Indo-China; 

In View of the Decree of November 21, 1931; 

In View of the Letter No. 8 5 5-AP of March 7, 1932, 
from the Governor General of Indo-China 

Decrees: 

Article 1 — The Square Facing the Palace of the 
Governor of Cochin-China at the Intersection of 
the Streets La Grandiere and Mac-Mahon, Belonging 
to the Public Domain of Cochin-China Shall be 
Known Under the Name "Square George Wash- 
ington." 

Article 2 — The Director of the Offices and the 
Administrator, Chief of the Cabinet, are Charged to 
See That the Present Decree is Placed in Execution. 
Saigon, October 29, 1932. 

EUTROPE. 

Governor Eutrope then pronounced in French: 
"In the name of the French Republic, the Govern- 
ment of Indo-China and the Government of 
Cochin-China, I hereby give the name of Square 
George Washington to this square." 

Monument Is Unveiled 

The Governor, the American Consul and the 
Chief of the Cabinet next proceeded to the tribune 
facing the monument. Among the prominent 
persons present in the tribune, which was deco- 
rated with American and French flags and green 
plants, were Monsignor Dumortier, Bishop of 
Cochin-China; Generals Vallier and Maille; Cap- 
tain Richard, commanding the naval forces in 
Indo-China; Pastor Peyric; Maitre Mathieu, Presi- 
dent of the Colonial Council; Mr. Gorton, British 
Consul General; Mr. Richaud, Vice-President of 
the Chamber of Commerce; Chief Judge of the 
Court Nepveur; the Procurator of the Republic 
Canavaggio; the President of the Commercial Tri- 
bunal Gorsse, and others. 

Mr. Douglas Fairbanks, famous American mov- 



101 



102 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



ing-picture star was also present, with Mr. Scotten, 
American Vice Consul, and the various members 
of the American Colony. 

Governor Eutrope handed the unveiling rope to 
Mr. Fairbanks, who slowly lifted the covering, 
while the band of the 1 1th Colonial Infantry Regi- 
ment played "The Star Spangled Banner" immedi- 
ately followed by the "Marseillaise." 

Hidden under the veil were little Johnnie Nel- 
son, dressed in buff and blue as George Washing- 
ton, and little Miss Renee Deroudilhe, dressed as 
Marianne of the French revolutionary epoch. The 
two children stood at attention during the playing 
of the national airs. 

Address By Consul Waterman 

At the termination of the "Marseillaise" Consul 
Waterman delivered the address of presentation as 
follows: 

Monsieur Le Gouverneur, Mesdames, Messieurs: 
In the name of the American colony in Indo-China, I 
desire to express to you our profound gratitude for the courte- 
ous act which caused the naming of this beautiful garden, the 
Square George Washington, in commemoration of the Bicen- 
tennial of the birth of the greatest of Americans. 

I would like to read to you a letter received from the 
Director of the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission upon hearing of your friendly gesture: 

The United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission has learned with the most profound grati- 
fication and pleasure of the beautiful tribute which the 
French Government and the Governments of Indo-China 
and Cochin-China are paying to the memory of the 
First President of the United States by naming a square, 
in the city of Saigon, Square George Washington. 

On the occasion of the dedication of the Square will 
you kindly express on behalf of this Commission our 
deep appreciation of this splendid and enduring observ- 
ance of the Bicentennial Anniversary of the Birth of 
George Washington. The people of the United States 
are indeed proud of this expression of the esteem in 
which he is held and are pleased to have this opportunity 
to express, in turn, their friendship and high regard for 
the people of French Indo-China. 

What could be more appropriate on this occasion than to 
present to a French colony a reproduction of the reputedly 
most faithful likeness of George Washington in existence, 
executed by a great French sculptor, Jean Antoine Houdon? 

George Washington, "first in war, first in peace, first 
in the hearts of his countrymen," loved France only second 
to his own country and one of the closest friends to the 
day of his death was Lafayette, who with Rochambeau, De 
Grasse and others, came from France to assist him so mate- 
rially in his days of greatest gloom. 

Washington, on the other hand, was Lafayette's hero to 
the extent that the latter as a token of his esteem sent Wash- 
ington the key to the Bastille, which may be seen today in 




WASHINGTON MONUMENT ERECTED AT SAIGON, 
FRENCH INDO-CHINA. "George Washington" (little 
Johnnie Nelson) and "Marianne" (little Miss Renee 
Deroudilhe) standing at attention during the play- 
ing OF THE NATIONAL ANTHEMS OF FRANCE AND THE 

United States at the unveiling ceremony. 



Mount Vernon, Washington's home on the Potomac. It was 
during the period of the formation of the lasting friendship 
between Washington and Lafayette that the traditional friend- 
ship between France and America had its inception. The 
young French officers and men and the struggling colonists 
who fought side by side learned to appreciate each other's 
good qualities, thus cementing the unbroken period of friend- 
ship between the two countries which exists to this day. 

France had its share in the construction of the greatest 
monument in existence in honor of George Washington, 
namely the beautiful capital of the United States. It is pos- 
sibly not known to you that the plans for the City of Wash- 
ington were laid out by an officer of the French colonial 
army, Pierre Charles L'Enfant, who was so enthusiastic in the 
cause of the American Colonies that in 1777 he went to 
America at his own expense, where he joined the American 
Army and became a Major of Engineers. His ability was 
recognized by Washington, and under his direction Major 
L'Enfant laid out the plans of the capital, which are still 
followed and consulted today when making improvements in 
the City of Washington. Major L'Enfant is buried in the 
National Cemetery at Arlington and the American Congress 
erected a monument there in his honor. 

Unfortunately, George Washington never had the oppor- 
tunity of visiting France, as his life was so full of self-sacrifice 
to his people that he did not even find sufficient time to devote 
to his personal affairs. 

The life of this man, whose glory increases with the passing 
of each year, should be one of particular interest to the Indo- 
Chinese because, first of all, Washington was a "colon." 
("Colon" in French is a colonial planter or farmer and has a 



Foreign Participation — French Indo-China 



103 



different meaning from the word "colonial"). He was a 
cultivator of the soil, his greatest interests were in the soil 
and what it could produce. He was also a surveyor, a soldier 
and a statesman, but in his heart of hearts he was always a 
"colon" and a gentleman. 

There may have been greater generals than George Wash- 
ington, there may have been greater statesmen than George 
Washington, but history can show us no name in which all 
of the manly virtues have been more signally united in one 
human being. 

Possibly the greatest tribute which his memory has received 
is that the British now consider him as one of their greatest 
heroes and are proud of the fact that George Washington was 
a colonial of pure British stock. Today, another Houdon 
statue of Washington, who was at one time the greatest enemy 
of Great Britain, stands in Trafalgar Square in London. 

George Washington's life was one of personal disappoint- 
ments and self-sacrifice caused in large part by his singular 
devotion to what he considered his duty. A man who, at 
times almost alone in his faith, never removed his gaze from 
his ultimate objectives. A man in whom honor, integrity, 
straight-forwardness and self-effacement were blended in a 
most striking manner. Who but a George Washington would 
refuse with indigation the crown which was attempted to be 
placed on his head? It is of this man that another one of our 
greatest Americans, Abraham Lincoln, said: "To add bright- 
ness to the sun, or glory to the name of Washington, is alike 
impossible." 

May this monument be a permanent reminder of the friend- 
ship which has always existed between France and the United 
States, and may the guiding spirit of George Washington, 
whose likeness is before you, ever watch over and guide our 
two countries through any trials and tribulations which may 
arise ahead of us. 



Monsieur le Gouverneur, the American colony and its friends 
present through your intermediation to the Union of French 
Indo-China this monument. 

Governor Eutrope's Response 

Governor Eutrope accepted the monument in 
the name of his people in the following address: 

Mr. Consul, Ladies and Gentlemen: 

Once more, the celebration of the Bicentenary of George 
Washington causes the American colors to fly on French 
territory fraternally united with the French colors. Thou- 
sands of kilometers away from their countries they reunite, 
and are reunited, the American colony of French Indo-China 
and the population of Saigon together in a common admiration 
for one of the most illustrious figures of history. 

In a gesture which shows their veneration for the memory 
of George Washington as well as their liking for the country 
where they are living, the Americans of Indo-China and their 
friends offer today to French Indo-China this bust of George 
Washington which so happily enriches the artistic patrimony 
of Saigon. They have decided as an additional attention that 
this bust should be a reproduction of that of the great French 
sculptor Houdon. In the name of the Governor General I 
address to all the donors the thanks of French Indo-China. 

You have reminded us, Mr. Consul, that George Washing- 
ton loved France as a second fatherland and that he was united 
to Lafayette by a bond of friendship which only death could 
sever. 

Gentlemen, the friendship which united these two great 
men was the model of those noble friendships which have been 
formed and developed during the periods where each of our 
peoples battled for their existence, between fellow soldiers 




GEORGE WASHINGTON HONORED IN FRENCH INDO-CHINA. Officials in the Tribune at the dedication of 
the Monument at Saigon. Right to left: Mr. Goutes, Chief of the Governor's Cabinet; Maitre Mathieu, President of the 
Colonial Council; Governor Eutrope, of Cochin-China; Lieut. Gen. Vallier, American Consul Waterman, Capt. Richaud, in 
command of the naval forces, and Douglas Fairbanks, American moving picture star, who participated in the ceremony. 



104 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



fighting for the same cause on the same fields of battle. The 
relations which were thus established between the best of 
French and American citizens, the common cemeteries where 
there repose in both America and France thousands of com- 
rades in battle of the two nations, are the surest gauge of the 
persistence of the Franco-American friendship. 

At a time when economic difficulties without precedent 
cause different nations to isolate themselves behind customs 
barriers, when national interests tend to be opposed to each 
other, it is well, it is indispensable that the harsh struggle of 
economic interests should be softened by the grand recollec- 
tions which evoke the union of nations during the hours of 
peril in the past, which demonstrate the necessity of this union 
in the scarcely less difficult hours of the present. 

This union, this spirit of understanding and confiding col- 
laboration, we find realized in Indo-China where the American 
colony participates usefully in the work undertaken by France 
to develop this country and its resources. 

Does it not appear to all under these conditions that the 
celebration of the Bicentennial of the great George Washing- 
ton takes on significance here quite particular? 

This work of colonization which we are following in Indo- 
China, making healthy a country, developing it, making the 
soil give forth, was that not also the work to which George 
Washington consecrated a part, the largest part, of his life? 
George Washington at the age of 16 left for his first survey- 
ing expedition to the new lands of western Virginia; he had 
to work all day, pass the nights in open air under tents or 
under any available covering, at a time when winter was at 
its height on the summits of the Alleghanies, when the melt- 
ing of the snow swelled the rivers and made their passage 
difficult, when the paths through the forests were cut by 
swamps and precipices. 

George Washington at that time was a vigorous and intelli- 
gent young man; he loved his hard life, worked with honesty 
and purpose; gifted with an active and hardy temperament 
he enjoyed exploring distant lands, participated in hunting 
expeditions after which, tell us certain of his biographers, the 
Virginia gentlemen got together joyously to drink and to 
dance. 

George Washington settled a number of years later in his 
domain at Mount Vernon, which he himself was to exploit. 
During his whole life he was a planter; this Mount Vernon 
which he left to join Congress when the confidence of his 
compatriots had called him to public life, he was to rejoin 
definitely, after having become the most illustrious of Amer- 
icans, to visit his farms, to oversee in person the work in his 
fields and resume his occupation of "colon." 

George Washington could have taken for his motto the one 
of Marechal Bugeaud, the pacificator of Algeria, "Ense et 
Aratro," by the sword and by the plow. If the illustrious 
patriot was a great warrior, a great President, a sage who 
stepped immediately into immortality, he was also above all a 
planter, a "colon", a clearer of land full of love for this land 
which he had known in its virgin state. In spite of wars, 
in spite of the heavy financial burdens which he knew while 
extending his domain, he worked, pursued his labor and suc- 
ceeded. What lesson, Gentlemen, for all of us at present, what 
beautiful lesson of energy and also of encouragement! And 
was I not right when I affirmed that the image of George 
Washington lends to local conditions a particular significance! 

To George Washington, liberator and glory of his country, 
to George Washington promoter of Franco-American friend- 
ship, to George Washington finally, courageous "colon" in 
adversity, who received from the President of the Chamber 
of Bourgeois of the State of Virginia the eulogy that he was 
more capable of action than of eloquence. I address the 



respectful salutation of the colony, the testimony of our 
admiration for this splendid example he has given us and the 
lesson of which shall never be forgotten. 

Two Thousand Attend Ceremony 

At the close of the Governor's address little 
"George Washington" picked up the bouquet of 
red, white and blue flowers from the base of the 
monument, and, with a courtly bow, kissed the 
hand of "Marianne" and presented it to her. There 
then filed past the monument, saluting it, a pro- 
cession of two hundred Annamite school children. 

It is estimated that over 2,000 people were at 
the dedication ceremonies. 

A parchment scroll giving a list of the donors of 
the monument was enclosed in a hermetically 
sealed bottle, and placed inside the bust itself. The 
scroll bore the following inscription in French: 

1732-1932 

IN COMMEMORATION OF THE BICENTENNIAL 

OF THE BIRTH OF GEORGE WASHINGTON 



The American colony at Saigon and its friends present this 
monument to French Indo-China at Saigon, October 29, 1932. 
His Excellency the Governor of Cochin-China, E. Eutrope, 
representing the colony, receives the monument in the pres- 
ence of many officials, civil and military authorities and the 
consular corps. 

DONORS 

H. S. Waterman, M. L. Ulrich, E. H. Hoyt, Lucien Berthet, 
Mohamed Ismael Freres, R. W. Vogt, Layne France Co., Wm. 
Morris, E. T. Barnard, the Hon. David Kaufman, O. L. Graves, 
H. A. Jackson, B. A. Leek, R. R. Ryder, W. E. Scotten, A. O. 
Glass, M. Franchini, Cie de Commerce & de Navigation, Ets. 
Bainier, F. M. Rich, American Asiatic Underwriters, J. O. L. 
Martin, J. E. Kiker, Jr., G. W. Drolette, Butt Bros., Interna- 
tional Harvester Export Co., P. F. Le Fevre, A. F. Scotten, 
E. W. Nelson, H. E. Rea, Associated Oil Co., Descours et 
Cabaud, Denis Freres, C. T. Melvin, Diethelm & Co., Miss 
Carolyn Jacobs, C. R. Lyons, Sidney Legendre, H. C. Durr- 
schmidt, C. T. Bauman and A. H. Tessier. 

Mr. Waterman, in his account of this notable 
event, wrote: 

Acknowledgment for the success of this little ceremony 
must go to the small American colony of Indo-China; to a 
few Americans passing through who showed their interest in 
the monument; to French firms of Saigon, representing Amer- 
ican manufacturers; to the American Committee, composed 
of E. W. Nelson, chairman; John E. Eiker, Jr., and George 
Washington Drolette. But above all, the acknowledgment 
should be made to Vice Consul W. Everett Scotten, without 
whose tireless efforts and unbounded enthusiasm the monu- 
ment would never have been erected. 

Acknowledgment is also made to Mr. Chauchon, of the 
Board of Public Works, architect of the city of Saigon, for 
his great interest, since the inception of the project, in seeing 
that the monument was properly and artistically placed, in 



Foreign Participation — French Indo-China 



105 



drawing the design for the monument itself and the 
inscription. 

Thanks are also due to Mr. Douglas Fairbanks, who arrived 
on a boat on October 28, with the intention of going on a 
hunting expedition immediately, but who, when requested by 
the American colony and the local Government, most gen- 
erously and kindly postponed his trip to remain in Saigon and 
take a place in the dedication ceremony. Mr. Fairbanks was 
most gracious and friendly during his short stay, gave thou- 
sands of autographs — in fact had to be rescued after the cere- 
mony from the hundreds of Annamites desiring his signature 
— made a most favorable impression upon everybody, and was 
indeed a creditable representative of the American people in 
every possible way. 

A Fox Movietone outfit, in charge of Messrs. 
Hawk and Mclnnis, made its plans to be in Saigon 
during the ceremony and covered the dedication 
exercises thoroughly with sound and picture appa- 
ratus. 

At 5 o'clock in the evening the American colony 
tendered a reception to the Governor and his corps 
at the American Consulate. During the reception 
Governor Eutrope presented to each of the three 
members of the American Committee, and to the 
Consul and the Vice Consul, a bronze medal struck 
by the French Mint in Paris to commemorate the 
Bicentennial of the Birth of George Washington. 



Governor Gives Banquet 

The reception was followed by a banquet given 
in honor of Washington by the Governor of 
Cochin-China to the American colony at the pal- 
ace. Toasts to the President of the United States, 
offered by the Governor, and to the President of 
the French Republic, offered by the Consul, gave 
the banquet the air of fraternity. Mr. Fairbanks 
spoke a few words bringing the greetings of the 
American people to the people of Indo-China. 

The celebration was given prominent place in 
several French and Indo-China publications, in- 
cluding l'impartial, la depeche d'indochine 
and l'opinion. The latter paper printed the fol- 
lowing editorial: 

[Translation] 

The inauguration of the bust of George Washington was 
the occasion for a fine manifestation of the traditional friend- 
ship which unites the United States and France. 

Saturday at 4 o'clock the American colony presented 
through its Consul, Mr. Waterman, a bust of George Wash- 
ington to the city of Saigon. 

The manifestation which took place greatly honors our 
young colonial city which from now on, like many of its 
metropolitan elders, may ostensibly show its admiration for 
the greatest of Americans, George Washington, the affec- 
tionate comrade of Lafayette and the ardent friend of France 




AMERICAN CONSUL HENRY S. WATERMAN SPEAKING AT SAIGON. Another view of the official ceremony 

AT THE DEDICATION OF THE GEORGE WASHINGTON MONUMENT IN FRENCH INDO-CHINA. 



106 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Although Governor General Pasquier, of French 
Indo-China, found it impossible to attend the 
ceremonies at Saigon, Consul Waterman reported 
that he graciously declared the afternoon of Oc- 
tober 29 a holiday for all Government offices in 
Saigon, in order that the governmental officials of 
the capital of Indo-China could be present at the 
dedication ceremonies. 



Governor Pasquier also sent the following tele- 
gram to the American Consul: 

FINDING IT IMPOSSIBLE TO ASSIST PERSONALLY AT THE 
CEREMONIES IN HONOR OF GEORGE WASHINGTON, I DESIRE 
TO ASSOCIATE MYSELF TO THE WORDS OF FRATERNITY 
WHICH WILL BE PRONOUNCED UPON THAT OCCASION. ALL 
OF INDO-CHINA AND I MYSELF TAKE PART TO THE BOTTOM 
OF OUR HEART IN THIS MANIFESTATION OF DEEP FRIEND- 
SHIP IN WHICH THE TWO GREAT REPUBLICS UNITE IN THIS 
COMMEMORATION OF THE HERO WHICH AMERICA HAS 
GIVEN TO THE WORLD, AND FOR EACH OTHER. 







MOUNT VERNON, VIRGINIA— THE HOME OF GEORGE WASHINGTON. 



Madagascar 




States, 
joined 



MADAGASCAR, a large island off the 
East Coast of Africa, a French Colonial 
possession, and one of the most remote 
parts of the world from the United 
despite handicaps of time and distance, 
in celebrating the George Washington 
Bicentennial. At Tananarive the American Con- 
sulate was the scene of a Washington observ- 
ance on February 22, 1932. The American flag 
was unfurled to the breeze to signify the impor- 
tance of the occasion and a great number of callers 
from various parts of the island were received by 
the American Vice Consul, Hon. Percy G. Kemp. 
The guests conveyed their high regard to Mr. Kemp 
regarding the day and expressed their goodwill 
toward the government of the United States. 

During the evening a Washington dinner party 
was held at the Consulate at which toasts were 
drunk to the Great American and attention was 
directed to the Bicentennial theme by the decora- 
tions, the conversation, and a general patriotic at- 
mosphere. 

The American Mission at Ivory, Fianarantsoa, 
Madagascar, held its own Washington celebration, 
which took the form of a "five o'clock tea." Rev. 
S. Nesdal states in a letter to the American Consul 
at Tananarive that: "I am glad to report a very 
successful commemoration at this place. My invi- 
tation to the Chef de Region & Adjoint, Chef de 
Province, Chef de District, and Commissaire de 
Police was very cordially accepted. We had a very 
pleasant time interspersed with music and short 
speeches." 

One of the most appealing descriptions of a Bi- 
centennial celebration in any country was sub- 
mitted to the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission by Miss Clara A. Dys- 
land, of the American School in Fort Dauphin, 
Madagascar. Prefacing her account Miss Dysland 
says: "We are in our small way celebrating the 
Bicentennial of George Washington in our school 
work. ... It would be difficult to find even in 
the United States a more patriotic group of 
youngsters than we have here." Continuing, the 
account reads: 



An American who once came to this island for scientific 
purposes remarked: "Madagascar is about as far from the 
United States as one can get." But not only does the distance 
of many thousand miles separate us from our homeland: We 
are under the Southern Cross, instead of the Great Bear; in 
the Southern hemisphere with the hottest season coming di- 
rectly after Christmas, instead of in July and August; sur- 
rounded by brown-skinned natives and few signs of civiliza- 
tion; and with French as the official language and Malagasy 
in all of its dialects spoken by most of the population. Here 
one would hardly expect to find much to remind a person 
of America. 

Yet here in the southeastern part of Madagascar, in the 
midst of such conditions, is found a group of American 
citizens, loyal and true, with a deep love for the homeland 
and all that it represents. Here hearts are thrilled when the 
Star Spangled Banner is unfurled to the breeze and our national 
songs are heard or sung. 

In Fort Dauphin, the seaport and headquarters of our 
mission, is an American school, the only such school in the 
island, and here American principles and ideals are taught. 

As patriotic Americans we have not been unmindful of the 
world-wide celebration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary 
of the Birth of George Washington, but on the contrary have 
tried to do honor to the Father of our Country. We have 
in many ways had the valued assistance of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission, which has been 
much appreciated. 

At school various Washington projects have been carried 
out. In the lower grades a study of Washington was pursued 
throughout the year. Silhouettes of our first President were 
made and sent to the Americans here. Washington booklets 
were started early in the year and completed by Thanksgiving 
Day. To find illustrative material enough was no easy matter, 
but friends here and in America gladly cooperated. One 
feature of the booklets was a page containing the twelve 
Bicentennial stamps, an interesting Washington art gallery, 
and all who participated secured a complete collection. These 
booklets, the proud possessions of their youthful authors, were 
on display at our Washington program on Thanksgiving Day 
and awakened much interest. 

Arrangements were made for a Washington declamatory 
contest for the upper grades and an essay contest for the 
high school. Rules were laid down similar to those followed 
in similar contests in the United States. 

We were overjoyed to be granted by the Bicentennial Com- 
mission a badge-medal and a bronze official medal as prizes 
to the winners in the contests. When the medals arrived and 
had duly passed the customs they were received with great 
enthusiasm. Interest was not only shown by those competing 
for them, but the smaller pupils begged to be allowed to touch 
or hold the big bronze medal bearing the likeness of Wash- 
ington, and this privilege was granted to each loving little 
heart. It was touching to see how each one in turn held 
out two hands to make a cup-shaped receptacle in which the 
medal was very reverentially received. It reminded one of 
the native custom of always receiving a gift with two hands, 
be it but a needle. Such value must be placed on the gift 
that two hands are necessary for receiving it. 

One evening we Americans gathered for the declamatory 
contest and the awarding of the two medals. Patriotic songs 
were sung and the declamations were well spoken. The air 
was filled with expectancy over the decision of the judges. 
First place and the badge medal were awarded in the declama- 



107 



108 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



tory contest to Marie Pederson, whose declamation was en- 
titled "National Monument to Washington." The prize- 
winning essay was written by Agnes Torvik and was entitled 
"Washington's Influence on Our Life Today." She was the 
happy recipient of the bronze official medal. 

Another part of our celebration was the unveiling of the 
splendid reproduction of the celebrated Athenaeum portrait 
of Washington, a gift from the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission. The arrival of this picture 
caused great rejoicing on all sides. Our great Washington 
loved children and he is loved by our little American children 
out here in Madagascar as well as by those of his own country. 
Before our much admired picture was framed it almost came 
to grief, but was rescued just in time — a little six-year-old 
girl was about to throw her arms about it in a loving 
embrace. 

A frame of native ebony was made and the picture was 
hung in one of the rooms of the school and unveiled with 
simple but impressive exercises. After the singing of 
"America," Agnes Torvik read a paper especially written for 
the occasion. Two of our smaller pupils, Dagny Tverberg 
and Agnes Braaten, then pulled the cords that drew aside the 
two American flags unveiling our much prized picture of him 
who was "first in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of 
his countrymen." The singing of "The Star Spangled Ban- 
ner" concluded the program. 

On Thanksgiving Day we Americans in Fort Dauphin 
gathered at Lebanon, our peninsular summer resort, for a 
dinner and services. That same evening the American School 
gave a Washington program in the spacious parlor of the 
school dormitory. The program consisted of music from the 
days of Washington, a Betsy Ross play and a presentation of 
the development of our national emblem through readings 
and a display of seven flags used at various times in the history 
of our country. 

We trust that these studies and celebrations have not only 
done honor to Washington, but have given us a deeper love 



for our country, a greater appreciation for him, and that 
they have filled us with a desire to emulate the noble traits 
of his character. 

We are very grateful to the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission for its live interest and 
valued cooperation in our work in this far corner of the 
world and for the material it sent to us. Words cannot 
express the appreciation felt, not only by our school, but also 
by the rest of the Americans here. It makes us all realize 
that we are a part of that vast band of Americans that 
during the past year have been honoring our illustrious 
Founder, and in so doing paying tribute to our beloved 
country. 

Prize-Winning Essay 

Miss Torvik, whose essay on George Washington 
was awarded the prize, was the first student gradu- 
ated from the high school division of the American 
School in Madagascar. Special reference to her 
success in the George Washington Bicentennial 
Contest was made at the graduation exercises. Her 
prize- winning essay follows: 

Washington's Influence on Our Life Today 

"First in war, first in peace, first in the hearts of his coun- 
trymen," Washington is loved and honored by all true Ameri- 
cans who teach their children never to forget that his ex- 
ample, and the fruit of his labors are their inheritance. His 
entire influence on our life today cannot be estimated. As 
citizen, soldier, farmer, scholar, and statesman, he has benefited 
not only America, but the whole world. 

Washington stands out as a noble example of loyal citizen- 
ship. He loved his country, and surely more than any one 




AMERICAN CHILDREN IN FAR AWAY MADAGASCAR HOLD GEORGE WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION. 



Foreign Participation — Society Islands 



109 



else, has done much for her in every way. When America 
"nobly resolved to risk her all in defense of her violated 
rights," she turned to Washington. Unanimously elected by 
Congress to take command of her armies, he left his farm, 
like Cincinnatus, and answered that high call. Although 
hardships and privations were before him, he stood firm and 
steadfast as a rock. "We must not despair," he exclaimed. 
"The game is yet in our own hands. To play it well is all we 
have to do." Courageously, he did play it well, leading 
America through an arduous war to independence. We are 
grateful to Washington for the freedom which we all enjoy 
today. 

Perhaps as a nation-builder and organizer Washington has 
had more influence on our life today than as a patriot and 
soldier. Under Britain's rule, the colonies had been protected 
in numberless ways, but after the Revolution they were left 
unprotected and helpless. They had no government. Again 
Washington came to the rescue. Many forms of government 
were considered, but he firmly believed that a republic, an' 
executive government, would last longer, and make for a 
happier nation. He had "little to learn about executive gov- 
ernment from the prerevolutionary experiences of the 
colonies," but nevertheless he conducted this nation, "new in 
its forms and principles, until it had settled down into a quiet 
and orderly train." We are indebted to Washington for our 
representative form of government in which each citizen has 
a part. 

But this is not all he did for his coimtry. The foundation 
was now sure, but the people needed to be taught and directed. 
Washington's aim was to promote education in America. 
"Knowledge," he said, "is in every country the surest basis of 
public happiness." His intellectual influence reaches down to 
our own day, for he himself was a writer. His writings con- 



tain not only valuable information, but noble aims and pur- 
poses for all generations to follow. The first university was 
Washington's idea. He said "The best means of forming a 
manly, virtuous, and happy people will be found in the right 
education of youth; without this foundation every other 
means, in my opinion, must fail." 

Washington has done much for the expansion of the United 
States. He was the first engineer in our country. While 
still a boy, he became a surveyor, thereby gaining experience 
which later proved to be of value to him. Interested in all 
progress and development, he suggested routes of transpor- 
tation, one of which was later used by the Baltimore and 
Ohio Railroad, encouraged the use of steam, and worked for 
internal improvements. "No men of his time had as great 
an influence as Washington in the expansion of the popula- 
tion and of the political and social ideas into the West. More 
than any other individual has he contributed to found this 
our widespreading empire and to give the western world her 
freedom." 

In the agricultural field also has Washington had lasting 
influence. He encouraged farming, taking the lead himself 
at Mt. Vernon, where he spent his time, when not in the 
service of his country, making valuable experiments and ob- 
servations which are used even at the present time. They 
have had great influence on the advancement and commer- 
cial independence of America. 

But Washington's name is mightiest in moral reformation. 
The purity of his life, his integrity, his incorruptible honesty, 
his devout reliance on God, the scrupulousness of his con- 
science, his humanity, generosity, and justice — these stand out 
before the world as a shining unparalleled example, influencing 
the lives of all. Thank God for Washington and his influence 
on our life today! 



Society Islands 




t|HE Governor of the Society Islands, the 
TM Mayor of Papeete, their wives, and all 



of the French and foreign officials of the 
islands led a group of more than 400 
persons who attended a gala George Washington 
reception and program at the American Consulate 
in Papeete, on the Island of Tahiti, the capital of 
the Society Islands, on July 4, 1932. 

The guests were received by Hon. William P. 
Garrety, American Consul, who was also the re- 
cipient of friendly and official greetings and Bicen- 
tennial salutations. Consul Garrety aroused the 
interest of his audience with an address on the 



life of George Washington in which he pointed out 
that the destiny of France and America walked 
hand in hand in the days of the Great American, 
and for that reason, if for no other, the Star 
Spangled Banner and the Tricolor might well be 
displayed together in gesture of fraternity, as was 
being done throughout France and her colonial 
possessions during the Bicentennial Year. 

During the day a reproduction of the famous 
Stuart portrait of Washington was hung in the 
Bureau of the Consulate with appropriate cere- 
monies. 



George Washington 

(As painted by different artists) 




Top, left: By Charles Willson Peale (probably painted at Valley Forge, 1778). Top, right: By Robert Edge Pine 
(painted in 178 5 at Mount Vernon). Bottom, left: By James Peale (Miniature). Bottom, right: Bj James Sharples 



110 



Turkey 




lO THE rising generations in Turkey, who 
^ are enjoying the benefits of democratic 
reforms, George Washington, liberator 
of his people, henceforth will be more 
than just another historical figure from a distant 
land. Through the medium of the Bicentennial 
celebration in the land of the Star and Crescent 
Washington and his ideals were brought impres- 
sively to the attention of a representative part of 
the Turkish people by the American colonies in 
Istanbul and Izmir, chief cities of the Turkish Re- 
public. 

The President of Turkey, His Excellency Gazi 
Mustafa Kemal, conveyed his felicitations and 
united the government of Turkey with the cele- 
bration in the following cabled message to the 
President of the United States: 

FEBRUARY 22, 1932 
ANKARA 
HIS EXCELLENCY 
MR. HOOVER, 

PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, 
WASHINGTON. 

ON THE OCCASION OF THE BICENTENNIAL OF THE GREAT 
AMERICAN GEORGE WASHINGTON, I AM HAPPY TO EXPRESS 
TO YOUR EXCELLENCY MY SENTIMENTS OF SINCERE FRIEND- 
SHIP AND KIND GOOD WISHES FOR THE HAPPINESS AND 
PROSPERITY OF THE UNITED STATES. 

GAZI MUSTAFA KEMAL (PRESIDENT OF TURKEY) 

Under the direction of the American Ambassa- 
dor to Turkey, Hon. Joseph C. Grew, a George 
Washington Bicentennial Committee was named in 
Istanbul in January, 1932, consisting of the fol- 
lowing persons: 

Joseph C. Grew, American Ambassador, Chair- 
man; Mrs. Joseph C. Grew; Charles E. Allen, 
American Consul; Dr. Caleb Gates, President of 
Robert College; Dr. Marion Talbot, Acting Presi- 
dent of Constantinople Woman's College; Lewis 
Heck, President of the American Chamber of 
Commerce; Luther Fowle, Treasurer of the Turkey 
Mission of the American Board of Foreign Missions; 
Harry T. Baker, representing the Y. M. C. A.; 
Margaret B. White, representing the Y. W. C. A.; 
Colonel Duncan J. Elliott, representing the War 
Department; Frederick B. Lyon, representing the 
Department of Commerce, and David Williamson, 
Secretary of the Committee. 

This Committee immediately made preparations 



for the observance of the Bicentennial in the city 
named for Constantine, but whose name was 
changed during the reform period to Istanbul. 
Turkish- American schools were invited to partici- 
pate in the celebration with the result that the 
Robert College in Istanbul and the Woman's Col- 
lege in the same city were pledged to conduct essay 
contests upon Washington subjects, and in various 
other ways focused the attention of the students 
on the Great American. The former school dis- 
tributed the following notice to all of its students: 

Throughout the United States and in all parts of the 
world, especially where there are American institutions, the 
200th anniversary of the birth of George Washington will 
be celebrated during 1932. The life and character of Wash- 
ington were such that he can not be regarded as of mere 
importance but he is of significance as a world figure. The 
variety of his interests give him universal appeal. Washing- 
ton advanced as a surveyor, engineer, farmer, business man, 
writer, soldier, and statesman. It is but natural that the stu- 
dents of Robert College should be interested in Washington 
and should be encouraged during these coming months to 
read, write, and study about him and the time during which 
he lived. 

The notice then proceeded to give a long list of 
essay topics and a bibliography of Washington 
material from which information could be derived. 
The students entered enthusiastically into the proj- 
ect, and a large number of essays were submitted. 
The colleges named also established Washington 
book shelves in their libraries, containing history, 
biography, Washington's own writings, and miscel- 
laneous documents concerning his life and times 
which will become permanent additions to the lit- 
erary collections of these Turkish-American insti- 
tutions. 

Ambassador Grew, in a letter of January 9, 
1932, to the United States George Washington Bi- 
centennial Commission in Washington, D. C, said 
that "the Turkish situation with respect to the Bi- 
centennial is somewhat different from most foreign 
countries because the American community, with 
few exceptions, resides in Istanbul while members 
of the Turkish Government live in Ankara, so it 
will not be possible to combine the two in the main 
celebration on February 22." However, the cele- 
bration in Istanbul was not deterred because of this 
fact. 

On Washington's birthday, 1932, three com- 



lii 



112 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



memorative functions were held in Istanbul. Dur- 
ing the morning the entire student body and staff 
of the "Constantinople Woman's College," and 
many resident Americans met in the assembly hall 
of the College to honor the great Virginian. At 
this function the mixed assemblage arose and sang 
the "Star Spangled Banner," listened attentively to 
President Robert L. Scott, Principal of Robert Col- 
lege, who read excerpts from the writings of George 
Washington, and was held in rapt interest by the 
address delivered by Ambassador Grew, in which 
he pictured Washington as the symbol of upright- 
ness, courage, and devotion to patriotic duty, in- 
spiring leaders of countries fighting for independ- 
ence and regeneration, such as Mustafa Kemal had 
wrought in Turkey. 

During the afternoon a similar ceremony was 
held at Robert College at which the American Am- 
bassador was also the principal speaker. The ad- 
dress delivered by Ambassador Grew at these Bi- 
centennial events is reprinted in part: 

::- =:- * Immediately we pause to ask, why was Washington 
great? Some men go down in history as great men because 
they dealt successfully with great events in which chance 
played a predominant part. Great battles have been won by 
unexpected flukes which in turn have contributed to the 
winning of wars with which the name of the victorious gen- 
eral will ever be associated. Hero-worship is an admirable 
thing, but to justify itself it must be based not only upon 
what that hero did, but upon what he was. Great deeds are 
worthy of remembrance, but it is the character and person- 
ality of the doer which is primarily worthy of study and 
emulation. 

Washington won a war, one of the most difficult and up- 
hill fights that have ever been recorded in history, the results 
of which, since it led to the founding of a great nation, were 
of epoch-making importance. 

* :: " * I have said that Washington was a sound and delib- 
erate thinker. How easy it is for all of us, when some prob- 
lem arises, to decide it on the spot, by intuition or by pre- 
dilection perhaps, but without thinking that problem through, 
without looking at it from every side and from every angle. 
It is the man who pauses to think a problem through, to an- 
alyze it from previous experience, who rightfully earns a repu- 
tation for sound judgment. From boyhood it was Washing- 
ton's habit to think back, clarify his mind and pass judgment 
on the events which he had shared. An event might be as 
fruitless as a shooting star unless he could trace the relations 
which tied it to what came before and after. Hence his 
deliberation which gave to his opinions the solidity of wisdom. 
Audacious he might be in battle, but perhaps what seems to 
us audacity seemed to him at the moment a higher prudence. 
If there were crises when the odds lacked ten to one against 
him, he would take the chance. He knew the incalculable 
value of courage. But he knew also the importance of delib- 
eration and used it constantly in his statesmanship. Although 
Washington was less learned than many of the men of his 
time in political theory and history, he excelled them all in 
a concrete application of principles. His strength lay in his 
primal wisdom, the wisdom which is based not on conven- 
tions but on a knowledge of the ways in which men will 



react towards each other in their primitive, natural relations. 
He had the widest acquaintance among men of different sorts. 
He listened to all opinions, but never sacrificed his own unless 
convinced by further factors as to its fallacy. In this respect 
he was one of the most actual and therefore one of the wisest 
among the statesmen. Patrick Henry, being asked when he 
returned home, "Who is the greatest man in Congress?" re- 
plied: "If you speak of eloquence, Mr. Rutledge of South 
Carolina is by far the greatest orator; but if you speak of 
solid information and sound judgment, Colonel Washington 
is unquestionably the greatest man on that floor." In the 
House of Burgesses, when he first took his seat, and attempted 
to acknowledge the ovation given him, the Speaker said: "Sit 
down, Mr. Washington, your modesty is equal to your valor, 
and that surpasses the power of any language that I possess."' 
: " We need not draw comparisons between leaders in 
history. Some were great for one reason, some for another. 
Yet it is quite impossible, standing today as we do on Turkish 
soil — soil that has been fought for and bled for and conse- 
crated for all time by the courageous deeds and sublime 
patriotism of illustrious leaders, — not to see the analogy be- 
tween the American Revolution of 1775 and the Turkish 
Revolution of 1920, not to see the similarity of roles of 
George Washington and Mustafa Kemal; not to recognize the 
vision, the far-sighted judgment, the unrivalled courage and 
patriotic devotion that each gave to the welfare and progress 
of a newly-founded nation. Let us then depart today, having 
done homage to the memory of the great dead, with the 
happy conviction that among the living we still find the same 
spirit of high enterprise and the same qualities as existed in 
former days. The world's pioneers are not extinct; when 
necessity and emergency call, they are there ready to devote 
their lives to their country's need. And as for us, who follow 
where they lead, let us too do our little best to carry on the 
torch of inspired patriotism along the trails which they have 
blazed. 

At 5 o'clock in the afternoon a Bicentennial re- 
ception was held at the American Embassy for the 
American community in Istanbul, to which func- 
tion were invited also many of the Turkish digni- 
taries of the city. More than 200 persons attended 
this social event and on the lips and in the hearts of 
all were expressions of good will and pleasure at 
being able to join in the festivities of the day. 
Washington portraits, American flags, colonial dec- 
orations and music identified the fete with the day. 

On February 26 a George Washington luncheon 
was held under the auspices of the American com- 
munity in Istanbul. This event, expressive of the 
love in the hearts of Americans abroad for their 
nation's founder, was attended by 1 3 5 members of 
the colony and several invited guests of prominence 
in Turkish affairs. The speakers on this occasion 
were Dr. Talbot, President of the Constantinople 
Woman's College, and Dr. Gates, President of 
Robert College, both of whom dwelt at some length 
on the life, the ideals, the example of Washington,, 
and the all-around greatness of his character. Chil- 
dren of the community joined in singing the Pres- 
ident's March, and other patriotic airs. 



Foreign Participation — Turkey 



113 



The American colony at Izmir, capital of the 
vilayet of the same name and one of the chief cities 
of Asia Minor, convened on the 22nd of February, 
1932, at the Consulate and gave honor to George 
Washington and to the standards epitomized in 
him. Among the attendants at this event were the 
American Consul, Hon. Herbert S. Bursley, and 
Mrs. Bursley, and Dr. Cass A. Reed, President of 
the International College at Izmir, who delivered 
a brief address on the theme of the day. The Cele- 
brants indulged in indoor baseball and other games 
until evening when a Washington entertainment 
was held in the home of Mr. Archibald MacFarlane. 
In so far as possible this event was designed to recall 



the days of Washington in song and dance and 
conversation. This reception was in turn followed 
by another Bicentennial gathering later in the 
evening at the American Consulate. 

George Washington literature sent to Turkey by 
the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission was available at these ceremonies in 
Istanbul and Izmir and was distributed to interested 
parties. Several portraits of George Washington 
as well as copies of the chart, "Flags of American 
Liberty," were distributed to schools in the vicinity 
of the Consulates, and in various other ways was the 
attention of the community directed to the Bicen- 
tennial celebration. 




FINAL INAUGURAL ADDRESS OF GEORGE WASHINGTON, AT FEDERAL HALL, NEW YORK CITY, APRIL 30, 1789. 




REICHSTAG HONORS MEMORY OF GEORGE WASHINGTON. This notable ceremony, which was unprecedented in 

German History, was held under the auspices of President Von Hindenburg. The picture shows the entire assembly, 

including Chancellor Bruning and American Ambassador Sackett, singing "The Star Spangled Banner." 



Germany 




|HE people and the Government of Ger- 
many honored the memory of George 
Washington, during the nine-months' 
celebration of the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of his birth, in an unprecedented 
manner. Never before did a foreign hero receive 
such universal and enthusiastic acclaim. To judge 
by the spirit of the bicentennial ceremonies which 
took place in all parts of Germany, George Wash- 
ington is a name which is cherished and revered by 
the German people. 

Streets, squares and parks were named or re- 
named in honor of America's First President. 
Eminent statesmen and educators eulogized him in 
eloquent addresses. A George Washington Memo- 



rial Library was established in the Technische 
Hochschule in Stuttgart and an endowed profes- 
sorship was planned for the University of Munich. 
Germans and Americans mingled in numerous 
banquets and other festivities under the flags of 
both nations, and for the first time the strains of 
the "Star Spangled Banner" were heard in the 
legislative hall of the Reichstag. The above were 
but a few of the highlights and characteristics 
which marked the Bicentennial Celebration in 
Germany. 

In the following message to President Hoover, 
President Paul von Hindenburg congratulated the 
American people on the important anniversary and 



114 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



115 



committed himself and the German people to its 
commemoration : 

BERLIN, FEBRUARY 22, 1932. 

HIS EXCELLENCY 

THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, 

THE WHITE HOUSE, 

WASHINGTON, D. C. 

IN CONNECTION WITH THE CELEBRATION OF THE TWO 
HUNDREDTH ANNIVERSARY OF THE BIRTH OF YOUR GREAT 
NATIONAL HERO, I VENTURE TO EXPRESS THE MOST CORDIAL 
CONGRATULATIONS TO YOU, MR. PRESIDENT, AND TO THE 
WHOLE AMERICAN NATION, BOTH IN THE NAME OF THE 
GOVERNMENT OF THE REICH AND IN THAT OF THE GER- 
MAN PEOPLE. GEORGE WASHINGTON, WHO WAS A MODEL 
LEADER OF HIS FELLOW-COUNTRYMEN IN WAR AND PEACE, 
BELONGS AMONG THE IMMORTALS OF THE WORLD'S HISTORY. 
MAY THIS YEAR OF COMMEMORATION OF GEORGE WASHING- 
TON, WHOSE STRONG HAND STEERED THE YOUNG AMER- 
ICAN SHIP OF STATE SAFELY THROUGH ALL REEFS DURING 
A MOST DIFFICULT PERIOD, BE THE BEGINNING OF AN ERA 
OF NEW ECONOMIC ADVANCE FOR THE AMERICAN PEOPLE 
AND THE WHOLE WORLD. 

VON HINDENBURG [President of the Reich]. 

Again, nine months later, at the close of the 
George Washington Bicentennial Celebration, the 
interest of the German government was expressed 
in the following communication from the German 
Ambassador in Washington, His Excellency Herr 
Friedrich W. von Prittwitz und Gaffron: 

WASHINGTON, D. C, NOVEMBER 24, 1932. 
MR. SECRETARY OF STATE: 

ON THE DAY WHICH MARKS THE CLOSE OF THE GEORGE 
WASHINGTON MEMORIAL CELEBRATION, . THE GERMAN 
GOVERNMENT FEELS THE NEED ONCE MORE TO EXPRESS TO 
THE AMERICAN GOVERNMENT THE DEGREE OF INTEREST 
WITH WHICH THE ENTIRE GERMAN NATION HAS FOLLOWED 
THE OBSERVANCES IN HONOR OF THE FIRST PRESIDENT OF 
THE UNITED STATES. 

THE UNITY OF SPIRIT WITH WHICH THE WHOLE WORLD 
HAS SHOWN ITS VENERATION FOR GEORGE WASHINGTON 
HAS INDEED BEEN A SUBLIME SPECTACLE. FOR THE GERMAN 
NATION, WHICH FEELS ITSELF BOUND BY MANIFOLD HIS- 
TORICAL AND HUMAN TIES TO THE AMERICAN NATION, IT 
WAS A MATTER OF HEARTFELT INTEREST SOLEMNLY TO 
CELEBRATE THE IMMORTAL MEMORY OF GEORGE WASHING- 
TON. THE GREAT AND SPONTANEOUS PARTICIPATION OF 
THE WIDEST CIRCLES OF THE GERMAN POPULATION IN THESE 
CELEBRATIONS DURING THE PAST YEAR IS THE BIRTHDAY 
REMEMBRANCE WHICH THE GERMAN GOVERNMENT IS GLAD 
TO OFFER TO THE AMERICAN PEOPLE AT THE CLOSE OF 
THEIR GREAT WASHINGTON MEMORIAL YEAR. 

ACCEPT, MR. SECRETARY OF STATE, THE RENEWED 
ASSURANCE OF MY HIGHEST CONSIDERATION. 

(Signed) F. W. von PRITTWITZ, German Ambassador. 

HIS EXCELLENCY, 

THE SECRETARY OF THE STATE OF THE 
UNITED STATES, 

HENRY L. STIMSON, 
WASHINGTON, D. C. 



Americans and Germans Join 

Many of the celebrations were planned and car- 
ried out by the German people themselves. Other 
commemorative events were held under the auspices 
of the American residents of various cities or were 
organized by Germans and Americans jointly. In 
some cities commemorative exercises were held 
under serious handicaps, and in others projected 
events had to be cancelled because of the economic 
distress which Germany suffered in common with 
the rest of the world. But despite all obstacles, 
the name and fame of George Washington and 
the genuine friendship existing between the Ger- 
man and American peoples were potent enough 
to inspire one of the greatest demonstrations of 
good will and friendship ever to occur in the coun- 
try which gave to the American Revolution such 
illustrious leaders as Barons von Steuben and 
de Kalb. 

Among the German celebrations in honor of 
George Washington none was more interesting or 
of greater value in the development of friendly 
relations between Germany and the United States 
than the project carried out by the Deutsche 
Akademie with the assistance of the Carl Schurz 
Society. By inviting Dr. Carl Wittke, professor 
of history at the Ohio State University, to lecture 
throughout Germany on George Washington and 
American institutions, the Deutsche Akademie 
selected a means of participating in the Bicenten- 
nial Celebration which, in keeping with the pur- 
poses of the organization, was calculated to 
"develop more thoroughly the spiritual and cul- 
tural relations between Germany and the United 
States." 

The plans of the Akademie also included the 
establishment of an endowed professorship of 
American history in one of the leading German 
universities as a permanent memorial to George 
Washington and a means of developing among the 
German people a knowledge of American history, 
life, and conditions. Unfortunately the general 
adverse economic situation of 1932 made it impos- 
sible to procure the necessary funds at that time, 
but hope for the accomplishment of the project has 
not been abandoned by the Akademie. 

Advising the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission of the lecture tour by Dr. 
Wittke, Major R. Fehn, secretary of the Deutsche 
Akademie, on April 15, 1932, wrote: 



116 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



In order to develop more thoroughly the spiritual and 
cultural relations between Germany and the United States, 
the American committee of the German Academy invited 
the professor of history of the Ohio State University, Dr. 
Carl F. Wittke, for a series of public lectures in Germany, 
commemorating the Two Hundredth Anniversary of the Birth 
of George Washington. The lecture tour of Professor Wittke 
was intended as a symbol of the active and sincere participa- 
tion of the Deutsche Akademie in this occasion, so important 
for the history and development of the United States, and 
it was also intended as the first step in an attempt to develop 
throughout Germany a better knowledge of American history 
and culture by inviting an outstanding American scholar for 
lectures in Germany. 

Professor Wittke arrived in Germany early in January and 
addressed university groups, local assemblies of the Deutsche 
Akademie and city authorities in the following German cities: 
Halle, Freiburg, Frankfort, Heidelberg, Karlsruhe, Stuttgart, 
Berlin, Munich, Magdeburg, Dresden, Breslau, Hamburg. In 
these lectures, which were well attended and enthusiastically 
received, Professor Wittke developed in German or in English 
various themes on the life of George Washington. He dis- 
cussed Washington's contributions to the creation and develop- 
ment of the United States, and his importance as a figure in 
world history. 

Professor Wittke outlined in various lectures, the aims and 
purposes of America's foreign policy from 1789 to the present. 

The lecturer spoke from the point of view of a scholar 
in the field of history and for that reason was able to develop 
most successfully some of the fundamental themes of Amer- 
ican history. Professor Wittke brought to these lectures, two 
of which were broadcast over large networks, not only pro- 
found scholarship and sincere understanding, but an intimate 
knowledge of German as well as American conditions. He 
pointed out to his audiences that a spiritual and cultural rela- 
tionship between the United States and Germany should be 
further developed. 

The efforts of Professor Wittke who received only his 
actual traveling expenses, and the financial support given by 
the Carl Schurz Memorial Foundation made this lecture tour 
possible and successful. To the latter the Deutsche Akademie 
owes special thanks for its help in making it possible to carry 
out the plans for a George Washington celebration in these 
times of extraordinary economic and political stress in 
Germany. 

In recognition of his important services for the develop- 
ment of a better understanding between Germany and the 
United States the Deutsche Akademie elected Professor Wittke 
to honorary membership in the Akademie. 

Bicentennial Committee Named in Berlin 

Plans for the observance of George Washington's 
Bicentennial Anniversary were begun in February, 
1931, when United States Ambassador Frederic M. 
Sackett announced at the annual Washington 
Birthday banquet of the American Club in Berlin 
that a committee had been selected to plan and 
supervise the celebrations in Germany. 

The announcement met with the instant and 
enthusiastic approval of the club, and a resolution 
approving the action of Congress in undertaking 
a general celebration was adopted. It was also 
decided that the American Club of Berlin would 



support the movement whole-heartedly and would 
take the initiative in the celebration in Germany. 

Executive Committee 

The following eminent men and women were 
appointed on the committee in charge of the 
celebration: 

Honorable Frederic M. Sackett, American Am- 
bassador to Germany, Honorary Chairman; Mr. 
George S. Messersmith, American Consul General, 
Honorary Vice Chairman; Dr. Frederick Wirth, 
Jr., Chairman; Mrs. Claire Schandein-Best, Dr. 
Hans Draeger, Mr. Arthur E. Dunning, Mr. C. J. 
Warren. 

Dr. Wirth immediately took the situation in 
hand as active chairman of the Executive Com- 
mittee and under his direction plans for a nine 
months' celebration in Germany began to take 
form. To expedite the task and prepare the way, 
the following sub-committees were named: 

Committee on Publicity and Program: Dr. Frederick Wirth, 
Jr., chairman; Dr. Fremont A. Higgins, Miss Sigrid Schultz, 
Mr. Louis P. Lochner, Mr. Kennett W. Hinks. 

Committee on Co-operation of Business Organizations and 
Inter-Committees (outside Berlin) Correspondence: Mr. 
Arthur E. Dunning, chairman; Mr. N. J. Howland, Mr. 
Henry Mann, Major Winston W. Menzies, Mr. George W. 
Wolf. 

Committee on Co-operation of Student Bodies: Mr. C. J. 
Warren, chairman; Consul R. H. Geist, Mr. Warren Tomlin- 
son, Mr. Gregor Ziemer, Mrs. Paul Koning. 

Committee on Co-operation of German Societies and Gov- 
ernment Officials: Dr. Hans Draeger, of the Carl Schurz 
Society, chairman, and representatives of the following 
organizations: Amerika-Institut, Bund der Auslandsdeutschen, 
Deutsche Akademie, Deutsches Auslands-Institut, Gesellschaft 
der Freunde der Vereinigten Staaten, Verein fur das Deutsch- 
tum im Ausland, (Magistrate der Stiidte Magdeburg und 
Potsdam) . 

Committee on Co-operation of Women's Organizations 
and Children's Festivals: Mrs. Claire Schandein-Best, chair- 
woman; Mrs. S. Miles Bouton, Mrs. Roy V. Fox, Mrs. Gregor 
Ziemer, Mrs. Richard Gary. 

Opening Observance in Berlin 

The first Bicentennial ceremonies in Berlin took 
place Sunday morning, February 21, when special 
commemorative services, conducted by the Rev- 
erend Mr. Turner, pastor of the American Church 
in Berlin, were held. The pastor remarked on the 
significance of the occasion, and introduced United 
States Consul General George S. Messersmith, who 
had been invited to deliver an address on the life 
of George Washington. In a letter of February 
27, 1932, Mr. Messersmith advised the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



117 



sion of this and other observances throughout Ger- 
many, and made this interesting comment: 

It is interesting to note that not only in Berlin, but in 
every one of the cities in Germany in which we have a con- 
sular establishment the local authorities and distinguished 
Germans in various walks of life have cooperated in a very 
whole-hearted and generous manner with our consular 
officers in arranging celebrations in commemoration of this 
•event. 

Speaking of the Bicentennial Celebration of 
Washington's birth, Mr. Messersmith told the con- 
gregation that all the world was joining the United 
States in honoring the memory of her First Presi- 
dent. He expressed appreciation for what was 
being done in Germany to commemorate the anni- 
versary and advanced the opinion that the reason 
for the universal interest in George Washington 
was due to the fact that he "is one of the great 
figures in world history." Inasmuch as there would 
be much said on the life of the great American 
during 1932, the Consul General stated that in his 
discourse he would confine himself to a discussion 
of those factors which made George Washington 
the truly great man that he was. 

Mr. Messersmith's address follows in part: 

It is with a certain hesitation that I speak to you this 
morning on Washington because in approaching this, the 
greatest historical personality we possess, I feel myself inade- 
quate to do justice even to a narrow phase of the subject 
which I may endeavor to discuss with you in the short limits 
of the time at our disposal. 

Throughout the whole of the United States and throughout 
the whole world where Americans may be enjoying the hos- 
pitality of other countries, we are about to celebrate the Two 
Hundredth Anniversary of the birth of the one whom we have 
become accustomed to speak of as the Father of our Coun- 
try. Because Washington is really not only a great historical 
figure in the United States, but is one of the great figures in 
world history as well, our German friends and other peoples 
throughout the world are joining with us this year in these 
anniversary celebrations. As this celebration is, therefore, 
in a sense a world-wide one, it must be considered not only as 
a tribute to Washington the American, but to Washington 
as one of the truly great spirits who has definitely risen above 
the mass of humanity and has shown the way to higher and 
better things, and who by really unselfish devotion to an 
ideal, has achieved something permanent for humanity. 

As you are familiar with the few excellent portraits we 
have of Washington and as his features are probably better 
known to us than those of any other American, I only need 
say here of his personal appearance, that in his prime he was a 
man of impressive figure, being about 6 feet 3 inches in 
height and weighing about 220 pounds, of florid complexion 
and strong, rather immobile features. In general demeanor 
he was quiet, reserved, slow and even considered cold, though 
always courteous. He was not easily moved to any show of 
feeling. His reserve and general demeanor were such that he 
was described by some contemporaries as glacial, but those 
who knew him realized that behind that calm and cold ex- 
terior there burned fires of passion and devotion. That he was 



capable of strong passion to which he nevertheless seldom gave 
way, history has recorded for us. It would be difficult to 
examine the personality of Washington in even the most 
cursory way within the limits of our time today, in order to 
bring out those elements which constituted his greatness. It is 
only the most sketchy picture I can bring to you and it is 
quite likely that I shall develop nothing new for any of you. 

His earliest training and environment among circumstances 
so familiar to you, developed in him that strong spirit of 
independence, that love of liberty and that intolerance of 
petty minds which so strongly characterized him in his whole 
career. This spirit of independence and love of liberty must 
be viewed as guiding principles which actuated him in every 
hour of decision in that long public career, where every day 
called for important decisions. His intolerance of petty 
minds, of small things and small people, were the reasons why 
he was considered by many cold and unapproachable. 

He was from his earliest years of maturity influenced by 
his adherence to republican ideals. With an aristocratic back- 
ground stretching back over many generations and with the 
training of a real aristocrat of the old world transplanted into 
a new country, his adherence in his day to republican ideals 
only stands out the more significantly. He nevertheless did 
not harbor any rancor or hatred of England, but fought for 
the separation of the colonies from the mother country because 
he believed it essential for the development which was their 
right. He resented the exploitation of the colonies by the 
Crown as not being truly aristocratic in principle and his 
turn to republicanism was probably largely influenced by 
what he saw of aristocracy and monarchy in action. 

He was a man of the highest courage in the truest sense 
of the word. I am not speaking of physical courage which, 
though very important, is not the courage of the highest 
order. He had that courage of mind and spirit which brooks 
no obstacle, considers no sacrifice too great and no danger too 
threatening, but sees only the object to be attained and which 
follows it unswervingly without hesitation, without a 
moment's vacillation. Probably few military leaders have had 
their courage tried in dark hours as Washington. He did not 
falter at Valley Forge nor at other almost equally distressing 
crises of the revolutionary period. When assailed by his 
enemies and detractors, when the things he most loved were 
attacked, and at a time when he himself would have much 
preferred the quiet and calm of Mount Vernon, his devotion 
to his ideals, to the new country for which that devotion 
was to earn him the title of "Father," and his inability to 
give way to pressure and opposition, made themselves felt in 
a much more magnificent fashion than any show of physical 
courage on the battlefield. His was that high type of moral 
courage which fights its battles in the seclusion of the study 
and of the work chamber as effectively as in the field of 
military and political struggle. 

He had the virtue of self-control, which is one of the 
primary and most essential elements of greatness. His calm- 
ness when attacked and maligned as general of the armies 
and as President, is so well known that it needs no comment. 
With his enemies and with those who endeavored to under- 
mine his work, he had infinite patience although he felt for 
them a righteous contempt. 

Political feelings and personal ambitions, contrary to our 
usual opinion, had probably even more unrestricted play in 
the early days of our Republic than now and for the man 
with the background of Washington and for one who avoided 
place rather than seeking it, it required the highest degree of 
self-control to maintain calm amidst a storm of passions. We 
know that in spite of the strong temper which he possessed, 
history can record but few instances when it showed itself. 
The great man must first be master of his own spirit. 

As a military genius he is accorded universally a high place. 
From his earliest years he showed his ability to lead and to 



118 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 




BICENTENNIAL BANQUET OF THE AMERICAN CLUB OF BERLIN. View of the Speakers' Table. Fourth from the right 

is United States Ambassador Frederic M. Sackett, while second from the right is Mrs. Sackett. Between them is Dr. Frederick Wirth, Jr., 

Executive Chairman of the George Washington Bicentennial Committee in Berlin. 



organize men. Before the age when most young men now 
go to college, he was already in command of troops and was 
little more than of age when he became commander of the 
Virginia forces after Braddock's inglorious defeat. Like most 
military geniuses, Washington showed marked ability in his 
early years. He had the real military genius which does not 
depend for its success upon unlimited materials of war. He 
had that genius which wins victory by the spirit it can put 
into troops, by the foresight and ingenuity with which it can 
plan campaigns and by the considered judgment with which 
it can reap the full results of victory. 

His organizing capacity showed itself in the way in which 
he carried out his duties during the French and Indian wars. 
It showed itself later in a most startling fashion when he 
made out of the voluntary Continental army a fighting 
machine which won his country's freedom — a feat which is 
still the amazement of military writers and commentators 
throughout the world. It showed itself in the part which he 
played in the work of the Constitutional Convention of which 
he acted as President; and finally it showed itself in the work 
which he did as President in consolidating the results of the 
Revolution and of the Convention, and in the laying of a 
sure foundation of the country which today is so grateful. To 
win victories, to conceive plans, to show the way, are all in 
themselves expressions of greatness, but when we find them 
combined with the ability to organize and really to build, 
we have a truly great and exceptional personality. Perhaps 
in no way is Washington's greatness more significant than in 
his vision and his political capacity. In the part which he 
played in the Constitutional Convention and in his Farewell 



Address, we find a man who sees far into the future, who 
is able to forget his immediate surroundings, who does not 
have his vision clouded nor his judgment disturbed by the 
petty disillusionments and difficulties which are always with 
us and which pre-occupy small men, who could look forward 
and beyond and above these things clearly into the future and 
envisage the really big things which have a permanent sig- 
nificance. His Farewell Address is the expression of a seer and 
of a prophet and yet is the expression of a wise and considered 
statesman. In one of his essays on representative men, Emer- 
son emphasizes that clear vision is one of the sure signs of true 
greatness and in this respect Washington meets fully all the 
tests. 

And in his simplicity of speech and manner and life there 
is a sure sign of true greatness. The great are always simple 
and it is only the near great who have to surround themselves 
with ceremony and ceremonial. Although a patrician by 
birth and breeding and by his associations, he was a true demo- 
crat. He abhorred sham and pretense of all kinds. In his 
personal life and habits he remained always quite simple 
although he maintained a certain dignity, natural to his 
character. Although reserved, he was always accessible. He 
maintained his self-respect at all times but did not wound 
that of others or their sensibilities, no matter how humble. 

He had another quality which is only found among the few 
great men who reached the highest eminence and that is an 
almost total lack of personal ambition. While he was con- 
sumed by a burning desire to serve his country, while he felt 
that it had a claim upon his every moment and upon his 
every force and thought, he was imbued by a real desire to 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



119 



serve rather than to gain a place for himself. What Wash- 
ington desired for himself more than anything else, was the 
peaceful life of a Virginia gentleman farmer, a quiet and 
calm existence in which he could enjoy his family and his 
friends. As is often the case with the truly great, his real 
personal ambitions were never achieved. But his life was one 
of sacrifice. He knew that he was living in a great epoch in 
the life of a new country. His devotion to his ideals and to 
the republican spirit made it possible for him to put aside 
his personal desires and ambitions. He had to a great degree 
that real element of greatness — passion for the service of his 
country. He always felt that the honors which were thrust 
upon him were too great for him, that there were others who 
could probably bear the responsibilities better than he. He 
always approached his responsibilities in an humble spirit, and 
like the truly great, sought for guidance from the Divine 
spirit. To me one of the most impressive incidents, even if 
it may be legendary, which history records, is that of Wash- 
ington praying in the snows of the hillsides at Valley Forge 
in the midst of that terrible winter, for Divine guidance in 
what seemed an almost hopeless task. It is after all only 
small minds which feel that they can depend upon them- 
selves and it is a truly great mind which understands the 
necessity for the co-operation of all useful means to a worth 
while end. 

But it is not possible to analyze greatness. It is a futile 
endeavor to attempt to take a great personality and to analyze 
the various factors which make up that greatness which man- 
kind has accorded to it. But however this may be, and how- 
ever inadequate my brief analysis today may be, we know 
that Washington was a truly great man; great not because 
circumstances made him so or because he was born so, or that 
a single act of bravery or intellect made him so; but because 
he possessed in a very unusual degree all those qualities of mind 
and soul which make a person capable of supreme service to 
his fellows. Such men belong to no one country, to no one 
people. Their unselfish achievements are the property of man- 
kind and the inspiration of humanity everywhere. The 



world's truly great are only too few, for too often selfish 
ambition clouds the vision of those who would lead struggling 
humanity to the heights. 

We Americans are grateful for the memory of this man who 
has served as the ideal everywhere of those struggling for 
greater service, for wider human liberties, for more unselfish- 
ness and for the greatest political freedom and happiness of 
all men. 

Public Square Named for Washington 

George Washington's birthday dawned on a 
Berlin thoroughly prepared to commemorate the 
auspicious anniversary. Beginning the day's activ- 
ities was the short but impressive ceremony con- 
ducted on the morning of February 22 at the 
Lehrter Bahnhof under the auspices of the Carl 
Schurz Society and municipal authorities of Berlin, 
when a public square, situated not far from the site 
to be occupied by the future offices of the United 
States Embassy, was named "Washington Platz" as 
a lasting tribute to the memory of America's cham- 
pion of liberty in the Capital City of Germany. 
Numbered among the large crowd assembled to 
witness the official dedication of the square were 
representatives of the national and municipal gov- 
ernments, the United States Embassy, the American 
Institute, and many citizens of Germany and 
America. A troop of American Boy Scouts in uni- 
form added a touch of color to the event. 

Although the naming of the square was author- 




NEW GEORGE WASHINGTON PLATZ IN BERLIN. This prominent public square in the German Capital was renamed 
for the First President of the United States at an impressive ceremony on February 22, 1932. 



120 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



ized by the city council of Berlin, the suggestion 
originated with the Carl Schurz Society. The 
dedicatory ceremony on Washington's birthday 
was arranged under the direction of the society, 
and the president, Dr. Hans Draeger, was in charge 
of the program. 

Dr. Draeger warmly welcomed those in attend- 
ance and spoke of the importance of the occasion 
as being a signal tribute to the memory of George 
Washington. He expressed the satisfaction felt by 
the Carl Schurz Society in being identified with 
this and other projects in which the anniversary of 
Washington's birth would be commemorated 
throughout Germany. Dr. Paul Loebe, president 
of the Reichstag, then was introduced. Speaking 
briefly of the German appreciation for George 
Washington's greatness, Dr. Loebe expressed the 
belief that the bonds between Germany and the 
United States would be more firmly cemented in 
the Bicentenary commemoration of Washington's 
birth. The dedication of the "Washington Platz," 
he said, was only one of many events in which Ger- 
many proposed to observe the occasion during 
1932. Calling upon the throng surrounding him 
for cheers for Germany and the United States, Dr. 
Loebe was enthusiastically answered by resounding 
huzzas from all sides. 

Response By Mr. Wiley 

In the absence of United States Ambassador 
Frederic M. Sackett, John S. Wiley, Charge d'Af- 
faires ad interim at the Embassy, responded to 
President Loebe 's remarks. Mr. Wiley graciously 
acknowledged, on behalf of his country, the mark 
of Germany's friendliness toward the United States 
as evinced in this commemorative tribute to George 
Washington. He said: 

In the absence of the Ambassador I have the honor to 
express the very sincere appreciation of the American people 
that one of the important squares in the Capital of Germany 
has been named after President George Washington, in com- 
memoration of this two hundredth anniversary of his birth. 
I especially wish to thank the municipal authorities of Berlin 
for choosing this square in front of the Lehrter Bahnhof to 
bear Washington's name and I also desire to thank the officials 
of the Carl Schurz Society for their initiative in inaugurating 
the movement. 

As Dr. Draeger has already stated, the selection of Wash- 
ington Platz is an especially happy one. An ever-increasing 
proportion of the Americans who visit Europe come to Berlin. 
Many of these obtain their first impressions of this great city 
on their arrival at this station. What could better signify 
the friendly relations existing between our two countries than 
that at their first step they should be greeted with the name 
of the founder of American freedom, the first President of the 
United States? 



May the naming of this square prove to be a happy symbol 
of the future of our two nations. 



That evening the Bicentennial Celebration 
proper was officially ushered in at a noteworthy 
banquet held under the auspices of the George 
Washington Bicentennial Celebration Committee 
in the famous Marmor Saal, or Marble Hall of the 
Berlin Zoological Garden Building, in Berlin. The 
gathering was distinguished by the presence of 
many officials of the German Government, includ- 
ing Dr. Wilhelm Groener, Minister of National De- 
fense and of the Interior; Dr. Gottfried Treviranus, 
Minister of Transportation, and several representa- 
tives of the German Foreign Office. 

Numbered among the guests of honor also were: 
Dr. Walther Simons, former Acting President of 
the Reich, and former Chief Justice of the Supreme 
Court of Germany; Dr. Heinrich Sahm, Mayor of 
the City of Berlin; Dr. Bernhard von Buelow, of 
the German Foreign Office; General von Steuben, 
a great grand nephew of the General von Steuben, 
George Washington's aide-de-camp, and Admiral 
von Raeder, chief of the Navy Department of the 
Ministry of National Defense. 

Presiding over the banquet, Ambassador Sackett 
welcomed the distinguished and numerous guests 
assembled on the occasion, and spoke of the reasons 
for the Bicentennial Celebration in which George 
Washington's countrymen planned to honor his 
memory. The celebration, he stated, was reaching 
into every land where people were seeking to evince 
the deep respect in which Washington's name is 
universally held. Said the Ambassador: 

I extend a cordial welcome to our distinguished guests, the 
representatives of the German Government. They graciously 
join with us in paying tribute to the life and example of 
General Washington, the First President of the American 
Republic, on this the two hundredth anniversary of his birth. 

As you all know, Washington epitomizes American tradi- 
tions. With his contemporaries he founded a government 
which is the oldest in present form that serves any people of 
the world. He left a marvelous heritage to succeeding gener- 
ations. He gave of his time, his substance, and intelligence 
that there might be established a new character of govern- 
ment. It was responsive to radical ideas, and subversive of 
the conservatism of the times — a nation consecrated to the 
rights of the individual in respect to life, liberty, property and 
the pursuit of happiness. 

How well Washington and his confreres succeeded is a 
matter of history, but the fact that the edifice they erected 
has endured through the years creates in the breast of every 
citizen that spirit of thankfulness and appreciation which 
is responsible for tonight's foregathering of Americans 
throughout the world. This morning's sun in its course will 
cast its rays upon successive groups of our grateful people — 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



121 



men and women — assembled to give acclaim to patriotic 
thoughts inspired by the name of Washington, until having 
girdled the earth it bids adieu to the twenty-second of Febru- 
ary and enters upon a new day. 

It is a privilege to preside over this notable gathering in 
honor of him who guided the earliest beginnings of the land 
I proudly call my home. While these anniversary meetings 
open the Washington Duo-Centennial, a much larger program 
is envisaged by the Committee of Congress entrusted with 
organizing a notable year of commemoration. Frequently, 
especially on festal days, until the time of Thanksgiving next 
November, the events of America's early history will be cele- 
brated in the cities, towns and hamlets of the United States. 
Similarly our nationals resident in other lands will come 
together in various cities on several occasions through the year 
to pay homage to their first President. So general is the 
interest in the life and times of Washington and so widespread 
the reverence for his memory that governments and peoples 
of almost every land are seeking opportunity to evidence the 
deep respect in which his name is held. 

The story of Washington furnishes the broadest base on 
which are builded America's ideals. For the native-born and 
for the stranger who seeks adoption in our land, that story 
forms the example of patriotism and love of country that is 
the joy of life to an American citizen. It is fitting therefore 
that gathered here we should listen to the record and achieve- 
ments of the man whose memory we revere. 

Your Committee is most fortunate in being able to draw 
upon a treasure house of knowledge. I have the great pleasure 
of first presenting to you Frederick J. E. Woodbridge, 
Johnsonian Professor of Philosophy in Columbia University 
of New York, who is spending the present year in Germany 
as Theodore Roosevelt Professor of American History and 
Institutions. George Washington — I fancy no more fitting 
subject could be found for a whimsical philosophical study 
of a great historical personage by one who is a world master 
of his craft. Such a master is Professor Woodbridge, and a 
real American. His distinguished services to American educa- 
tion and philosophical research form a background singularly 
congenial to his subject, and I present him to you as Berlin's 
contribution to the commemoration of our national tradition. 

Washington's Character Discussed 

Professor Woodbridge, thus introduced by Am- 
bassador Sackett, ably fulfilled the promises made 
by his eminent countryman by speaking eloquently 
of the qualities of Washington's character which 
made him great. The advice Washington left his 
countrymen upon his retirement from the Presi- 
dency was referred to by the speaker, and he 
averred that the observance of this counsel was one 
of the prime factors in the growth of the United 
States. To that fact he also attributed the success 
with which "peoples from the old world living 
together in the new" had established unbreakable 
bonds of citizenship and loyalty between Germany 
and America. Dr. Woodbridge's address in its 
entirety follows: 

Nineteen thirty-two — Seventeen thirty-two, two hundred 
years. And yet I remember that my mother told me in my 
childhood, that her father was born in New Hampshire the 
year George Washington died. Such memories shorten the 



centuries. I looked upon my grandfather with awe, as if 
he had known Washington himself. It was only a bare touch- 
ing of birth and death as they are dated in the calendar, but 
it is enough to remind us of living citizens who have learned 
of Washington from his contemporaries and have not been 
left to books alone. We are asking today who George Wash- 
ington was. But ask our elders who have been in the world 
70 or 80 or 90 years, and ask the youngsters in school. The 
answers will reveal the difference there is between memory 
and history, between looking at a living ancestor and looking 
at a printed page. They will reveal an experience which we 
as a nation are rapidly losing, and shall soon have lost alto- 
gether. The day draws near when it will no longer be possible 
for the living to feel through the perspective of the years a 
contact almost physical with him who was first in war, first 
in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen. It is 
fitting, therefore, at this turning-point in the remembrance 
of Washington, that we should try to see a man as his con- 
temporaries saw him and listen to his advice as to the words 
of a father again saying farewell. 

He himself said of the Confederation: "Today one nation, 
tomorrow thirteen." The words paint him to the life, as his 
contemporaries saw him — one nation in his presence, in his 
absence thirteen. He was unity in symbol and in fact, simply 
by being on the spot. As a soldier he had held together 
through long and weary years, a turbulent, rebellious, selfish, 
mutually distrustful and often despairing people. He had led 
them to victory at last. He had been first in war. They 
turned to him in peace, asked him to become a statesman, and 
lead them to a greater victory, the victory over dissension 
and disunion in their freedom. And he did it, a man with 
little more than the experience of a soldier to go upon. He 
was first in peace. They wanted a constitution. They did 
not ask him to make one. They asked him to preside over 
the convention that he might be in that turbulent assembly, 
the symbol and fact of unity again. They got a con- 
stitution. They asked him to be President. He took the 
office reluctantly, and knowing so little of statecraft, he 
gathered about him a group of men who knew much, and 
bade them go to work. They worked. They differed and 
they quarrelled. He kept them at it around the table, just 
as he had kept his debating officers at it around him in his 
tent. He was asked to be President again. Again he accepted 
reluctantly. He was a tired soldier. But, after that second 
term, the young nation was strong enough to run for fifty 
years, before it met another struggle for unity and life. That 
was an achievement. That was what men saw when they 
looked at Washington, and that is what fathers told their sons. 
There was an army of statesmen, with Ministers and future 
Presidents in it, but the General was Washington. 

We may speculate about what would have happened with- 
out him, but what happened, did not happen without him, 
and what happened was stupendous enough to make conjec- 
tural history look cheap indeed. Here was the man who was 
the nation in his person, a man who compelled gratitude, 
admiration, and worship, whose frailties existed to be for- 
gotten, the tired soldier of many a tiresome battle, who wanted 
to be a farmer instead of a President, who was transformed 
into a great statesman through the fortunate coincidence of 
his character with the opportunity, who should be painted 
as the portraits paint him — the Commander, fearless, confident 
and serene. He became first in the hearts of his countrymen. 
So they remembered him, and so they bequeathed him to their 
children's children. 

Descriptions of Washington by his contemporaries have 
much to say about his personal appearance and his moral 
qualities. They read a little as if the compulsion to admire 
suppressed the attempt to form a critical judgment. But 
listen to Thomas Jefferson writing of Washington in 1814: 



122 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 




AMERICAN FLAG RAISED IN THE NEW WASHINGTON PLATZ IN BERLIN. A troop of American Boy Scouts, with the 
assistance of german soldiers, conducted an impressive flag raising ceremony as part of the celebration of the 

George Washington Bicentennial in the German Capital. 



"His mind was great and powerful, without being of the 
very first order; his penetration strong, though not so acute 
as that of a Newton, Bacon or Locke; and as far as he saw, 
no judgment was ever sounder. It was slow in operation, 
being little aided by invention or imagination, but sure in 
conclusion. Hence the common remark of his officers, of the 
advantage he derived from councils of war, where, hearing 
all suggestions, he selected whatever was best; . . . He was 
incapable of fear, meeting personal dangers with the calmest 
unconcern. Perhaps the strongest feature in his character 
was prudence, never acting until every circumstance, every 
consideration, was maturely weighed; refraining if he saw a 
doubt, but, when once decided, going through with his pur- 
pose, whatever obstacles opposed. His integrity was most 
pure, his justice the most inflexible. . . . His temper was 
naturally irritable and high-toned; but reflection and resolu- 
tion had obtained a firm and habitual ascendency over it. 
If ever, however, it broke its bonds, he was most tremendous 
in his wrath. . . . 

"On the whole, his character was, in its mass, perfect, in 
nothing bad, in few points indifferent; and it may truly be 
said that never did nature and fortune combine more per- 
fectly to make a man great, and to place him in the same 
constellation with whatever worthies have merited from man 
an everlasting remembrance." 

This, in spite of its "nevers" and "everys" and because of 
its studied restraint and qualified exaggeration, reads like a 
well-considered estimate. Jefferson had the analytic habit of 
mind and consciously spoke to posterity as well as to the 
immediate ear. The central and controlling sentence in his 
judgment of Washington is this: "Perhaps the strongest fea- 
ture in his character was prudence." Not to plan first and 



hear suggestions afterwards, but to hear suggestions first and 
then to plan; not to start with conclusions; but to come to 
them, and to come to them when they are needed, and with 
the full acceptance of responsibility; to have a violent temper 
so controlled and disciplined that it keeps a plan once adopted 
steadily driving to its accomplishment — these traits of char- 
acter describe a man whom others instinctively trust. It is 
the realistic habit of mind. It makes experience count more 
than theory, and the sense of fact count more than the dreams 
of the imagination. It is prudence, a timid virtue in the weak, 
a compelling power in the strong. We see a soldier, a Presi- 
dent once, a President again, a strong man, a self-disciplined 
man, a fearless man, a man of integrity, bringing the power 
of prudence to the shaping of a nation. 

Washington's Farewell Address to the people of the United 
States was a plea for prudence in conducting national affairs 
at home and abroad. North, South, East, and West were 
called upon to see above their rivalries and ambitions their 
essential interdependence, and above this, the commonweal of 
a people, inviting mutual respect and co-operation. He tried 
to impress upon them that their problem was the sinking of 
their sectional differences in that common cause which alone 
could assure them peace, prosperity, and happiness. It was 
like a father speaking to his children out of a life's experience, 
bidding them — be sensible and prudent, and cautious about 
illusions of glory. He was saying goodbye to a new nation. 
In an intensely personal sense it was his. He had given his 
life to it, risked his life, his fortune, and his reputation. He 
foresaw that it had the opportunity to become one of the 
great nations of the world, but he wanted it to be a different 
sort of nation from the ordinary. He wanted to see a people 
becoming conscious of their nationality through that common, 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



123 



daily, and neighborly intercourse with one another, which 
their independence and their new land offered them in rich 
abundance. He did not want their national consciousness to 
be generated by participation in the quarrels of others. Turn- 
ing from North, South, East, and West, he looked across the 
ocean and spoke his words of warning. They are familiar to 
school children. They are read annually in the Senate. We 
may listen to them again: 

"Observe good faith and justice toward all nations. Cul- 
tivate peace and harmony with all. — Religion and Morality 
enjoin this conduct; and can it be that good policy does not 
equally enjoin it? — It will be worthy of a free, enlightened, 
and, at no distant period, a great nation, to give to mankind 
the magnanimous and too novel example of a People always 
guided by an exalted justice and benevolence. — Who can 
doubt that in the course of time and things, the fruits of 
such a plan would richly repay any temporary advantages 
which might be lost by a steady adherence to it? . . . 

"In the execution of such a plan nothing is more essential 
than that permanent, inveterate antipathies against particular 
nations and passionate attachments for others should be ex- 
cluded; and that in place of them just and amicable feelings 
towards all should be cultivated. . . . 

"Against the insidious wiles of foreign influence, I con- 
jure you to believe me, fellow citizens, the jealousy of a free 
people ought to be constantly awake. . . . But that jealousy 
to be useful, must be impartial. . . . 

"The great rule of conduct for us, in regard to foreign 
Nations, is, in extending our commercial relations, to have 
with them as little Political connection as possible. — So 
far as we have already formed engagements, let them be 
fulfilled with perfect good faith. Here let us stop." 

That was prudence in 1796. Has it been changed by 136 
years? Has it been changed by the Bremen speeding across 
the ocean? By the network of cables which lie at the bottom 
of the sea or by those strange rays of nature which have 
brought Europe and America within speaking distance of each 
other? Has it been changed by a World War? By the fear 
of destruction unless we all join hands to succor one another? 
Is it out of date? Has it ceased to be prudence in the modern 
world? Surely the living and not the dead must answer such 
questions and take the responsibility for answering them. And 
we, the living, are sorely in need of prudence. We have too 
much the habit of planning first and hearing suggestions after- 
wards, of starting with conclusions instead of coming to 
them, and of claiming to be realists when we have so little 
sense of fact. The living never answer a question right, unless 
they answer it in terms of the conditions which generate it. 
The dead are in the great majority. It is prudent for the 
living to turn to the dead first, before they turn to that 
future which will surely answer all their questions, but which 
as surely will never tell them how. 

We are remembering Washington. We remember his Fare- 
well Address. We should also remember the fact on which it 
was based. It was not the product of a political theorist, but 
of an experienced man. It drew its force from circumstances. 
Political connection with Europe had been severed. That con- 
nection had been largely responsible for strife among the colo- 
nies. It was a serious danger to the young nation, not only 
on account of the inexperience and insecurity of its govern- 
ment, but also on account of the character of its population. 
The people of the new United States were American in name 
only. In ancestry they were European. In flesh and blood, 
in emotional kinship, in the memory of fathers and grand- 
fathers, in the memory of former allegiances, of historic de- 
feats, victories, and glories, in culture, in religion, in the thou- 
sand things which go to make up that inherited patrimony 
which is the natural basis of a man's piety — in all this the 
people were English, German, French, Dutch. They were 
freed from Europe by a Declaration of Independence and by 



the establishment of a government, but they were not freed 
from what living men remembered. Political connection with 
Europe could, all too easily, transform national conflicts in 
the old world into civil conflicts in the new. Experience and 
fact lay back of that rule of conduct which Washington ad- 
vised. It was based on a soldier's experience and observation. 

And now; after these many years and many changes? My 
fellow citizens who acknowledge a rich inheritance from Ger- 
many or from France or from Italy and I who acknowledge 
the same from England, have we ceased to thrill at the names 
of those great nations? Do we look with careless indifference 
on their welfare or their fate? God forbid! But we are 
Americans. That means that we have sworn allegiance to a 
Constitution under which for all these years, just such men as 
we have lived happily and peaceably together, enjoying with- 
out fear or favor what each of us could contribute to the 
other's good. This is why, when we sit down to consider 
our national relations to the lands we love, lands which have 
been loved for 136 years through successive generations, we 
find that we must consider our relations to them not indi- 
vidually but collectively. And when we consider our rela- 
tions to them collectively, we find that we can do so with 
calmness and satisfaction only on the basis of their relations 
to one another. The way they deal with one another is cru- 
cial for the way we can successfully deal with them. We 
must be impartial. It is not whim, nor prejudice, nor avarice, 
nor ambition which makes this so. It is the experience of the 
kind of life we have lived, North, South, East, and West. 
The international prudence of Washington becomes ours, when 
we think of international politics and remember what we are. 

And what are the United States of America? A great 
and powerful nation, no doubt. But does its greatness or 
power tell what its experience has been or is? Do they define 
the kind of force it is in civilization and human history? Our 
fate has defined us differently. It has made us the experience 
of the different peoples of the old world living together in 
the new, and finding in that common life a loyalty to one 
another which even a world war, with the heart-rendering 
decisions it entailed, could not weaken. It looks like an ex- 
perience to be guarded. It looks like an experience to be em- 
ployed. It is usable. It is ready to be used. It wants to be 
used. It defines an opportunity and a responsibility. Inter- 
national politics and international prudence are now unhappily 
two different things. Can they be made happily one? The 
men and women the world over who shall make them one, 
will be dear to the hearts of Washington's countrymen and 
dear to the hearts of their own. 

An enthusiastic wave of applause swept the audi- 
ence as Professor Woodbridge concluded his dis- 
course, and the orchestra immediately brought 
every person to his feet with the inspiring strains 
of the "Star Spangled Banner." At the conclusion 
of this rendition of America's national anthem, 
Charles Kullman, well-known American tenor at 
that time fulfilling an engagement with the Berlin 
State Opera, delighted the assemblage by singing 
several familiar American compositions. 

Ambassador Sackett then presented the next 
speaker, Dr. M. J. Bonn, in the following intro- 
duction: 

"And now we are privileged to listen to reflections on 
Washingtonia, as envisaged by one of Germany's greatest pub- 
licists. Professor Dr. Moritz J. Bonn, Rector Magnificence of 



124 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



the Handels-Hochschule of Berlin, combines the highest ac- 
complishments of German intellectual life with an intimate 
knowledge of American letters, customs and ideals. His wide 
experience as exchange professor in several of the leading 
American universities; his extensive and remarkable public 
service to his own country and the brilliance of his appear- 
ances before the Williamstown Institute of Politics mark him 
with a fame that is international. As student and essayist, as 
educator and executive, but particularly as an idealist in the 
realm of kindly friendship, I commend Professor Bonn to your 
cordial interest." 

Why Germans Admire Washington 

The speaker immediately captured the interest of 
his auditors by a discussion of factors involved in 
the American War for Independence and the im- 
portant place in relation to it held by George Wash- 
ington. Washington as a private citizen had few 
connections with Germany, said the professor, and 
his official contacts were not sufficient to account 
for the deep popular sympathy with which Ger- 
mans all over the world were paying homage to 
him. The reason for it, asserted Dr. Bonn, was an 
"instinctive feeling" that in the character of 
George Washington were combined stability, in- 
tegrity, courage and all other attributes of great- 
ness. "It is this," said the speaker, "which makes 
us all join you in the world-wide celebration of 
George Washington, who by becoming the Father 
of his Country, did not cease to be a son of our own 
old world." 

Dr. Bonn's speech follows: 

Two hundred years ago when George Washington was born, 
there was no Germany, but merely a jumble of many States 
of varied size and importance, inhabited by German-speaking 
people. Under these circumstances neither his official con- 
nections with Germany nor the impact of his achievements on 
German life seem considerable to the superficial observer. 
And yet, it was Germany, or rather Prussia, who made the 
foundation of the United States possible during George Wash- 
ington's life time. 

England had been Prussia's ally in the Seven Year's War; 
and in some ways it was England who profited most from it. 
For France's entanglement in continental Europe had pre- 
vented her from throwing her entire strength into the struggle 
for the new world. She lost Canada, not merely by the 
storming of Quebec, but on the German battlefields where 
Frederick the Great prevailed. It was the cost of the French 
wars which raised the taxation issue in the North American 
Colonies, and it was the ousting of France as an immediate 
dangerous neighbor which enabled them to strike out for 
complete independence at a time when they were not strong 
enough to face a great military power as neighbor, when no 
longer protected by a comparatively unexacting mother- 
country. 

The fact that none of the German States were Colonial 
powers enabled their inhabitants to look upon the first great 
modern struggle for national emancipation from rather a 
friendly point of view, though the fundamental ideas which 
finally embodied themselves in the Declaration of Independ- 
ence and the American Constitution were not very dear to 
the German mind of those days. These ideas constituted a 



bond rather between the American and the French Revolution. 
For the time being France and the United States were in close 
alliance not only because England was the common enemy, 
but because the spirit of rationalism, descended from the 
great French philosophers, could easily be applied to political 
problems in a France struggling against the continuation of 
the ancien regime, and in the American Colonies, striving for 
liberty. Germany, on the other hand, was politically anti- 
rationalist and has remained so until today. Moreover, though 
the groupings of the powers on the European chessboard 
changed quickly enough, England as a rule was considered an 
ally, though not a beloved one, whilst France, owing to his- 
tory and geography, was rather the traditional enemy. 

There was indeed a close relation between Washington and 
the German people by means of the settlers in the United 
States, who even at that early date numbered very nearly a 
quarter of a million. In most States they were not very im- 
portant in the social scale of life; and as a consequence few 
of them were Tories. The majority threw themselves into 
the struggle for American independence with a heartfelt en- 
thusiasm, whilst — one of the curious paradoxes of history — 
the French in Canada remained finally Loyalists. 

George Washington had a high opinion of those German 
settlers. His body-guard is supposed to have been formed by 
them. And it is well-known that drill and organization of 
the American army — drill and discipline not being one of the 
most cherished traditions of American national life — were 
greatly enhanced by the work of Baron von Steuben. 

All this, however interesting it may be, would scarcely 
account for the deep interest, for the feeling of veneration 
and sympathy with which Germans in Germany as well as all 
over the world join in the celebration of the two hundredth 
anniversary of George Washington. We pay homage to him, 
of course, as the founder of a great country which, apart 
from a very short and unhappy period in the world's history, 
has always been friendly to us. And we honor in him the 
great soldier and statesman who established the principle of 
national self-government in the modern world. But this does 
not go deep enough; it might account rather for official cele- 
brations than for deep popular sympathy. 

George Washington as a private citizen, had very few con- 
nections with Germany. He never had a chance to travel in 
Europe. He was not a very learned man, he did not know our 
language and was not interested in our main achievement of 
the period in which he lived: the great revival of German 
literature and German philosophy. It may very well be 
doubted whether any of the great names which are inscribed 
on the role of honor of Germany of those days, meant any- 
thing to him. He was, if I read him rightly, a typical gentle- 
man of the eighteenth century. He grew up in that great 
nursery of English gentlemen across the seas in Virginia. His 
ideals of life, his ways of acting, his attitude towards friends 
and foes, his pastime, and even his foibles are those of a very 
fine gentleman of this extraordinarily interesting age which 
evolved the type of gentlemen to perfection who maintained 
all the honorable traditions of the past, whilst he opened his 
mind liberally to new ideas. Curiously enough, the same cen- 
tury, by letting in the age of reason, destroyed the founda- 
tions on which alone this aristocratic type of gentlemen could 
flourish. 

It is another of the very curious paradoxes of history, that 
the man who was the best type of many things English — he 
even was very fond of afternoon tea, an institution, which in 
the American West is considered "effeminate" — was the man 
who put an end to the North American colonies as English 
countries. He and his friends tried to impress a good many 
of their own traditional ideals in the American Constitution; 
and in some ways they have been successful. But ever since 
he stepped from the Presidency, and certainly from the acces- 
sion of Thomas Jefferson, the tide has been running strong 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



125 



in the opposite direction. An America has been created, evolv- 
ing a character of her own, turning aside vigorously from all 
European examples, evolving social and political ideas of her 
own which influence Europe and the rest of the world today, 
but are scarcely any longer influenced by them. 

This "Making of America," or rather of the United States 
as a political and social system of its own — just now it is not 
as loudly acclaimed as perfect as it was a few years ago, but I 
am convinced that the crisis with its most acute sufferings is 
bound to pass in not such a very long time for the people 
of the United States — has been a wonderful achievement for 
the States as well as for the world in general. 

But there is a great danger involved, a danger perhaps never 
greater than at the present time: the growing consciousness 
of an essential national character of their own on the one 




NOTABLE BICENTENNIAL BANQUET IN BERLIN. This 
function was held under the auspices of the american 
Club, the Carl Schurz Society and other organizations 
IN the German Capital. By courtesy of the European 
Edition of the New York Herald Tribune. 

hand, and the discovery of a different attitude to life and its 
problems among the European nations, that are just now driv- 
ing the people of the United States towards an ideal of com- 
plete isolation. I do not think that this ideal can ever be 
achieved, but great damage may be done to the world at large 
and especially to the relations of the United States to Europe 
during the time in which they are striving to achieve the im- 
possible. 

This day presents a wonderful opportunity to Europeans as 
well as to citizens of the United States in uniting in a cele- 
bration of the memory of George Washington. He had the 
American outlook, for he was not only a great American sol- 
dier and statesman, he was one of the pioneer minds, striving 
westward, where the future of the American commonwealth 
lay hidden in those days — I might mention here by the by 
that he wanted to settle his Western Ohio estate with German 
settlers — but he had the instinctive feeling and understanding 
of a European mind as well. He united the striving for 
American ideals with the maintenance of what was good in 
European tradition. He succeeded in breaking the link which 
forged his country to Europe's political fate. But he never 
allowed the link to snap which bound it to the common in- 
heritance of European civilization. He achieved American 
independence; he was not willing to sacrifice to it international 
interdependence. He gave his country what was essential to 
it in those days: complete separation; he saved it as well from 
getting involved in separate entangling alliances as from striv- 
ing after complete isolation. 

As long as the American nation does homage to George 
Washington, we can be assured that they will not forget the 
common origin of our Western civilization; they will help 



us to maintain it, and enable us to face the dangers threaten- 
ing it today from many sides rather than cut themselves 
adrift. It is this instinctive feeling, if I may so call it, which 
makes us all join you in the world-wide celebration of George 
Washington, who by becoming the Father of his Country, did 
not cease to be a son of our own old world. 

Dr. Bonn's address met with hearty applause. 
The audience arose in a body as the orchestra played 
the German patriotic anthem, "Deutschland, 
Deutschland uber Alles." Ambassador Sackett then 
proposed a toast to President von Hindenburg and 
Dr. Groener responded by proposing a toast to 
President Hoover. The program was concluded 
with the presentation of an American film story of 
the life of George Washington. 

Most of the program at the Marmor Saal was 
broadcast to the United States where it was re- 
broadcast over a nation-wide radio network. S. 
Miles Bouton, dean of the American correspondents 
in Berlin, was master of ceremonies and radio an- 
nouncer. There were nearly seven hundred 
guests at this notable celebration which received 
wide attention in the press of Germany and many 
other countries. The Bicentennial Celebration in 
Germany had a most auspicious opening. 

Chamber of Commerce Luncheon 
The American Chamber of Commerce of Berlin 
commemorated George Washington's birth anni- 
versary with an appropriate luncheon on Tuesday, 
February 23. Former minister of finance of Prus- 
sia, Dr. Suedekum, was the speaker and Dr. Werner 
Feilchenfeld was guest chairman. The luncheon 
was held at Kempinski's, and each guest was pre- 
sented with a copy of Gilbert Stuart's Athenaeum 
portrait of Washington. 

George Wolf, president of the Chamber of Com- 
merce, made a few remarks on the life of George 
Washington, and introduced the guest chairman, 
Dr. Feilchenfeld, and the speaker of the day, Dr. 
Suedekum. Dr. Suedekum had but recently re- 
turned from a visit to America, and he announced 
his subject as "What impressed me most in the 
United States." 

Among the prominent guests present at the 
luncheon were Percival P. Baxter, former Governor 
of Maine; Henry C. Wright, prominent industrial- 
ist of Bath, Maine; Frederick W. King, former pres- 
ident of the American Chamber of Commerce of 
Berlin; Dr. K. O. Bertling, S. Miles Bouton, Fritz 
Menke, Dr. Ahrens, Arthur E. Dunning and Dr. 
F. Saxon. 



126 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Ceremony in the Reichstag 
The Bicentennial Celebration was continued in 
Berlin on March 6 when a ceremony, unparalleled 
in the history of Germany, was conducted in the 
Reichstag in the presence and under the patronage 
of the venerable and beloved President of the Reich, 
Paul von Hindenburg. Never before had the meet- 
ing place of Germany's national legislature been 
the scene of such a tribute to the memory of a hero 
of another nation; and when the "Star Spangled 
Banner" was played during the program it was the 
first time that the strains of America's national 
anthem had ever echoed through that historic 
chamber. 

The program for this memorable event was pre- 
sented under the auspices of the Carl Schurz So- 
ciety with the cooperation of the American Insti- 
tute, the German Academy, and other prominent 
German organizations active in the promotion of 
friendly relations between their country and the 
United States. The honorary committee for the 
occasion consisted of Ambassador Sackett, Chan- 
cellor Briining, Dr. Loebe, President of the 
Reichstag, Dr. Sahm, Mayor of Berlin, and Dr. 
Rauscher, Mayor of Potsdam. 

The great chamber of the Reichstag presented 
an impressive appearance for this unprecedented 
occasion. A bust of George Washington occu- 
pied a prominent place on the dais from which the 
president of the Reichstag usually conducts the ses- 
sions of that body, its pedestal draped in red, white 
and blue bunting. The flags of Germany and the 
United States hung side by side in the background 
embowered in evergreens and other foliage with 
which the hall was so beautifully decorated. The 
floor and galleries were filled with representatives 
of every German organization having American 
affiliation, of the German Government, the army 
and navy, as well as many other eminent citizens 
of Germany, the United States and other countries. 
So great was public interest in the program that 
long before the ceremonies began there was stand- 
ing room only in the hall of the Reichstag. 

Address of Chancellor Bruning 
Dr. Heinrich Bruning, Chancellor of the Ger- 
man Reich, the first speaker of the day, opened his 
address with a reference to the extent of the cele- 
bration which the people of the United States had 
inaugurated earlier in the year in honor of their 
first President. He pointed out that Germany had 



already joined America in the Bicentennial observ- 
ance and referred to the Reichstag program as a 
"specifically German commemoration" dedicated 
to the great American. The presence of President 
von Hindenburg was cited as evidence of the de- 
sire of official Germany to share in the Bicentennial 
Celebration. 

"Rarely will it occur that a statesman long since 
departed is honored by a commemorative ceremony 
on the part of a nation other than his own," as- 
serted Chancellor Bruning. "Quite extraordinary 
reasons must there be for doing so. The object of 
such homage must be a historical figure of great 
prominence, both as a statesman and as a man, and 
there must be special ties of friendship between such 
a nation and the nation from which he sprang." 

Continuing his address, the Chancellor said: 

It is not incumbent upon me to give a detailed portrayal 
here today of the personality and achievements of the man 
whose name is written in indelible letters in the annals of 
world history. I will only outline in a few words what is, 
after all, throughout history the decisive factor for good to 
an afflicted nation; namely, the spiritual greatness of its high- 
est leader. 

For six years the struggles for America's independence went 
on, in which General Washington led a small, at first entirely 
untrained and never well equipped number against a far 
superior opponent. Again and again this struggle seemed so 
hopeless in view of the inequality of the fighting forces and 
ammunition that even the most courageous lost hope. Only 
Washington's confidence remained the same, even on the dark- 
est days, and his indomitable will carried the fight to a vic- 
torious end. He was clear-sighted and sure of his goal in 
the not less difficult internal struggles for the unity of the 
Thirteen Colonies. Do not we present day Germans read with 
inner emotion of how the people then called him to be their 
first president at the head of the new state; how he did not 
refuse the call and in the face of the most difficult internal 
and foreign political conditions, in the midst of the most 
severe financial straits, steered the new state safely through all 
the rocks with a firm and steady hand? 

"When we think of Washington," we read in the new his- 
torical work by James Truslow Adams, "we do not think of 
him as a commander-in-chief or as an executive or diplomat. 
We think of him as the man who by the mere strength of 
his character held a divided and torn country together until 
the victory and who, when peace was established, continued to 
hold his disunited countrymen together by their love, respect 
and admiration of him until a nation was welded together 
for permanent unity and strength." 

That was the true greatness of Washington and will always 
be the greatness of all great rulers in history. Hold out, do 
not despair, is his exhortation which we still hear today. An 
exhortation addressed to all who are placed in a responsible 
position in the hard struggles for the existence of their nation. 
Hold out — in the face of all inimical personal attacks. Even 
a great statesman like Washington — as we see throughout his- 
tory — was not spared inimical opposition, personal attacks and 
suspicion, although he was given the honorary title of "Father 
of his Country" even during his lifetime. 

Nicholas Murray Butler writes in this connection: "Let 
those who are distressed at the bitterness, dishonesty and un- 
scrupulous intrigue that accompany so many political con- 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



127 



troversies in our day, draw comfort when they read about the 
occurrences in the last four years of Washington's presidency. 
No criticism was too malicious or too violent to be directed 
against him, no epithet too unjustified and too base to be 
thrown at his head. . . . The accusation that Washington had 
misled and deceived the people was brought against him quite 
publicly and printed. He was even charged with having put 
on a mask of patriotism to conceal his despicable plots against 
the liberty of the people. Into such depths of baseness and 
slander can party spirit plunge human beings." 

In sketching for you this picture of a time that is already 
200 years gone, is it not like a description of our present-day 
German history? 

The ties of friendship which, I hope, now permanently unite 




GERMAN NEWSPAPERS OF WASHINGTON'S TIME. 
This exhibit in Berlin of old German newspapers, con- 
taining news from America about George Washington 
and his army during the american revolution, was one 
of the most interesting features of the bicentennial 
Celebration in the German Capital. 

the German people with the American nation, reach back to 
the time when the United States were welded together by 
George Washington. The number of Germans who fought 
in the ranks of the American fighters for liberty was large. 
About 10 per cent of the total white population of the Thir- 
teen Colonies was of German birth, according to the compu- 
tation of a prominent historian. Another historian says that 
the Germans constituted a particularly high percentage of 
those who rose up to fight for liberty. As early as half a 
century prior to Washington's birth Franz Daniel Pastorius 
with thirteen families from Krefeld had founded the first 
German city in the New World; namely, Germantown, Penn- 
sylvania. Year after year more families had immigrated. It 
was chiefly the devastation of the Palatinate under Louis XIV 
and the oppression of the Rhenish countries through foreign 
troops which lasted for many years that had sent thousands of 



people from these regions across the sea. Later the chaotic 
conditions attendant upon the Seven Years' War had driven 
many Germans to emigrate to the colonies. They settled 
mainly in the hinterland of the colonies of New York and 
Pennsylvania. It was there that General Nicholas Herkimer, 
or Herchheimer, with 800 men from the Palatinate, consti- 
tuting the local militia, gained the victory of Oriskany in 
1777, which Washington is said to have designated as the first 
ray of light in the Revolutionary War. And it was from 
among Germans settled in the colony from which Washington 
came that most of the "Virginia Rangers" were recruited, a 
troop that fought throughout the whole war with great valor. 
Several regiments, one from Maryland, one from Pennsylvania, 
one from Virginia, and one from New York consisted largely 
of men of German origin. The same is said of a cavalry guard 
of the Commander-in-Chief that was led by one Major von 
Heer. Some of the paladins of Washington, Friederich Wil- 
helm von Steuben, the organizer and Inspector General of the 
Continental Army, the Generals von Kalb and Peter Muhlen- 
berg; the deputy Quartermaster General Heinrich Lutterloh, 
were well-known historical figures of German blood; as were 
also Joseph Heister, Gerhard von der Wieden and Frederick 
Weissenfels. Also among the younger officers there were sev- 
eral bearers of German names. All these men of German 
blood fought for the independence of the United States and 
thus formed an imperishable tie between the new state and 
Germany. 

What Washington thought of the Germans in America can 
be seen by a letter in which he thanked the German Lutheran 
Congregation "in and near Philadelphia," for their good wishes 
upon his election to the Presidency of the United States. 

"I rejoice," wrote Washington, "in having so suitable an 
occasion to testify the reciprocity of my esteem for the numer- 
ous people whom you represent. From the excellent character 
for diligence, sobriety, and virtue, which the Germans in 
general, who are settled in America, have ever maintained; 
I cannot forbear felicitating myself on receiving from so re- 
spectable a number of them such strong assurances of their 
affection for my person, confidence in my integrity, and zeal 
to support me in my endeavors for promoting the welfare of 
our common country." 

Frederic the Great's interest in the growth of the United 
States is particularly well known. Hardly had peace been 
signed between America and England than Frederic offered 
the young American State what it needed most for its devas- 
tated economy; namely, firm trade relations. It may be seen 
what a great need existed for such relations in America by 
the fact that the Continental Congress sent Thomas Jefferson 
to Europe for the purpose of concluding, together with the 
special delegates already present there, treaties of friendship 
and commerce with as many states as possible, such as had 
so far existed only with France, Holland and Sweden. But 
the American delegates met everywhere with lack of inter- 
est — even with aversion — with the sole exception of Prussia. 
The treaty was concluded in July and August, 178 5, after 
negotiations which, owing to the difficulties of communication 
prevailing at that time, were long-drawn out; the aged king 
took considerable personal interest in these negotiations. It 
was an epoch-making state document, mainly owing to its 
maritime law provisions intended to safeguard private prop- 
erty, and was greatly approved of in America. In a letter to 
Lafayette, Washington said that it seemed "to constitute a 
new era in negotiation, and to promise . . . happy conse- 
quences." 

Thus the closest relations between Germany and America 
have already played an important part in the history of the 
origin of the United States. We unite today in the spirit of 
this friendship, which it is our common intention to deepen 
and expand, with the American people in memory of their 
great leader. We are honoring him as a historical personality 



128 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



and statesman, but to us Germans it is also a matter of senti- 
ment to celebrate the immortal memory of George Wash- 
ington. 

"Star Spangled Banner" Sung in Reichstag 

Chancellor Bruning's address was followed by the 
"Star Spangled Banner," played by a double quar- 
tet of wind instruments from the "Kosleckschen 
Blaserbundes." The entire assemblage was invited 
to sing the national anthem of America, but quite 
naturally it was only the countrymen of George 
Washington for the most part who could do so. 
However, there were many Americans in attend- 
ance, and they gave a good account of themselves 
musically as they sang with thoughts of homeland 
uppermost in their minds. The whole scene pos- 
sessed a dramatic quality perhaps not fully appre- 
ciated by those present, for, as stated above, it was 
the first time that the "Star Spangled Banner" had 
ever been heard in the great hall of the Reichstag. 

United States Ambassador Frederic M. Sackett 
next addressed the gathering and spoke briefly of 
the serious purpose with which his country had un- 
dertaken the commemoration of George Washing- 
ton's birth. The Government of the United States 
and the American people, said Ambassador Sackett, 
were deeply appreciative of the signal honor paid 
by Germany and her people in their tributes to the 
memory of George Washington. Following are the 
sentiments voiced by the Ambassador: 

In the distinguished presence of the respected and venerable 
President of the Reich, attended by the Chancellor and Cabi- 
net and surrounded by the foremost personalities of the Gov- 
ernment and people, I rise in this historic chamber to bring 
America's greetings to the German nation. 

In such a gathering I wish to express the heartfelt appre- 
ciation of my Government and our people for the signal honor 
which Germany pays to the United States as this nation 
unites in tribute to General Washington, founder, mentor and 
first President of the American Republic. 

It is with serious purpose that the commemoration of the 
200th anniversary of the birth of General Washington has 
been planned by the Congress of the United States. The 
pages of history widely proclaim the pride which all nations 
feel in the achievements of their departed national heroes. 
From the earliest times great men have struggled and sacri- 
ficed for the good of their countrymen. They have been 
heroes and creators of their countries' liberties. In periods of 
stress, through their wise counsels they have guided their 
countrymen to successful events from which millions have 
reaped and through which millions still enjoy immeasurable 
benefits. The names of these illustrious dead are surrounded 
by the halo of greatness. Their memories are preserved in 
the minds of men with increasing fervor in every succeeding 
generation. 

In memory of such men monuments have been raised, cities 
have been named, codes of laws have been given and political 
systems founded, for the spiritual and material benefit of 
mankind. They have become in the course of ages the very 
epitome of the virtues of the nations to which they belonged. 



These men, though simple at heart, possessed in an extraor- 
dinary degree those attributes of human character which are 
distinguished for grandeur, loftiness and nobleness. They sur- 
passed their fellow citizens in their unselfish devotion to the 
public cause. As men of greatest mould their acts of courage 
and devotion counted most for the public good. They created 
history where they wrought and by their acts they determined 
the fates of their nations. Their lives have been lived for 
the benefit of men, and men are better because they lived. 

The genius of Washington is the foundation of our national 
life. We derive from his virtues, from his fortitude, from the 
deeds of his daily life and counsels, those ideals which we call 
American. Our patriotism is most profoundly conjured by 
the name of Washington; our love of country is fostered in 
memory of him. The valedictory which he left to guide those 
who came after him, written from the fullness of his wide 
experience, remains a compelling influence. The widespread 
celebration of his birth after two hundred years is predicated 
on the feeling that a closer study of the man and his times, 
a wider diffusion of understanding of what he stood for and 
bequeathed, will knit yet more closely together the people of 
our nation composed as they are of many origins. 

One has but to remember the beginnings of the American 
colonies, the variety of foreign peoples under the influence of 
their national traditions, which were settled in the original 
states, to understand the service he performed. He found 
those settlers colonists, but left them Americans. He led them 
into battle joined only in a common cause and denounced as 
rebels, but he created from them a united nation. 

With the establishment of this people and the birth of its 
national consciousness the world achieved a new force and a 
new agency of civilization. The present stability rests upon 
that original unity which its founder established. The indi- 
vidual greatness of the founder has often determined the des- 
tiny of peoples. Such men have been the mentors of their 
peoples, and the advice which they gave at home has been 
heard as an inspiration and a declaration of truth abroad. 
They have been the arch-interpreters of national ideals and the 
world has honored them because they spoke simply to their 
own people. They not only established the nation but shaped 
forever, as one might say, the national character. They were 
accepted as leaders in those far-off years because they ex- 
pressed most clearly what the youthful nation felt. 

Impressive it is when, in an assembly such as this, the mem- 
ory of an illustrious man is deeply revered and honored; but 
how much more do we stand in awe realizing that with the tide 
of time, as in the past so in the future, perhaps down into 
countless ages, the achievements of our illustrious dead will be 
an inspiration and emulating motive for those that follow. 

The American nation was fortunate that in its beginning it 
found such a leader as George Washington. An outstanding 
characteristic of the life of Washington was his constant 
courage in his continuous struggle with adversity. From his 
earliest expeditions, pushing forward the frontier in the wilder- 
ness, through his military campaigns of the Revolutionary 
period, there is the record of almost continuous reverse. His 
indomitable will was never shaken and he rose from discour- 
agement and defeat to the supreme heights of achievement. 
Perhaps more than any other that quality of determination 
endeared him to his contemporaries and furnished an example 
of persistent courage that has imprinted itself on the character 
of the American people. 

As a leader he attracted the bolder spirits of his time from 
other lands. They contributed effectively to establishment 
in the new world of that ideal of liberty and human freedom 
which is the cornerstone of our national life. As this nation 
unites in commemoration, on the initiative of the several 
German societies maintaining cordial relations with the Amer- 
ican people, I wish to acknowledge America's debt to Ger- 
many in our struggle for independence. In the fullness of our 
gratitude I offer a tribute to the imperishable memory of 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



129 



General von Steuben, Baron von Kalb — to the Muhlenbergs, 
father and sons, and to those other Germans who made our 
cause their cause and by their genius and heroism assisted in 
making possible the final victory of General Washington and 
the establishment of American freedom. 

The German national air "Deutschland iiber 
Alles" was sung by the audience led by the Siemens 
Chorus, following the speech of the American Am- 
bassador. 

Prof. Windelband's Address 

The orator of the day, Professor Wolfgang 
Windelband of the University of Berlin, was intro- 
duced. Professor Windelband reviewed in detail 
the life of George Washington and the value of the 
example he set for the guidance of modern states- 
men. Paying high tribute to the first President 
of the United States, the speaker said: 

Nations condemned by fate to misery and distress have 
always longingly turned their eyes from such an abyss toward 
the bright heights of important events. From the great deeds 
of the past, strengthening of their own energy of will may 
arise. They form the spur for again arousing all strength. 
Humanity needs history as the eternally bubbling source of 
the highest excitations, which make it capable of glowing 
devotion. Above all, it is the great personalities which act as 
shining examples to arouse emulation and thus, out beyond 
one's own rich life, to be able to come to splendid activity. 

Reference has already been made by the Chancellor to the 
strong incentive for us Germans to celebrate the memory of 
George Washington. But apart from all the considerations 
to which he has referred, Washington's work and life must be 
familiar to us from the point of view that he overcame dif- 
ficulties before which we ourselves stand, that he found him- 
self faced with problems with which we are struggling. Let 
me therefore try, through a short and compressed survey of 
this infinitely rich life, to make clear the great reality which 
Washington's historical activity possesses for us Germans. 

On the occasion of the 200th anniversary of his birth on 
February 22, a description of him was given in books, bro- 
chures, in countless articles, so that I may assume that the 
outward course of his life and the various points of his ac- 
complishments are known. 

Washington grows up as a member of a land-owning class. 
His first independent steps lead him in the direction which 
later becomes the great fundamental fact of the history of 
the United States in the 19th century; he follows the urge to 
the West, the urge to the interior of the almost unexplored, 
huge continent. With the years of his youth is bound up the 
romance of the fights with the Indians, the struggle against 
France, whence threatens the most serious danger to the Eng- 
lish colonial position. Then he becomes leader in the great 
Revolutionary War. The nation, now free, renders him 
thanks for his great accomplishment at the head of the Amer- 
ican army, by summoning him unanimously to the chair of 
President, and after the first term is completed, the second 
unanimous call follows. 

His death in 1799 follows soon after his voluntary retire- 
ment at the completion of his second term of office. Thus he 
stands before us, and thus he appears to his own nation today 
as the embodiment of the national unity and freedom for 
which he himself struggled. In his personality everything 
that is purely American comes symbolically to expression. 
One stands amazed before this accomplishment, and this 



amazement increases when we understand under what great 
difficulties it is accomplished. Washington attained his goal 
against the most difficult obstacles, obstacles which arouse 
from without as well as within. 

In the consideration of Washington's life, we have the pic- 
ture of how the young nation, having become independent, 
takes its fate in its own hands. We have every incentive to 
investigate the way it became master of the resulting difficul- 
ties and dangers. 

Next the difficulties which Washington faces during the 
war for independence. For a long time he is a general with- 
out a real army. Numerically, his army was always extraor- 
dinarily small. But also its quality was not equal to the task. 




PRESIDENT WASHINGTON'S INAUGURATION RE- 
ENACTED IN BERLIN. This photograph shows mem- 
bers of the American colony in the German capital 
marching in the re-enacted inaugural procession in 
costumes of the american colonial army 

The militia of the colonies were schooled in fighting with the 
Indians; they had to fail when faced with the regular troops 
of England. Especially important was the inadequacy of the 
people who made up the militia. Secretly these troops sepa- 
rated; the farmers for the most part, went home, as soon as 
the time was finished for which they were pledged by their 
home government, or when harvest work at home became too 
urgent. 

It is a proud realization for us Germans that Washington 
first came into possession of a warlike instrument through the 
work of our countryman, Wilhelm von Steuben. The name 
Steuben is inseparably connected with the origin of American 
freedom. No one realized this more than Washington him- 
self. For decades the regulations which Steuben drew up for 
the training of the soldiers, were used by the American army. 
In Washington and Steuben the German and American people 
are closely united for the first time. 

In the war German blood flowed on both sides, in favor 
of America on the part of the German farmer, in favor of 
England on the part of the regiments in the pay of the 
English. Of these latter a large number did not return to 
the Old World after peace was concluded; and those who 
were sent out to help maintain the English control, have in 
this way helped appreciably to strengthen the German element 
over there. 

The position of the commander-in-chief is thus extremely 
difficult and in a military sense the decision was first brought 
about through the interference of the allies against England. 
This slight development of a real American army is due in 
large part to the great financial need. This war was financed 
through inflation. The paper money issued by Congress lost 
value rapidly, and only too well can we understand what 



130 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



troubles arose for America from this inflation. All the eco- 
nomic and moral injuries which are so well-known to us, de- 
veloped therefrom at that time. 

But besides the financial stress, Washington had to meet 
the most fearful of all obstacles; lack of unity in his own 
camp. One must not think of the American struggle for 
freedom as the unanimous uprising of a people. Next, there 
exists a great party in the land, the Tories, which will not 
help in the break with England, and whose followers in part 
fought for England. But the chief hindrance was jealousy 
of the separate colonies toward each other. These colonies 
have become independent states through the separation from 
their motherland; they are proud of this independence and do 
not wish to put in the place of the English sovereignty the 
central authority which might be in opposition to their own 
interests. 

I need only recall the sharp line of division between north- 
ern and southern states, puritanism, the industry and com- 
merce of the lands of the North on the one hand and the 
aristocratic, agrarian, southern states which rested economi- 
cally on slave labor. This antagonism was the controlling 
factor in all American history up to the Civil War. 

Thus all these colonies feared that if a strong central au- 
thority were established, it might act in a way harmful to 
their own interests, and it required bitter experience to make 
the idea of union prevail. The battle about the constitution 
is again a fight for all against all, and the hatred with which 
it was fought still quivered in the national life after it was 
ended. And President Washington had to feel it. In the 
period of his presidency there occurs also the beginning of 
the two great parties, the Federalists and the Anti-Federalists. 
Thanks to his great authority, Washington accomplished the 
master feat of getting into his cabinet the two persons who 
opposed each other as leaders in the quarrel at the head of the 
two parties, the Federalist Hamilton and the Anti-Federalist 
Jefferson, two men of the strongest human and political in- 
dividuality, neither one inclined to subordinate himself, each 
sustained by belief in the correctness of his own view of 
life, in the righteousness of his own cause. 

It was not possible long to hold this union; the breach oc- 
curred even under Washington; both leaders had to leave the 
cabinet. But the stronger the antagonism of the parties ap- 
peared, so much the more grew Washington's position as the 
defender of the union. Nothing is more significant for the 
infinitely deep impression which he made on the political life 
of America, than the fact that the attempt has been made 
again and again to introduce new ideas the more easily by 
combining them with the name of Washington. 

In what way was it finally possible for him to complete 
such a work, to attain such wonderful success? It cannot be 
emphasized often enough that the secret of Washington's 
political accomplishment lies in his humanity, in his human 
individuality, his character. He himself once said: "A good 
moral character is the first essential in a man." And that is 
in his case the foundation for everything else, for his military 
and political success. The Shakespeare saying: "He was a 
man," has seldom such justification as with George Wash- 
ington. His quality as a man, his greatness of soul, is the 
most decisive thing. Not so much what he did, but how he 
did it, showed the ways of the future. 

It is not his own initiative which drives him on, and forces 
him to act. The fact that the nation took him for its leader 
is rather to be understood through the unconscious radiation 
of his personality, than that he himself contributed so extraor- 
dinarily thereto. He becomes leader of the Revolutionary 
War, he who is of an entirely unrevolutionary nature. As 
long as it seemed possible, he struggled for understanding 
with England. There are evidences of sincere sadness on his 
part over the outbreak of the war which he felt as a war 
of brothers. He deeply regretted that the once so happy and 



peaceful fields of America must either be drenched with blood 
or inhabited by slaves; in truth, a sad alternative! But, he 
asked, could a man hesitate in his choice? 

It became clear to him, after the battle of Bunker Hill, that 
an understanding had become impossible. And now he steps 
with full devotion to the side on which he sees the right; and 
you know what he accomplished as leader. But here again 
his strength lies not in the mastering of the purely military 
tasks of the general; he succeeds through the spirit which in- 
spires him and which he knows how to transmit. The words 
with which he took over the office of general show, as do 
the similar ones on assuming the Presidency, his deep inner 
modesty. 

He has the ability to put the right man in the right place; 
the real and inward dignity of his bearing make it easy for 
his co-workers to subordinate themselves to him. By nature 
he is quite charming, and occasionally this inner core of his 
nature breaks through. But in general he has himself astonish- 
ingly well in hand and therewith possesses one of the most 
important, decisive qualities of a leader. Add to that still 
his personal bravery and firmness under all circumstances — 
no wonder that another great man of that time, Napoleon, 
could say of him that he seemed to be no citizen of the mod- 
ern world, but called to mind the most illustrious examples of 
antiquity. The real steadfastness with which he brought his 
nation out of danger was derived from his firm belief in the 
right and belief that Providence, that God would not let this 
right fail. 

These are the characteristics which made victory possible 
for him. After he had won it, he would gladly have retired 
to the quiet of his Virginia country life. But again, he 
stepped into the foreground. From the victorious general, he 
becomes the statesman, the founder of the new State. 

The nation needed this man with his sense of reality and 
unselfishness, to assure the common good. Through the 
medium of countless visitors, who came to Mount Vernon, 
through his extensive exchange of letters, he guided the voice 
of the nation, with all outward restraint. Thus it is again 
his spirit which determines everything and thus it is a matter 
of course that he becomes the first President. It is his spirit 
which is expressed especially in the fundamental provisions of 
the constitution, this constitution of 1787, which has con- 
stantly been justly praised as a model, as it has succeeded, in 
spite of the sharpest opposition and conflicting interests in 
giving the basis for lasting unity; this constitution which in 
all its provisions takes into account these antagonisms and 
makes compromises, in order to remove their sharpness. 

Nothing is written on Washington's banner with such 
large letters as the idea of national unity. The fearful events 
during the war did not originate this conviction, but greatly 
strengthened it. The unity of the freed colonies is for him 
the hypothesis for their further progress, their further life. 
He wishes to leave to individuals the proper amount of inde- 
pendence. Washington is infinitely far from the Utopia of 
the unified state. But he is firm in the belief that develop- 
ment and improvement will be possible if the separate states 
subordinate their individual interests in all great decisive vital 
questions to the common good. How much he considers the 
strong central power absolutely necessary is best shown by the 
fact that he who indignantly thrust the crown from him, 
discussed in detail with the real father of the constitution, 
James Madison, the question whether in the interest of the 
existence of a strong central power the introduction of a 
monarchy should be considered. 

Washington constantly meets two enemies in his fight for 
national unity; the particularism of the separate states and 
party spirit. His warnings against particularism which might 
finally become a danger to union, come from a deeply bitter 
heart, like the words which Bismarck in a similar sense laid 
down for Germany in the "Thoughts and Recollections." 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



131 



Near to despair, Washington asserts that the work is not com- 
plete after victory, but that now the first real danger arises 
through particularism. In 1786 he wrote that America's in- 
dividuality as a nation was threatened with disappearing if a 
change did not occur soon. Again he speaks warningly against 
the "fatal policy" of the states keeping their most capable 
men to themselves, saying that it was foolish to try to set in 
order the smallest part of the clock before the great spring 
which keeps the whole in motion was itself in order. Besides 
this there was his great struggle against what he considered the 
other enemy of union, party spirit. 

It was Washington's principle in action to avoid everything 
which might loosen party passion. Also from this point of 
view he advocated tolerance to an extent which was by no 
means generally shared at that time. For the sake of unity, 
it happened that Washington after the expiration of his first 
term as President again overcame his need for rest and again 
put himself at the disposal of the nation. His feeling of duty 
conquered his personal wishes. He recognized how only his 
remaining could bring a period of quiet to the young State, 
which it needed in order to grow internally. So he remained 
in office. 

And finally it is essentially the same point of view of avoid- 
ing all danger for the young union as much as possible, which 
led him to the principle of the separation of America from 
the European system of states which found expression in the 
famous farewell address of 1796. From the political union 
with the states of the old world, Washington feared the re- 
kindling of the internal antagonisms which had been over- 
come with difficulty. He was warned by experience of the 
way in which the question whether America was to go into 
the field with the revolutionary France again against England, 
exerted a distinctive influence on the political life, and by the 
way in which, kindled by the French envoys, the domestic 
antagonisms and passions at once awoke to a dangerous extent 
and caused the battle of parties and associations to assume the 
utmost animosity. Therefore the exhortation, which up to 
today with few, even though fateful exceptions, stands as a 
shining star over the whole foreign policy of the United 
States, whose effect we feel so distinctly in the policy of our 
day. 

Hot were the battles in which the President fought for his 
life's goal. He was not spared attacks by his opponents in 
most unspeakable, unworthy and unseemly form. To these 
he expressed his principle: "To persist is duty and to be silent 
is the best answer to slander." History has proved him right; 
it has shown how little the accusations made against Washing- 
ton in the heat of the battle of the day reached him. The 
deeper we sink into his personality, the more clearly we under- 
stand how only this man could carry through his policy in the 
time of need, or distraction. The suggestive strength which 
went out from him, brought about the carrying out of his 
ideal. The union was preserved and therefore the people of 
the United States, led by George Washington found the 
strength, in spite of all the differences in blood which flows 
in its population, to grow together into a nation. With 
pride the Americans may speak of their state as of the "melt- 
ing pot," in which all the antagonisms flow and unite them- 
selves to a national union. It is the faithful continuation of 
the work of Washington which has produced this wonderful 
character. 

Unity, the standing-together of the nation, not sinking into 
party spirit, thus sounds Washington's ideal. Think of the 
adjurations which Bismarck addressed to the Germans, to see 
in another German first a fellow-countryman and then a parti- 
san. And think of the most stirring of his many speeches, 
in which he made the party spirit responsible before God 
and history if the whole splendid work of 1866 and 1870 
again collapsed. Here in this call to union flow together 
the lines from Washington and Bismarck. In no way can we 



more truly serve the memory of these two great men, than 
by making it our duty, when it is a question of the life of the 
nation, of not letting party consideration arise. In the spirit 
of Bismarck, as of Washington, let us sound the exhortation 
to unity. It is up to us to keep the flame of this spirit; it 
will be our responsibility whether our nation can experience 
again its blessing strength. 

Commission's Message Read 

During the ceremony in the Reichstag the fol- 
lowing cabled message of appreciation from Hon. 
Sol Bloom, Director of the United States George 




"GEORGE WASHINGTON TAKES THE OATH OF OF- 
FICE" IN BERLIN. Scene from the re-enacted inaugu- 
ration of the First President of the United States. 
The part of Washington was taken by Consul Ray- 
mond H. Geist. The stage is a reproduction of old 
Federal Hall in New York City. 

Washington Bicentennial Commission, was read 
and translated into German by Dr. Hans Draeger, 
President of the Carl Schurz Society: 

WHILE THE PEOPLE OF THE UNITED STATES ARE HONOR- 
ING THE MEMORY OF GEORGE WASHINGTON, IT IS MOST 
GRATIFYING TO KNOW THAT HIS MEMORY IS ALSO BEING 
HONORED BY THE PEOPLE OF GERMANY. ON BEHALF OF 
THE AMERICAN PEOPLE AND THE UNITED STATES GEORGE 
WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL COMMISSION PERMIT ME TO 
EXPRESS SINCERE APPRECIATION OF THE HOMAGE YOU ARE 
RENDERING TO THE FOUNDER OF THE AMERICAN REPUBLIC. 
IT IS SPECIALLY PLEASING AT THIS TIME TO MENTION THAT 
A CELEBRATION IN HONOR OF YOUR WORLD-RENOWNED 
CITIZEN AND POET GOETHE IS TO BE HELD IN THE CITY OF 
WASHINGTON. 

The next commemorative event in Berlin in con- 
nection with the Bicentennial Celebration was a 
pageant presented at the Hotel Esplanade on April 



132 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



30, the anniversary of the inauguration of George 
Washington in 1789 as the first President of the 
United States. The pageant, a colorful and highly 
successful affair, was presented by the Committee 
on Women's Organizations and Children's Activi- 
ties, a sub-committee of the George Washington 
Bicentennial Committee in charge of the celebra- 
tion in Germany. 

Conforming as nearly as possible to the known 
facts of the Washington inaugural, the Committee 
erected a duplicate of the front of Federal Hall in 
New York City where the first President took the 
oath of office. All the participants in the original 
ceremony, including George Clinton, Governor, 
and Robert R. Livingston, Chancellor of the State 
of New York, the latter being the official who ad- 
ministered the oath of office; John Adams, the 
newly elected Vice President of the United States; 
and such eminent spectators as Baron von Steuben, 
Roger Sherman, Samuel Otis, Secretary of the Sen- 
ate, General Henry Knox, and Governor Arthur 
St. Clair, were impersonated in the commemorative 
pageant. Each was garbed in the dress of the Amer- 
ican Colonial period, and the faithful re-enactment 
of Washington's induction into office and the In- 
augural Ball and reception which followed, proved 
to be one of the most impressive of the Bicenten- 
nial events in Berlin. 

The pageant was witnessed by more than three 
hundred persons including Ambassador and Mrs. 
Sackett, Consul Raymond H. Geist, eminent Ger- 
man and other friends, and the majority of the 
American colony in Germany's Capital City. A 
supper and dance in the ballroom of the hotel con- 
cluded the festivities of the evening. 

Advising the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission of the program, Dr. 
Wirth wrote on May 4, 1932: 

Particular praise is to be accorded the American Women's 
Club of Berlin for the care bestowed upon the whole event 
and the unqualified success which it had. Local newspapers 
have given the event considerable publicity and were un- 
stinted in their praise. 

Bicentennial events were planned by the com- 
mittee for May and June, but because of the gen- 
eral political and economic situation in Germany at 
that time it was deemed advisable by those in 
charge to postpone the celebrations. One of these 
proposed events was a pilgrimage to Potsdam, the 
birthplace of Baron von Steuben, which, unfor- 
tunately, had to be abandoned entirely. 



Berlin Celebrates July Fourth 

In an excellently arranged dinner dance at the 
Adlon, one of Berlin's leading hotels, the next bi- 
centennial function occurred on July 4, under the 
auspices of the American Club of Berlin. Nearly 
the entire American colony in Germany's Capital 
City assembled on this occasion to celebrate the 
156th anniversary of America's Declaration of In- 
dependence, and to honor the memory of the man 
who devoted his life to the establishment of the 
principles therein enunciated. It was a George 
Washington program from start to finish, and a 
striking bust of the Father of his Country, draped 
in the red, white, and blue, looked out over the 
gathering at the banquet tables. It seemed almost 
to embody the spirit and personality of the immor- 
tal Chieftain and to suggest his presence at the fes- 
tivities dedicated to his memory. 

Flags of the German Reich, draped side by side 
throughout the hall with Old Glory, attested to the 
friendship and cordial relations existing between 
the two great republics, while beautifully colored 
lights and lanterns diffused a mellow glow over all. 
At the tables were seated the many Americans and 
their German friends who had gathered to com- 
memorate the beginning of America's freedom and 
the birth of her first President. 

Guests of honor on this occasion included Dr. 
Fuehr of the German Foreign Office, and Mrs. 
Fuehr; Carl von Buelow, Counselor of Legation of 
the German Foreign Office, and Mrs. von Buelow; 
Dr. Hermann Davidsen, and Mrs. Davidsen; Count 
Tattenbach, and Countess Tattenbach. Both of 
the last named gentlemen were also of the German 
Foreign Office. In addition to these there were 
many other prominent Germans and other nationals 
in attendance. 

United States Ambassador Frederic M. Sackett, 
and Mrs. Sackett; United States Consul Raymond 
H. Geist; Counsellor George Gordon of the Amer- 
ican Embassy in Berlin, and Frederick W. King, 
honorary president of the American Chamber of 
Commerce in Germany were also among the guests 
of honor. Dr. Frederick Wirth, Jr., president of 
the American Club of Berlin and chairman of the 
George Washington Bicentennial Committee for 
Germany, presided over the assemblage. 

Toasts to Presidents 

Toasts to the President of the United States and 
the President of the German Reich were proposed 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



133 



by Dr. Wirth to open the program, and the or- 
chestra continued by playing the "Star Spangled 
Banner" and the German national anthem, 
"Deutschland iiber Alles." The banquet then pro- 
ceeded to its close when Dr. Wirth introduced the 
second part of the program by speaking briefly of 
the significance of the occasion and the reason for 
commemorating at that time the two anniversaries 
of America's independence and the birth of George 
Washington. Referring specifically to the human 
rights principles which had been written into the 
Declaration of Independence, Dr. Wirth stated 
that that document was capable of inspiring in the 
hearts of mankind "that combined spirit of faith, 
of hope, and of sympathy and, perhaps, an addi- 
tional element which is sorely needed at present — 
courage." United States Consul Raymond H. Geist 
was then introduced to read the Declaration of 
Independence to "a very attentive audience." 
Commenting on this part of the program, Dr. 
Wirth stated that many of the German guests took 
the trouble of advising him later that it was the 
first time they had had the opportunity of becom- 
ing acquainted with the historic document. A 
number of them expressed the intention of obtain- 
ing copies of it for future study and consideration. 

A toast was then proposed to Ambassador and 
Mrs. Sackett, "which the guests," stated Dr. Wirth, 
"were prompt to take up with great enthusiasm 
and applause while the orchestra played the Amer- 
ican national anthem." Ambassador Sackett re- 
sponded informally to the toast, and his few but 
delightful remarks were received with hearty ap- 
plause. Dancing then commenced and the re- 
mainder of the evening was spent in that diversion. 
The entire event proved to be of great interest, and 
the general comment was that it formed a fitting 
part of the Bicentennial festivities in Berlin. 

Earlier in the day Americans in the German Cap- 
ital City conducted a golf tournament at the 
Wannsee Golf Club. Perfect weather prevailed 
to make this a most enjoyable feature of the Fourth 
of July festivities. 

Old Newspapers Exhibited 

A very interesting feature of the Bicentennial 
Celebration in Berlin was the display in the Hotel 
Esplanade of 18 th century German newspapers 
carrying dispatches relating to George Washington 
and the progress of the Revolutionary War in 
America. The display was arranged by the Bicen- 



tennial Celebration Committee of Berlin through 
the courtesy of Alfred Kroger, owner of the news- 
papers, and considerable attention was attracted by 
it. All the papers on exhibit are issues of the LEIP- 
ziger zeitung, formerly the official gazette of the 
City of Leipzig. 

One of the surprising and most striking facts re- 
lating to the accounts printed in these newspapers 
was the degree of accuracy with which they were 
written. Misinformation is contained in many of 
them, quite naturally; but considering the difficulty 
with which any dispatch could be verified at that 
time, most of the items in the old gazettes are re- 
markably near the truth. 

The earliest dispatch in the collection was dated 
June 7, 1774, and told of the British government's 
dismissal of Benjamin Franklin from the postal 
service of the colonies. The Boston Tea Party was 
described as one of the forerunners of America's 
demand for independence, and it was noted that the 
entire American populace appeared united in the 
determination to win freedom or die in the at- 
tempt. Other dispatches followed the progress of 
the war, and frequent mention was made of the 
pitiful plight of the American army. One story, 
coming from London on August 5, 1777, told of 
the complete defeat of General Washington, and 
stated that the American commander himself had 
died of wounds suffered in battle. The zeitung 
did not believe this report, however, and asked its 
readers to await confirmation before giving it 
credence. 

Another dispatch from London, printed March 
1, 1781, claimed that the American General 
Greene had been defeated and that Washington, in 
discouragement, had submitted terms for his own 
surrender to the British commander. The follow- 
ing week the paper said that mutiny had broken 
out among Washington's soldiers, but that when 
Clinton had sent emissaries asking them to join the 
British army, the Britons had promptly been turned 
over to Congress as spies. The slowness with which 
even the most important news was transmitted at 
that time is shown by the fact that it was not until 
December 6, 1781, that the paper was able to print 
the details of the surrender of Cornwallis at York- 
town. Even as late as May, 1782, the paper said 
that the results of Yorktown were not fully real- 
ized in England; that despite America's demand for 
recognition of her independence, Great Britain still 



134 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



was hoping to avert the complete loss of her 
colonies. 

The final edition of the leipziger zeitung ap- 
pearing in the exhibit, dated February 16, 1800, told 
of the death of George Washington and the national 
sorrow occasioned in America by that mournful 
event. An appended note stated that the building 
of the City of Washington had advanced so far 
that Congress would soon be able to convene there. 

Closing Celebration in Berlin 

The Bicentennial Celebration in Berlin was 
brought to an official close on Thanksgiving Day, 
November 24, 1932, in a typically American 
Thanksgiving dinner and dance at the Hotel Es- 
planade under the auspices of the American Club 
of Berlin. Among the prominent guests in attend- 
ance were Ambassador and Mrs. Frederic M. Sack- 
ett, who had returned to Berlin only a few days 
before from a trip to the United States; Dr. 
Drechsler of the German Foreign Office; George A. 
Gordon, counselor of the American Embassy; 
George S. Messersmith, United States Consul Gen- 



eral; Lieut. Col. Jacob W. S. Wuest, American 
Military Attache; Capt. Kenneth G. Castleman, 
American Naval Attache; Dr. Norlin, Roosevelt 
Exchange Professor then lecturing at the Univer- 
sity of Berlin, in addition to many eminent repre- 
sentatives of American commercial concerns in 
Berlin and others. 

The most informal spirit prevailed during the 
entire celebration, which was said to be one of the 
finest of its kind ever witnessed in the German Cap- 
ital. The guests entered into the spirit of the oc- 
casion, and everyone seemed to enjoy the Thanks- 
giving menu which included roast turkey and cran- 
berry sauce, pumpkin pie, and ice cream. 

With an excellent bust of George Washington 
prominently displayed on a flag-draped pedestal, 
and with flags of Germany and the United States 
hanging side by side throughout the halls, the mag- 
nificent ball rooms of the Hotel Esplanade pre- 
sented a colorful and most attractive appearance 
for the closing celebration of the Bicentennial Year 
in Berlin. Toasts were given to the welfare of the 
people of Germany and America and their leaders; 




THANKSGIVING DAY IN BERLIN. In this group are some of the prominent guests at the Bicentennial Celebration in 
the Hotel Esplanade on November 24, 1932. Left to right: Mrs. George S. Messersmith, Mr. Miles Bouton, Dr. Kline, Mrs. Loch- 
ner, Consul General Messersmith, Mrs. Sackett, American Ambassador Frederic M. Sackett, Dr. Drechsler, of the German Foreign Of- 
fice; Mr. Gordon, Counselor of the American Embassy; Dr. Frederick Wirth, Jr., Executive Chairman of the George Washington 

Bicentennial Committee of Berlin, and Mr. Lochner. 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



135 



all the remarks made at the dinner were entirely of 
an informal nature. About 250 persons attended 
the banquet while many more came in later for 
the dance which commenced immediately after- 
wards. The Americans were joined in the celebra- 
tion by a great number of Germans and friends 
from other countries. 

A fitting part of the closing ceremonies was the 
reading of the original Presidential Thanksgiving 
Day Proclamation, issued by George Washington 
in 1789, in the American Church of Berlin on the 
Sunday preceding Thanksgiving Day. 

Writing Director Sol Bloom of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission of 
the final celebration, Dr. Frederick Wirth, chair- 
man of the Bicentennial Committee of Germany, 
said: 

I am taking this opportunity of thanking you personally, 
as well as your staff, for your kind, whole-hearted and admir- 
able assistance and cooperation. Without such cooperation 
we do not believe we would have been able to carry on as 
well as we did. In fact, without your Commission's encour- 
agement in the first place, the needed incentive would not 
have been present. 

Bremen Celebrates the Bicentennial 

Under the auspices of the officials of the Bremen 
Free State and the City of Bremen, a program 
was presented in the Rathaus (city hall) on Feb- 
ruary 22, 1932, in commemoration of the anni- 
versary of George Washington's birth, which was 
considered by the bremer nachrichten, leading 
newspaper of the city, as "an extraordinarily worthy 
and impressive affair." Later in the same evening, 
members of the American colony in Bremen, num- 
bering 31, were hosts to nearly a hundred of the 
leading officials and citizens of the state and city 
at a banquet given in Hillman's Hotel to com- 
memorate the important anniversary. Both events 
were among the most memorable occasions of the 
kind ever witnessed in the city, and many compli- 
mentary articles appeared in the press regarding 
them. 

Among the many close ties existing between 
Bremen and the United States, not the least signifi- 
cant and interesting is the one formed on June 19, 
1847, when the first mail steamer connection be- 
tween Continental Europe and America was estab- 
lished. Appropriately enough, the vessel making 
the epochal trip with mail consigned to Europe was 
the American steamer, Washington. Since that 
time Bremen has become the second largest port in 



Germany, and is today the seat of one of the largest 
passenger steamship lines operating between Europe 
and the United States. 

The Two Hundredth Anniversary of George 
Washington's Birth was therefore an occasion of 
importance not only to Americans in Bremen but 
to the residents of the city as well. United States 
Consul W. A. Leonard, in a communication to the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission dated February 24, 1932, wrote that 
"the two celebrations were impressive and showed 
a friendly spirit, giving the impression that the 
officials of the Bremen Free State, as well as other 
leading citizens, were glad of the opportunity to 
recount their close commercial and shipping rela- 
tions with the United States, and also of the oppor- 
tunity to renew their expression of friendship for 
the American people." 

Senators Attend Celebration 

The celebration in the city hall was attended by 
members of the Bremen Senate, members of the 
House of Burgesses, consular representatives in 
Bremen, leading residents of the city, and the 
American colony almost in a body. Before this 
distinguished audience the program opened with 
the overture "Christopher Columbus" by Wagner, 
which was played by the Bremen City Orchestra 
under the direction of Kapellmeister Dr. Weiss. 
Brief introductory remarks were then made by 
Mayor Dr. Donandt who at the same time intro- 
duced the speaker of the day, Dr. Schecker. 

Dr. Schecker, a leading educator of Bremen, 
spoke at length on the historic relations between 
Bremen and the United States, pointing out that 
the first American Consul to the city was appointed 
by George Washington. The development of Bre- 
men into one of the leading seaports of Europe was 
outlined, and the important part played by the city 
as a port of emigration for great numbers of those 
who left Germany to become citizens of the United 
States were interesting facts developed by the 
speaker. 

Educators and students of Bremen had always 
been eager to learn of the United States, said Dr. 
Schecker, and Bremen historians had written much 
concerning the American people. The works of 
Wilhelm Kiesselbach, called the "American Fed- 
eralist," which dealt with the history and culture 
of the United States; the educator, Adam Storck, 
who defended the United States against the calum- 



136 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



nies of a poorly informed enemy; and of George 
Kohl whose scientific investigations in America 
earned for him an honorary doctor's degree from 
the University of Boston, were referred to as evi- 
dence of the deep interest which has ever prevailed 
in Bremen in matters connected with the United 
States. 

Many tributes to the character, the integrity and 
the foresight of George Washington were inter- 
spersed throughout the Doctor's speech, and the 
discourse was ended with the poetic greeting to 
America carried by the steamship Bremen on her 
maiden voyage: 

Germany's most German stream 
Bears Germany's mightiest ship 
To the sea spanning the world. 
Travel with fleet wind 
Happily on sure keel 
To the Western World. 
Bear with the name of the city 
Bremen's banner and honor 
Joyfully from port to port. 
Starry banner at the bow, 
United with Germany's flag, 
Greet America's people! 

At the conclusion of the impressive speech the 
Bremen City Orchestra played the "Star Spangled 
Banner," while the audience stood in respectful 
silence and Mendelssohn-Bartholdy's "Meerestille 
und gliichliche Fahrt," was played by the orchestra 
to bring the celebration to a close. 

Consul Presides at Banquet 

Consul Leonard presided at the banquet which 
was given that evening at Hillman's Hotel and wel- 
comed the guests in a few remarks outlining the 
purpose of the function. The Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of Washington's Birth was being cele- 
brated throughout the world wherever Americans 
were residing, stated Mr. Leonard. It was a tribute 
to Washington's international character that 
friends of America were joining in these commemo- 
rative programs, and the Consul expressed his own 
and his country's appreciation for the friendly 
spirit manifested, especially in Bremen. He then 
proposed a toast to General von Hindenburg, Presi- 
dent of the German Reich, which was taken up 
with enthusiasm by the assemblage. 

Senator Apelt, senior member of the Bremen 
Senate, responded to the remarks of Consul Leonard 
by expressing his appreciation for the opportunity 
of speaking of the friendly relations which had 
existed so long between Bremen and the United 



States. These he reviewed ably and in an interest- 
ing manner. The Senator spoke of the strength of 
character of George Washington and the worthy 
example he had set for all who came after him 
to follow. The close relations existing between 
Bremen and the United States occasioned only the 
greatest pride in the hearts of the people of Bre- 
men, and Senator Apelt expressed his sincere hope 
that such happy relations would continue always 
to exist. He closed his remarks by proposing a 
toast to the President of the United States which 
the guests drank with the same enthusiasm they 
had shown in the previous toast. 

In recognition of the occasion, the North Ger- 
man Lloyd, principal passenger steamship line of 
the city, ordered that all its buildings and ships be 
decorated with the colors of the United States. In 
show windows of the company's buildings were 
special displays featuring the Bicentennial Cele- 
bration and depicting the development of the long 
and friendly relations between the firm and the 
country George Washington helped to found. 

The American committee in charge of the ban- 
quet in Bremen consisted of Consul W. A. Leonard, 
chairman; Henry B. Parker, Edwin A. Dinnsen, 
and Sterling Wood. Owing to the general eco- 
nomic conditions prevailing throughout the year 
and the absence from the city of many of the 
American colony, it was deemed unwise by the 
committee to attempt further celebrations. How- 
ever, those which took place on Washington's birth- 
day were of such an impressive nature and so widely 
heralded in the press as to be among the most 
memorable ever held in Bremen in honor of a 
foreign hero. 

The City of Breslau Cooperates 

The extent of bicentennial observances in Bres- 
lau may best be shown by quoting from the report 
of United States Consul Robert R. Bradford who 
wrote "that owing to the limited number of persons 
making up the American colony in Breslau the 
local commemorative events have perforce been 
of a simple character." 

The first of the events was a tea given on Febru- 
ary 21 by Consul Bradford to the members of the 
American colony and German friends. The tea 
was well attended and as a commemorative event 
made a fine impression on the people of Breslau. 

As another bicentennial feature, Dr. Carl Wittke 
of the Ohio State University was invited to lecture 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



137 



on March 3. The invitation was extended by the 
Lower Silesian Group of the German Academy, the 
University of Breslau, the Technical High School, 
and the Silesian Society for Native Culture. Dr. 
Wittke's lecture on George Washington was given 
under the auspices of these organizations. 

Despite the fact that a political speech was given 
in the city the same night by a prominent German, 
the lecture was well attended by representative peo- 
ple of Breslau. Much favorable comment on it and 
the occasion it commemorated was received from 
the German people. 

Cologne Holds Banquet 

An unusual means of honoring the memory of 
George Washington was chosen by the American 
colony of Cologne when, after a banquet com- 
memorating his two hundredth birthday, the sum 
remaining from the money taken in to pay the ex- 
penses of the dinner was contributed to a Cologne 
agency for the relief of the poor. This action on 
the part of the Cologne Bicentennial Committee 
was greatly appreciated by the people of that city 
and attracted much favorable comment. 

The Bicentennial banquet took place on Febru- 
ary 22, 1932, at the Hotel Excelsior in Cologne. 
It was attended by more than 100 people, including 
important officials and leading persons in banking, 
industrial, and other circles. The Mayor of 
Cologne and his wife, Dr. and Mrs. Konrad 
Adenauer, were the chief guests of honor. 

After toasts had been given the President of Ger- 
many and the President of the United States the 
American Consul, George L. Brandt, made the fol- 
lowing brief remarks: 

We have met here to commemorate an occasion which had 
the greatest of significance to us as a nation, the birth two 
hundred years ago today of one who deserves to live ever in 
our memory as the Father of our Country. As a gathering 
of Americans for that purpose we associate ourselves with 
similar gatherings everywhere in the world tonight where there 
are Americans, meeting to honor and revere the name of 
Washington, under the leadership of the committee appointed 
by Act of Congress with our President as chairman. 

In this commemoration of Washington's birthday we have 
the gracious assistance of our friends here present with us 
as our guests, and to them we extend a most hearty welcome 
coupled with our grateful thanks for their attendance. We 
do not forget the share the countries they represent have 
had in making the United States a nation. To those of the 
fair land of Germany in which we are pleasantly residing, 
we particularly wish to say that we do not forget their coun- 
tryman, the Baron von Steuben, who came to us when our 
fortunes in our difference with the mother country were at a 
low ebb, and with high efficiency and with unselfish regard 
for our cause, gave to our troops a military knowledge they 



needed. Neither do we forget the other great contributions 
Germany has made to the progress of the United States 
through the intelligence, skill, courage, industry, honesty 
and thrift of the German people who came to the United 
States to make up an important part of our nation. 

Further, as your country's representative here and as chair- 
man of the committee which has arranged this ceremony, let 
me thank you one and all sincerely for your generous response 
to the invitation that has brought you here tonight. 

Soon we are to have the great privilege of hearing an address 
on Washington by one who is eminently qualified and has 
graciously consented to deliver it. I propose therefore simply 
to acknowledge here for our community, with the rest of the 
people, the great debt we owe to Washington. First in war 
as the military leader who brought us safely through many 
troubles to the peace from which there came the United 
States of America. First in that peace as President of those 
new United States who conducted us safely through a nation's 
birth throes. Therefore is he first in the hearts of his coun- 
trymen. May we never forget and may our private and public 
lives ever reflect our appreciation of his private and public 
virtues. 

University Head Speaks 

Following the toast to George Washington which 
was here proposed by Consul Brandt, Dr. Kuske, 
rector of the University of Cologne, was intro- 
duced as the principal speaker of the evening. Dr. 
Kuske emphasized especially the qualities which 
made George Washington great as a leader and 
pointed out the significance and practical value of 
America's adoption of a democratic constitution. 
He further stated that a great leader could best 
develop his own virtues from the democratic and 
liberal consciousness of his people. 

Dr. Kuske's address was received with demon- 
strations of approval by his listeners and was favor- 
ably commented on in the press of Cologne and 
other cities. 

Washington's birthday was not allowed to pass 
unnoticed by the American school in Cologne. 
Boasting an enrollment of only six pupils, a pro- 
gram was nevertheless arranged by the children and 
their teacher, to which the parents were invited. 
This program was featured by the presentation of 
a silk American flag, the gift of P. M. Reinartz 
of the Armco Iron Co., and chairman of the school 
board. The presentation was made by the Amer- 
ican consul. A reproduction of the well-known 
Athenaeum portrait of George Washington by 
Gilbert Stuart, supplied by the United States 
Bicentennial Commission, was framed and also pre- 
sented to the school by Mr. Brandt. 

A commemorative religious service was held in 
the Anglo-American Church in Cologne under the 
supervision of Major Collard, lay-reader of the 
church. The service was well attended by members 



138 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



of the American colony and residents of Cologne. 
Both the United States Consul, Mr. Brandt, and 
Mr. Reinartz took part in the program by reading 
lessons referring to George Washington. 

Elaborate Exercises Held in Dresden 

It was not enough for the people of the Free 
State of Saxony and the City of Dresden, its cap- 
ital, to show their esteem and admiration of George 
Washington in only one celebration inaugurating 
the year-long commemoration of his birth; it took 
a whole week, known as "George Washington 
Week," for them to get the great celebration under 
way. And so sincerely did the people enter into 
the spirit of the occasion that long-time residents 
of Dresden unhesitatingly declared it to be one 
of the most memorable events ever witnessed in 
the city. 

The opening program of this George Washing- 
ton Week, which was in many respects the most 
significant because of the fact that it was presented 
entirely by the German people themselves under 
the auspices of the governments of the Free State 
of Saxony and the City of Dresden, took place in 
the new city hall in Dresden on Sunday morning, 
February 21, 1932. Interest in the program was 
widespread, and the hall was filled to capacity, while 
many hundreds of people who sought admission 



had to be turned away for lack of room. Other 
features of this series were a banquet and program 
under the auspices of an American Bicentennial 
Committee, headed by the United States Consul 
General, A. T. Haeberle; a patriotic service in the 
American Church of St. John and a tea in the rec- 
tory of the church; a patriotic performance in 
honor of George Washington presented by the 
management of the Albert Theater, and a program 
under the auspices of the Humboldt Club of 
Dresden. 

Mr. Haeberle, according to his very interesting 
account of the events leading up to the celebration, 
had appointed a committee consisting of himself 
and the following other Americans: Dr. Oliver H. 
Budge, president of the German-Austrian Mission 
of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints; 
Dr. Robert McBride, a resident of Dresden for 
thirty years; Rev. Edward M. Bruce, rector of the 
American Church of St. John, and Professor Henry 
P. Spring. Despite the handicaps of an extremely 
small American colony and the universal economic 
depression, this committee immediately set to work 
on plans for a celebration which should do justice 
to the occasion. It was at this point, Consul Gen- 
eral Haeberle reported, that he was invited by the 
Lord Mayor of Dresden, Dr. Wilhelm Kiilz, to 
attend a meeting which had been called to discuss 




WASHINGTONSTRASSE IN DRESDEN. This street was named for George Washington as a part of Dresden's 

PARTICIPATION IN THE BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION. 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



139 



plans for a Dresden commemoration of George 
Washington's birth. He added: 

I thought Dr. Kiilz had in mind a joint celebration of Ger- 
mans and Americans as was the case in other cities of Ger- 
many. I was, therefore, surprised to learn that the Saxon 
Government and the City of Dresden, with the cooperation 
of the State Opera and University, which were also repre- 
sented at the meeting, had planned a celebration of their own 
in honor of our country. 

Thus the State of Saxony and the City of Dresden arranged 
at their own instigation a splendid celebration in honor of 
George Washington which took place in the beautiful Assem- 
bly Room of the new City Hall, and unusual interest was 
manifested by the residents of Dresden in it. This commemo- 
rative celebration was one of the most impressive I have ever 
attended, because of its dignified character and simple but 
artistic decorations. 

Friendly Feeling for Americans 

Much of the interest thus shown in the Bicen- 
tennial Celebration Mr. Haeberle ascribed to the 
fact that Dresden was formerly the abode of 
numerous Americans which occasioned a very 
friendly feeling toward the citizens of the United 
States. Another factor, said Mr. Haeberle, was 
the fact that Dr. Kiilz, Mayor of Dresden, had 
travelled extensively in many lands, and knew how 
to manifest "in a befitting manner his friendship 
for other countries." 

The celebration was first planned for the evening 
of February 22, but the date was later changed to 
Sunday morning, February 21, in order to lend 
greater dignity to the occasion in accordance with 
the German point of view. All the members of the 
American colony, government officials, the faculty 
of the University of Dresden and other prominent 
people including those who had special connections 
with the United States, were invited. As indicated 
in the excerpt from the Consul General's report 
quoted above, the interest in the celebration was 
so great that the hall in which it was held would 
not seat all those who applied for admission. 

The meeting in the City Hall was both dignified 
and honored by the presence of Dr. Walther 
Schieck, Minister President of the State of Saxony, 
who delivered the opening speech. Briefly stating 
the purpose of the gathering, the President said 
that George Washington's greatness of character 
made him a man who belonged not only to the 
United States but to the rest of the world as well. 
Washington's sense of moral responsibility the 
President held to exceed in importance even his 
service as warrior and statesman. That Washing- 
ton received the gratitude and love of his people in 



an ever increasing degree, President Schieck pointed 
out, was evidence of his nobility of soul. The 
English version of the address follows: 

We have met today to honor the memory of one of the 
truly great men in the history of mankind. We are not 
prompted only by our feeling of friendship for the people of 
the United States in thus celebrating the memory of its 
national hero. Personalities of the dimensions of a George 
Washington are the property of the entire world. 

History knows but few creations of statesmanship, which 
have been the work of a single man, such as was the founding 
of the United States of America. By dint of many years of 
labor in war and peace, Washington created a national union 
virtually out of nothing, a union which in the course of a 
century and a half has developed into one of the most mag- 
nificent commonwealths that the world has known. That 
this commonwealth should come into existence was by no 
means a foregone conclusion. The genius that was Washing- 
ton cannot be separated from the fate of the thirteen young 
colonies. In Germany we experienced almost simultaneously 
the creative force which can emanate from a general and 
statesman who knows how to be the man of the hour at the 
critical juncture of his nation's history. A peculiar constella- 
tion of fate has willed it that out of the school of Frederick 
the Great should come that master strategist Baron von 
Steuben to weld the army of George Washington into an 
instrument of great power. Thus he became one of the 
countless Germans who have contributed to the building of a 
new nation and a new home for themselves. 

When we inquire what it is that enables a statesman to 
perform so great a creative act which endures through the 
centuries, we must admit that it is the great moral power 
of a monumental personality more than all strategic acumen 
or statesmanship that is at work. Historical research which 
has sought to lift the veil from the legendary portrait of 
George Washington reveals to us an unselfish, utterly self- 
disciplined man whose lifework is a continual sacrifice for 
the good of his people. His great modesty, which is an ear- 
mark of true greatness, his nobility of soul and his great 
tactfulness cast their spell over all who deal with the life of 
George Washington. He received in richest measure the most 
beautiful reward that one may receive: the gratitude and love 
of his people is his lot to this day on an ever ascending scale. 
We congratulate today the people of America that they 
were given in George Washington a builder of nations of 
whom Congress was able to say when he died: 

The First in War 

The First in Peace and 

The First in the hearts of his countrymen. 

Mayor Kulz Speaks on Washington 

Following President Schieck on the program 
came Dr. Wilhelm Kiilz, Lord Mayor of Dresden. 
Dr. Kulz displayed a keen understanding of George 
Washington's character and the significance of 
friendly German-American relations. The Mayor 
mentioned an interesting incident which had 
occurred more than two hundred years before in 
Dresden, showing that the facilities of that time 
afforded but slight opportunity to obtain accurate 
knowledge of America. The large numbers of Ger- 
mans who had emigrated to the United States to 



140 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



mingle their blood with that of Americans, were 
referred to as a factor in the creation of the close 
bond existing between the two countries. George 
Washington's cordial relations with Baron von 
Steuben were mentioned, and the famous German 
general was aptly referred to as the godfather of 
the United States "at the baptismal ceremony of 
the infant nation." 

The translation of Dr. Kulz's speech follows: 

It is an illustrious gathering that I have the honor of wel- 
coming today in this festive auditorium of our City Hall. 
This is the day which we dedicate to the honored memory 
of George Washington, the creator of the United States, upon 
whom history for the first time bestowed the unpretentious 
yet illustrious title: "President of the United States." 

American citizens and friends of the United States are 
joining with official Dresden to celebrate the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington — a moment 
of historical significance no less for the city of Dresden. 

Who would have thought such a celebration possible two 
hundred years ago? It was precious little that was known in 
those days concerning that great colony across the seas, which 
George Washington welded into a nation. Very little outside 
of romantic tales dealing with Indians had reached the ear 
of the inhabitants of our city. A Dresden diplomat in the 
year 1722 relates that two royal American princes, twenty 
and twenty-four years old respectively, had arrived in Dresden 
and that an English ship captain was leading them around 
as prisoners and displaying them for money. They went about 
in long green cloaks ornamented with silver. They were 
full-chested and their bodies and faces were tattooed with 
emblems of the sun, pictures of dragons and snakes. They 
had taken their lodging at the inn called "Krone." They 
absorbed a modicum of education and were baptized into 
the Protestant Church. On February 6, 1725, Augustus the 
Strong bought them for his royal suite and afterwards made a 
present of them to the Empress of Russia. 

Fifty years later we have a similar picture showing the 
reverse of the medal. The ruler of Hessen-Cassel sells 12,000 
subjects and the ruler of Braunschweig 4,300 subjects to the 
British to fight in the American War of Independence. 
Similar transactions were made by the rulers of Waldeck 
and Ansbach. Among them are Deume of Saxony and the 
then unknown lieutenant Neidhardt von Gneisenau of Ans- 
bach. On the other hand, as chief actor of German birth, 
Baron von Steuben enters the great drama of American 
liberation. He drills American farmer boys, transforming 
them into a sort of Prussian soldiery in the manner of Fred- 
erick the Great, thereby becoming one of the chief supporters 
of Washington in his battle for freedom. "It is my greatest 
ambition," he writes George Washington, "to be of service 
to your country so far as it lies in my power and to earn for 
myself through participation in your great struggle for inde- 
pendence the title of American citizen." Thus a German 
general became godfather, even as George Washington was 
the father, at the baptismal ceremony of the infant nation. 

Millions from that time on emigrated from Germany to 
the sweet land of liberty and much German blood mingled 
with that of the newly born nation. Thus quite naturally 
a reciprocal interest has developed from this bond, and for this 
reason the German people sincerely participate in this 
memorial occasion. The City of Dresden is anxious to do 
its part and remembers with gratitude that thousands of 
American citizens have in the course of time made this city 
their home. Dresden remembers gratefully how America's 



official representatives, now under the leadership of Consul 
General A. T. Haeberle, have fostered the friendly relations 
between the two nations. And when we today, as a token 
of national good will towards the United States, name a street 
after George Washington, we do so because as Germans we 
are able to recognize greatness and also great men of other 
nations. 

By a resolution which Henry Lee presented in the House 
of Representatives in Philadelphia, of which President Schieck 
has already reminded us, George Washington was designated 
as the First in War, the First in Peace and the First in the 
Hearts of his Countrymen. We Germans know how to 
appreciate what such a personality means to a people inasmuch 
as a kindly fate has given us also in difficult times such a man. 
The President of the United States of America, John Adams, 
a successor to George Washington, said in his address in the 
Senate: "His example is now complete, and it will teach 
wisdom and virtue to magistrates, citizens, and men, not only 
in the present age, but in future generations, as long as our 
history shall be read." The historical events, in the center 
of which stands George Washington, have taught us the 
value of such a man who in emergency displays energetic 
leadership and who can say: "My life I give to the service 
of my country." 

May this celebration deepen our mutual friendship. Surely 
the word of Moltke applies here: "Only in its own strength 
lies the fate of a nation." However much a really great people 
will always recognize without envy the great qualities of 
another, it is always national consciousness which gives birth 
to such thought and action as lead to positive achievement. 
But with the development of mankind, common interests and 
the points of contact in international relations multiply, it is 
the duty of national politics to foster international relations. 
Two great people, such as the people of the United States 
and of Germany, united by the bond of friendship, will in 
time contribute much of value for mutual benefit and for 
the welfare of mankind. That the City of Dresden may 
remain such a center of reciprocal friendship is the earnest 
wish which inspires us today. 

Held in Universal Esteem 

Consul General Haeberle next addressed the audi- 
ence, speaking briefly of the universal esteem in 
which the character of George Washington is held. 
He pointed to the continued reverence for the 
great man which prevailed in the hearts of his 
countrymen everywhere, and paid high tribute to 
the military ability of Baron von Steuben, who 
played such an important part in the American 
War for Independence. Expressing the gratitude 
which every American must feel for the evidences 
of friendship shown in the Dresden celebration, Mr. 
Haeberle said that this friendship dated from the 
"turbulent days when German and American 
officers fought jointly in pursuit of a high ideal." 
The Consul General's address was delivered in Ger- 
man, and the following is a translation of it: 

It is not as paradoxical as it might appear if on this 
memorable occasion in honor of the Two Hundredth Anni- 
versary of the Birth of George Washington I recall to memory 
the sad day in 1799 when George Washington departed 
from his earthly battlefield. That eventful day cast its 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



141 



shadow throughout the length and breadth of the land. The 
sad news of Washington's death spread with astonishing 
rapidity notwithstanding the primitive conditions and meagre 
facilities of communication of that day. The bells, which 
resounded throughout the land, were tolled to the accompani- 
ment of sincerest mourning as an expression of the deep love 
of the people whom he had welded into national unity. The 
flag which he created and which during his presidency had 
been hoisted for the first time over our land, was drooping 
at half mast. It proclaimed not only the sorrow of a people, 
but also the deep reverence and recognition on the part of 
those who during his lifetime had been his political opponents 
and who had often enhanced the burden of his most arduous 
battles. These manifestations of mourning — the bells and 
the flags — were not merely official in character; rather did 
they testify to the first great sorrow of a young nation over 
the loss of its great warrior, over its first great President. 

Washington's death also revealed — and this is the lot of 
great men only — that when the eyes of a truly great man close 
forever, the eyes of the living are opened; when the battle 
of life is over, when envy and intrigue are forgotten then 
new vistas enable us to perceive achievements and nobility of 
spirit in a new light. Even England, whose trained army 
he was compelled to meet with a soldiery almost wholly 
untrained and whose power he had annihilated forever in that 
portion of the new world, participated in the general 
mourning. 

If we recall Washington's dignity and greatness of soul; 
his wisdom, his admirable self-discipline as warrior and states- 
man; his great tenacity under the most desperate circum- 
stances; his heroic contempt for death when, leading his raw 
recruits into battle, he inspired them with the courage of 
veterans, there is little wonder that the Resolution adopted 
by Congress: "First in War, First in Peace and First in the 
hearts of his Countrymen" has been handed down from gener- 
ation to generation as the most sacred heirloom of the 
American Nation. 

It is not my duty today to expatiate on the great historical 
events of our country that transpired between 1732 and 1799. 
To prove Washington's unquestioned greatness, I have, there- 
fore, referred to the high praise that posterity has accorded 
him, to the tribute of love and of esteem from surviving 
friend and foe. 

Today, I have another task to perform, the pleasant duty 
of thanking the Saxon Government and the City of Dresden 
not only in my name and that of our American Colony, but 
above all on behalf of my Government. 

When plans were first made for this celebration com- 
memorative of the two hundredth birthday anniversary of 
George Washington, it was my belief that, as in other places, 
this State and the City of Dresden and our American Colony 
would be joint participants. It was, therefore, a pleasant 
surprise to learn from the Lord Mayor of Dresden, Dr. Kiilz, 
that the State of Saxony and the City of Dresden had taken 
the initiative in arranging an independent celebration as 
their tribute to the memory of the Father of our Country. 

As we are most appreciative of this exceptional honor, it 
affords me great pleasure to be permitted to convey to the 
representatives of the State of Saxony and of the City of 
Dresden most cordial greetings from our Secretary of State, 
Honorable Henry Stimson, and an expression of gratitude 
from my Government which is mindful of the loyal assist- 
ance rendered by German subjects during our Revolutionary 
War. 

I thank His Excellency the President of Saxony and His 
Excellency the Lord Mayor of Dresden for their expressions 
of good will. I also wish to express my gratitude in the 
name of my Government because in honor of our first Presi- 
dent you have decided to give the name of George Washing- 



ton to one of your new streets. May this act of courtesy 
and the interest that you have manifested in the 200th birth- 
day anniversary of the Father of our Country awaken among 
our people a new interest in the beautiful city of Dresden 
which, in former days, was the favorite abode of so many 
Americans. 

Deeply moved I stand before you today, deeply touched by 
the proof you have given of your veneration for our national 
hero. 

We, who are Americans, remember today not only the 
great deeds of Lafayette, but gratefully also the invaluable 
services of your countryman, General von Steuben, who played 
so important a part in our War of Independence and whose 
name will continue to live in the history of our country. We 
recall the unstinted praise that Frederick the Great bestowed 
upon the brilliant achievements of Washington. 

I have in my possession Menzel's well-known picture of 
Frederick the Great which bears the inscription "Dedicated to 
Free America" and the words of the great Prussian king: 
"It is certain that almost all the countries of Europe sym- 
pathize with the Colonies and espouse their cause." You 
know the story that Frederick the Great presented a sword 
to Washington, bearing the modest and generous inscription 
"From the Older to the Greater." Although this story 
remains a legend, it is worthy of note as an indication of 
the esteem in which George Washington, the renowned gen- 
eral of the New World, was held by Frederick the Great, the 
renowned general of the Old World. 

Thus the gratitude of my Government and the gratitude 
of our people reverts from this impressive celebration to those 
turbulent days when German and American officers fought 
jointly in pursuit of a high ideal. We remember today the 
story of Frederick the Great who, on this side of the ocean, 
surrounded by enemies, overwhelmed by seemingly insur- 
mountable trials, revealed to the world the greatness of his 
character, and, accomplishing the seemingly impossible, led 
his armies to victory; we remember today, beyond the ocean, 
the story of George Washington who performed those mili- 
tary achievements that called forth the applause of the Old 
World; the story of George Washington, who undismayed by 
the hardships of Valley Forge accomplished the apparently 
impossible and led his hungry, tattered, barefooted soldiers 
whose "marches might be traced by the blood from their 
feet" to those victories that finally culminated in the epoch- 
making capitulation of his foes. 

As we confront the serious problems of the present day, 
it is natural that we contemplate that stormy period and its 
towering figures to remind us that not in the pleasure of 
life, but in its battles and struggles man approaches the divine. 
The present, as well, requires great men, and this day the 
festive bells in the United States not only proclaim the com- 
pelling greatness of Washington, but also remind the Ameri- 
can people of the achievements of our honored President of 
today and the weighty problems that bear down upon him. 
The present, as well, requires great men. And so, if today 
you have honored our country by commemorating the great- 
ness of our first Commander-in-Chief, our first President, I 
am especially gratified to be enabled to reciprocate in kind. 
I felicitate you, that the German Reich today possesses a 
leader who, like Washington, is honored and beloved both by 
his own people and other nations, and who, like Washington, 
will go down in history as a man, First in War, First in 
Peace, and First in the Hearts of his Countrymen. 

Tells Why Washington Was Great 

Professor Dr. Johannes Kiihn was then intro- 
duced as the speaker of the day. Dr. Kiihn, pro- 
fessor of history at the University of Dresden, 



142 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



spoke eloquently on the life of George Washing- 
ton, giving especial consideration to those qualities 
which made him great. 

"It is easier to describe the life of a man who is 
called great by his contemporaries and posterity, 
than to say in what this greatness consists," began 
Dr. Kuhn, continuing: 

Besides, it is not easy for us Europeans to comprehend the 
significance of a man like Washington. We are too accus- 
tomed to seek human greatness in unusual talents and gifts 
of an individual nature. But there is something which stands 
behind the most glowing of talents and the resulting accom- 
plishments, called personality; and there is something which 
encompasses this personality like a mother's care, raises it up, 
carries it and calls it to greatness, and we call that Fate. 

It is not absolutely necessary that the great personality 
flow out in the talents of a genius; it may also act to a cer- 
tain extent through itself. Nor is it right to separate the 
important man from fate — from the objective connection of 
things of which we know only the outside — for there exists 
an indissoluble and secret connection between them. 

Washington was not a genius in the usual sense. He did 
not lack good, even significant talents, yet it is certain that 
in America at that time there were more intellectual persons, 
cleverer politicians, more skillful diplomats, perhaps even 
keener officers than he. But on the other hand, note that he 
was elected almost without opposition to all his offices, from 
command of the small border patrol of his home state of 
Virginia up to the Presidency; that the first Senate of the 
United States greeted him with a statement in which were the 
words: "all unite in you." That did not refer to his accom- 
plishments but to his personality. But this personality stood 
in an unusual way under the guidance of fate. Seldom has a 
man obeyed this guidance so unconditionally as Washington. 

Dr. Kuhn then traced the life of young George 
Washington through his experiences as surveyor 
and militia officer in which he became acquainted 
with America's hinterland. It was here that he 
witnessed the great conflict between French and 
British in its beginnings — a conflict which resulted 
in the expulsion of France from North America. 
With France no longer a colonial rival England be- 
gan to oppress her colonies with taxation, and, with 
pedantic and unskillful diplomacy, so antagonized 
the Americans as to precipitate the Revolutionary 
War. That Washington took the part of the col- 
onists in their fight against Great Britain, Dr. Kiihn 
asserted, was due more to his acting from instinct 
than by philosophical or legal arguments justifying 
such a course. By accepting the commission as 
leader of the American armies Washington again 
heeded the call of fate. 

The speaker then showed how Washington the 
general became Washington the statesman — the 
American statesman. It was his struggle with an 
impotent congressional government to obtain the 
necessary supplies, and even the authority, to prose- 



cute the war, which gave him the idea of a strong, 
centralized government. This idea he never re- 
linquished, and even before he left the army, Wash- 
ington was doing everything he could to develop 
and strengthen in his associates a national conscious- 
ness. The establishment of an American nation 
was his vision, and his first thought after the 
achievement of independence was for the economic 
and political welding of the thirteen states by the 
creation of means of intercourse and the adoption 
of a strong federal constitution. 

Rest for the "Young Giant" 

Following the development of Washington's for- 
eign policy as President of the United States, Dr. 
Kiihn pointed out that its cardinal principle was 
rest for the "young giant, America, and its undis- 
turbed growth." While encouraging the develop- 
ment of trade with foreign countries, Washington 
at the same time counseled against any alliances 
with another nation which would entangle America 
in wars abroad. "He found all these questions as 
simple as a problem in Euclid. They are, in fact, 
when one has once learned the essential and spatial 
and other interests of his own land." His country's 
interest over-shadowed anything personal or 
foreign. 

Dr. Kuhn's address continued: 

What sort of a man was he who thus grew into his his- 
torical role as the personification of the new empire? He was 
one of the most retiring men that ever lived. He has noth- 
ing in common with those geniuses which pass over the land 
like a storm and lay their law upon the world. He did not 
go ahead of his time. He went along with it and displayed 
it in himself. He acted when the time was right, not before, 
but then without any hesitation, with quiet determination and 
absolute steadfastness. The completely transparent simplicity 
and clearness of goal of his nature, together with his relia- 
bility at all times won for him universal confidence. Not 
on words did he rely, for he spoke little and practically not 
at all in public. It is remarkable that the man who headed the 
Constitutional Convention did not once talk about its delib- 
erations although he completely controlled the body in its 
fundamentals. 

He was self-controlled from early youth. Quite extraor- 
dinary things had to happen, such as the treacherous behavior 
of Lee at Monmouth or the defeat of St. Clair by the Indians, 
to cause him to lose his temper. There are seldom exclama- 
tion points in his letters. He was the opposite of our imagi- 
native, fanciful, effusive man. And his letters might be tire- 
some if they were not always of intrinsic value. 

He acted differently from him who can tolerate no one 
but himself. He sought to secure the most capable co- 
workers. He freely accepted advice in war and later in 
politics, but made his decisions entirely by himself, after strict 
examination. What an intellectual power he was despite his 
lack of a professed intellectual gift is shown by many ex- 
amples. A man who had already, in October, 1789, foreseen 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



143 



the whole course of the French Revolution, is no ordinary 
man. And he who chooses as his closest co-workers the two 
most distinguished political talents of America at that time, 
the Francophile Democrat Jefferson, and the English admirer 
and constitutional monarchist Hamilton, and knows how to 
hold his own with them mentally and to paralyze their hos- 
tility for a long time, is likewise no ordinary man. Both far 
surpassed him in talent, in intellectuality, political imagina- 
tion and knowledge; but he was the greater in contrast to 
their extravagances, with his crystal character, his unshake- 
able will, his instinct for the great, the essential, as well as 
the attainable and the natural dignity which surrounded him. 
Washington was of pure Anglo-Saxon origin, yet a mass of 
relations to the Germans was joined to his person. How 
strange to see this General during the entire war surrounded 
by assistants of pure German blood. How strange to note 
that in the American winter quarters in 1777, at a time of 
deepest dejection in the army, a Prussian officer, von Steuben, 
appears near the General to become Inspector General of the 



fought in great numbers on both sides, so that at 
Yorktown was witnessed the curious spectacle of 
Germans in British uniform surrendering to Ger- 
mans in French and American uniforms. 

Ending his discourse with a plea for the national 
unity of the German people Dr. Kiihn said: "Na- 
tional consciousness should stand above party — 
that is the teaching which Washington as well as 
the incorporators of our own national being such as 
Frederick the Great, Stein and Bismarck, left 
behind." 

The excellent musical program for this celebra- 
tion was arranged under the direction of Dr. Reuter 




GEORGE WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL BANQUET AT EXPOSITION HALL, DRESDEN. 



army and completely change its tactics, equipment and dis- 
cipline. Even though the young, splendid French Marquis de 
Lafayette may personally have been closer to Washington, yet 
it deserves consideration that Washington as a sign of sincere 
friendship wrote his last letter as Commander in Chief to 
von Steuben. 

Evidence is not lacking of the prominent part which Ger- 
mans had in the American War for Independence; and if we, 
a German city and a German Hochschule honor Washington 
here, we do it also in the consciousness that special bonds 
unite us to the American people, and that in the American 
nation almost from the beginning there has flowed a great 
stream of German blood and spirit. 

Kalb, Muhlenberg, Herkimer and others were 
named by Dr. Kiihn as heroes of the Revolutionary 
War, and the exploits of Germans not so well- 
known were referred to by the speaker. It was a 
"disturbing fact," Dr. Kiihn stated, that Germans 



of the managing board of the Saxon State Theaters. 
Selections were played by Jan Dahmen, one of the 
best known violinists in Europe, and his string 
quartet; vocal solos were rendered by Mrs. Wieber- 
Brack, an American with the Dresden State Opera, 
and an interesting number was furnished by the 
juvenile choir of the "Kreuz Kirche," a musical or- 
ganization consisting of boys and young men rang- 
ing in age from 10 to 19 years and well known in 
many European countries. The choir sang the 
"Star Spangled Banner" in English. 

Celebration Makes Deep Impression 

The celebration was considered by the people of 
Dresden and Saxony as one of the outstanding 



144 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



events in Dresden during a number of years — a 
fact referred to many times in Mr. Haeberle's of- 
ficial communications to the United States George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission. The news- 
papers of the city all contained laudatory articles 
regarding the tribute to George Washington. 

That evening, Sunday, February 21, a patriotic 
service was held in the American Church of St. 
John. The Rev. Edward M. Bruce, rector of the 
church, delivered a sermon on the patriotism of 
George Washington in which he emphasized the 
differences between real and pseudo-patriotism, and 
paid tribute to those who are patriotic enough to 
live as well as to die for their country. 

Rev. and Mrs. Bruce also gave a tea at the rec- 
tory of the American Church of St. John on Feb- 
ruary 24, at which were present several govern- 
ment officials as well as members of the American 
colony. 

On the evening of February 25 the Albert Thea- 
ter of Dresden presented a special patriotic per- 
formance in honor of George Washington. Patri- 
otic marches, both German and American, includ- 
ing Sousa's immortal "Stars and Stripes Forever," 
and "Cadet March" were played by the Fourth 
Artillery Band. David E. Tolman, from Salt Lake 
City, Utah, sang a group of three American folk 
songs. American films, dealing with episodes in the 
life of George Washington, were shown and appre- 
ciated by the public. 

The performance closed with a one-act drama 
entitled "Thomas Paine," written by the German 
dramatist, Hanns Johst, and rearranged for the oc- 
casion. The play was, despite its title, built 
around George Washington as the central figure, 
and depicted his part in the Revolutionary War. 
The Fourth Artillery Band played both the Ger- 
man and American national anthems. 

This celebration was attended by members of 
the American colony, prominent Germans, among 
whom were many holding important government 
positions, and members of the United States con- 
sular corps. Mr. Haeberle reported that all the 
papers commented favorably on the affair which 
terminated in a demonstration of patriotic en- 
thusiasm. 

Postponement Appreciated 

The American Bicentennial Committee had 
planned a celebration to take place on the evening 
of February 22, but owing to the death of Fried- 



rich August, former king of Saxony and one of its 
best beloved rulers, it was postponed to February 
26. This mark of deference on the part of the 
committee, entailing as it did considerable extra 
work, was deeply appreciated by the people of 
Dresden, and served to heighten general interest in 
the American celebrations. Unfortunately, how- 
ever, because of this postponement, many German 
officials who had accepted guest of honor invita- 
tions, were unable to attend on the later date. 
Among these was Dr. Kulz, Lord Mayor of Dres- 
den, who had accepted an invitation to speak and 
who was forced to send his regrets at being de- 
tained in Berlin to attend a session of the Reichs- 
tag. Dr. Kulz was, however, ably represented on 
the program by City Councillor Dr. Koppen. 

The program planned by the committee was not 
undertaken without difficulties, as is shown in the 
following excerpt from Mr. Haeberle's communi- 
cation to the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission dated March 10, 1932: 

Owing to the small number of Americans, and the smaller 
number who might assist financially and otherwise, it ap- 
peared almost impossible to arrange a Bicentennial Celebra- 
tion in honor of George Washington. However, it was our 
ambition to have not only a celebration, but one worthy of 
the important occasion, one that might have a value not only 
for our few Americans, but also for the German and other 
residents of Dresden in promoting international friendship 
and a feeling of good will. 

How well the Consul General and his associates 
succeeded is shown by the fact that it was generally 
agreed that no other celebration held in Dresden by 
a foreign colony had ever attracted such a large 
number of German friends. Dr. Koppen, who rep- 
resented the Lord Mayor on the program, said that 
during his public services in Dresden, covering a 
period of 33 years, he had never seen such a large 
gathering of Germans at an American celebration. 

"It was of interest to me to note," wrote the 
Consul General in the communication referred to 
above, "that as a result of my visit last October to 
the distant part of Saxony, the 'Vogtland,' several 
Germans who are connected with the United 
States by family and business ties came to Dresden 
to attend our celebration." 

Program in Exposition Building 

The Exposition Building in Dresden was the 
scene of the celebration, and the great hall pre- 
sented a most attractive and festive appearance 
with its simple but artistic decorations. A large 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



145 



portrait of George Washington was prominently 
displayed, while the multi-colored flags of Ger- 
many, the United States, Saxony and the City of 
Dresden added to the splendor of the scene. The 
Dresden Symphonic Orchestra, under the direction 
of Johannes Freyer, played selections at the begin- 
ning of the program, and also furnished several 
numbers during the dinner. 

Consul General A. T. Haeberle, officiating as 
toastmaster, welcomed the guests to the banquet 
and program in honor of George Washington, and 
spoke briefly of the reasons which prompted the 
United States to plan a great celebration in com- 
memoration of his birth. Mr. Haeberle spoke of 
the world-wide proportions the celebration had at- 
tained, and cited the programs presented in Dres- 
den by the governments of Saxony and the city as 
examples of the manner in which foreign peoples 
were participating in the Bicentenary commemo- 
ration. Continuing, the Consul General said: 

On one occasion Washington declared that every impor- 
tant decision of his career had been actuated by love of his 
country, and the George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion asserted that he was not only the highest type of Ameri- 
can citizen, but also the highest type of world citizen. This 
shows that the two types are not incompatible. He could 
not be the first in peace, or the highest type of world citi- 
zen, without being solicitous of the welfare of other nations. 

And thus I feel that if Washington could be with us on 
this occasion, he would be the first to rejoice in the fact that 
our American Colony and our German and other guests have 
met on a basis of friendship. I am, therefore, happy, fellow 
countrymen, to extend a hearty welcome not only to you, 
but also to all our friends who have come to join us in our 
patriotic celebration. A few days ago we were the guests 
of the Saxon Government and the City of Dresden, and to- 
night it affords us great pleasure to be honored by the pres- 
ence of the representatives of the various government depart- 
ments of this State and of the City of Dresden. 

Our American Colony is extremely small, but we offer our 
guests the best we can give them, perhaps little in the way of 
material festivity, but much in the way of hearts that are in 
a festive mood of appreciation. The participation of the 
friends of the American Colony tonight signifies an interest 
in our country. It is an expression of friendship, an expres- 
sion of veneration for the Father of our Country. And for 
this interest, for this expression of friendship and veneration 
I extend to them on behalf of our American Colony a hearty 
thanks and a hearty welcome. 

Tribute to Washington 

Dr. Karl Mannsfeld, Minister of Justice for the 
State of Saxony, representing the President of the 
State, Dr. Schieck, was the next speaker. In a brief 
tribute to the character of George Washington, Dr. 
Mannsfeld said that the great American was one 
of the few national heroes who was respected alike 
by the "poor and the rich, the eminent and the ob- 



scure." Quoting Goethe on pre-Revolutionary 
America, the speaker remembered Baron von Steu- 
ben and the innumerable other Germans who have 
contributed to the development of America. In 
English Dr. Mannsf eld's address reads: 

In the name of the Saxon Government I have the honor to 
thank you, Mr. Consul General, and the American colony for 
your hearty invitation to this banquet in honor of George 
Washington. The President of Saxony, who has already pre- 
sented his felicitations at the City Hall on Sunday last, re- 
grets exceedingly that he is unable to be present tonight. 

You have had the lifework of George Washington de- 
scribed to you from many angles and for this reason I need 
not further expatiate upon the same. There is, however, one 
viewpoint which I would like to bring into relief. George 
Washington was one of the few national heroes, who found 
acclaim alike among the poor and the rich, the eminent and 
the obscure. He is the very symbol of the growing Ameri- 
can commonwealth. In a spirit of true devotion the Ameri- 
can people journey to the places consecrated to his memory. 

Goethe stated: 

"Amerika, du hast es besser 
als unser Kontinent das Alte. 
Hast keine verfallenen Schlosser 
und keine Basalte. 
Dich stort nicht im Innern 
zu lebendiger Zeit, 
unntitzes Erinnern 
und vergeblicher Streit." 

"Lucky Continent of America! 
You are far happier than the 

continent of Europe, 
You have no castles in ruins 

and no rockbound tradition, 
Your peace is not disturbed in 

the onward march of time 

by memories and strife 

that serve no active purpose. 
Lucky Continent of America!" 

These well known words of Goethe no longer apply today, 
for the United States can now look back upon a century and 
a half of proud history, a history which begins with the name 
of George Washington and leads with unparalleled energy to 
the world power which presents itself to us today. The Ger- 
man people have followed the illustrious American develop- 
ment with admiration. With pride we remember Baron von 
Steuben and the hundred thousand Germans who with heart 
and hand have contributed to this development, and that 
among the greatest names in science, art, politics and eco- 
nomics are many names of German origin. May the fate of 
the two great nations travel a common path in the forging 
of a greater future. This is our sincerest wish today. 

I have the honor of proposing a toast to him who stands 
at the helm of the American Government, at the very post 
where George Washington once stood. I propose a toast to 
Herbert Hoover, President of the United States. 

As the audience arose to drink this toast, the or- 
chestra played the "Star Spangled Banner," and 
after Mr. Haeberle had proposed a toast to Presi- 
dent von Hindenburg, "Germany's President of to- 
day, beloved and honored by his people and by the 
people of other nations," the orchestra again was 



146 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



heard playing the German national anthem, 
"Deutschland, Deutschland uber alles." 

Address of City Councillor 

The next place on the program was to have been 
occupied by the Lord Mayor of Dresden, Dr. 
Kulz, but as before stated, the Mayor was detained 
in Berlin, and was represented by City Councillor 
George Koppen who made the following remarks: 

Having been delegated to speak in place of the Lord Mayor 
of Dresden, Dr. Kulz, who is prevented by official duties 
from being present, I wish first of all to thank the George 
Washington Bicentennial Committee for their invitation so 
kindly extended. We have attended the official celebration 
at the City Hall and are happy to join with the American 
colony on this brilliant social occasion. 

In the thirty-three years of my public service I have never 
seen such a large gathering of Americans and Germans as 
this one. 

Although Consul General Haeberle in his address of wel- 
come stated that little was offered tonight in a material way, 
but much in a spirit of friendship, I yet feel that nothing 
could be added from a culinary point of view to make the 
evening a complete success. But we, the citizens of Dresden, 
take greater delight in a social evening spent in the company 
of the Americans here, and characterized by cordiality and 
frank exchange of opinion, than in its material pleasures. 

The Lord Mayor, Dr. Kulz, has previously stated that much 
German blood has emigrated to America and has shown how 
the German contribution to America's population was at one 
time so pronounced that the German language was almost 
chosen as the official language of state. The bond of com- 
mon ancestry has doubtlessly contributed much to common 
thought and common sentiment. When we Germans go to 
other countries, say to France or Italy, or to the Slavonic 
countries, we are, to be sure, very cordially received, but we 
cannot but feel that we are foreigners. A very different 
sentiment is ours when we visit Northern Europe and the 
United States, where we soon feel very much at home. 

I myself sojourned in the United States at one time, not 
long enough to write a book entitled: "I and America" as so 
many have done, but long enough to esteem all the Ameri- 
cans whom I have met. The strongest impression I carried 
away with me is that in America one can always discuss 
matters of vital interest openly and sincerely, simply and 
directly. 

Before the war we were happy to welcome among us thou- 
sands of Americans as residents of this city, and despite the 
diminution of travel in the last years there have still been 
9,000 Americans who have stood in wonderment before the 
Sistine Madonna, who have gazed upon the treasures of the 
"Green Vault," or enjoyed the porcelain works of art in 
Meissen. Nor do I forget the many who have sat, absorbed 
in the enjoyment of the performances in theater, opera and 
symphony halls of Dresden. 

I sincerely hope the time is not distant when Americans 
will come in greater numbers to live for a longer or shorter 
period among us. 

I wish to assure all that they will always receive a hearty 
welcome. The City Administration knows that in its en- 
deavor to make pleasant the sojourn of Americans in Dresden, 
it has in our toastmaster of this evening, in Consul General 
Haeberle, a friend and connecting link. We thank him most 
heartily and hope that he will in future continue in his work 
of cooperation. In accordance with the old German custom, I 



propose a toast to the health of the American Consul General, 
Mr. Haeberle and to his wife. 

When the toast to Consul General Haeberle had 
been drunk, United States Consul Maurice W. Alt- 
affer arose and spoke as follows: 

Our countrymen in general and the American colony in 
Dresden in particular are duly sensible of the honor rendered 
to the name of Washington by the City of Dresden through 
its distinguished representative, Lord Mayor Dr. Kulz, who 
to our great regret could not be here this evening. 

On this occasion, which will be memorable because it is 
perhaps the largest public dinner given by Americans and 
their friends in Dresden, we want to take the opportunity to 
thank the city, not only for its many attentions on this 
anniversary which we are celebrating, but also for the spirit 
of friendliness and hospitality which Americans find here at 
all times. 

The homage done to the founder of our country by this 
city is especially gratifying to us and is regarded as a high 
compliment because Dresden represents to us one of the finest 
of the old world centres of the arts, whose museums and 
galleries, and its opera with its great traditions, have attracted 
thousands of Americans to it. I propose to you, therefore, 
the health of the Lord Mayor of Dresden and of Councillor 
Koppen, who represents him here this evening. 

Address of Dr. Bruce 

It was the Reverend E. M. Bruce, rector of the 
American Church of St. John, who delivered the 
address of the evening, "A Portrait of George 
Washington." Dr. Bruce began by telling his audi- 
ence that the celebration in honor of George Wash- 
ington has been planned for no idle purpose and 
then went on to consider the character of America's 
First President. Quoting tributes from Lincoln, 
Chauncey M. Depew and others, the speaker in- 
troduced what he termed the unique testimony of 
a common soldier in the Revolutionary Army. This 
was taken from the diary of the man, who re- 
mained unnamed, and was of no little interest to 
the large audience. Dr. Bruce's speech in full fol- 
lows: 

It was for no idle purpose, but with fixed design that the 
Congress of the United States called on the American people 
in all lands to honor and pay tribute to the memory of the 
immortal George Washington; immortal they call him and 
immortal he surely is as he still lives in his works; it can 
surely be said of him as was said of another great maker of 
history who still lives in his works: "Er ist niemals gestorben, 
er lebt darin noch jetzt." 

In times of international stress and national distress it is 
helpful and wholesome for us to look back upon the lives of 
those whom fate ordained to be leaders under just such con- 
ditions. That is what has brought us here together tonight; 
from all walks of life, from all conditions of individual strug- 
gle, we have come to do homage to greatness, to wisdom and 
integrity; attributes of a George Washington or an Abraham 
Lincoln; qualities of a Frederick the Great; it is qualities such 
as these men possessed that alone can lead the world out of 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



147 



the barren desert of national selfishness into the Paradise of 
fruitful international fellowship and cooperation. 

I need not go into the historical facts connected with the 
founding of America by the hero of the day; others have 
done this fully and well, and history has written its approval 
across the centuries. Let me rather touch upon the character 
of the man in the estimate of his fellow-countrymen. It 
was Abraham Lincoln who said: "To add brightness to the 
sun or glory to the name of George Washington is alike im- 
possible; let none attempt it; in solemn awe we pronounce the 
name, and in its naked deathless splendour leave it shining 
on." It was Chauncey Depew who said: "George Washing- 
ton stands the noblest leader who was ever entrusted with 
his country's life. His patience under provocation, his calm- 
ness in danger, and lofty courage when all others despaired, 
his prudent delays when delay was best, and his quick and 
resistless blows when action was possible, his magnanimity to 
defamers and generosity to his foes, his ambition for his 
country and unselfishness for himself, his sole desire of free- 
dom and independence for America, and his only wish to re- 
turn after victory to private life, have all combined to make 
him, by the unanimous judgment of the world, the foremost 
figure of history." 

The Rev. Dr. Carson was once asked in what position he 
would place Washington with other great men, such as Na- 
poleon, Alexander and Hannibal; "I can tell you," he replied, 
"Napoleon, Alexander and Hannibal rose to great heights by 
stepping upon and putting down all others; Washington rose 
to fame by reaching down and lifting others up." 

But the most unusual testimony of all I believe is found 
in the diary of a soldier who joined the bedraggled army of 
Washington when hope for the cause of the young colonies 
was at its lowest ebb. It was recently published by Irving 
Bacheller. In it we read: 

"George Washington of Virginia! Those words have been 
flying around New England since John and Sam Adams re- 
turned from Philadelphia. Who has not heard of his wis- 
dom, his noble spirit, his modesty; of his coat torn to rags 
by bullets in the French and Indian wars? I feared it was like 
the talk we have heard on the King's birthday, and was pre- 
pared for disappointment. But he has conquered me. I am 
like a man thrown and stunned, who is trying to think how 
it happened. 

"He is a big man — at a guess two inches taller than I — ; 
broad at the hip and shoulders; big bones, big hands, big 
feet, long arms, rather slender waist for one of his size. Yet 
all this is the smallest part of him. His head is no better 
shaped than others you have seen in Boston, but I swear I 
have never seen one so well set. I wondered why I felt a kind 
of awe in his presence; but I know now. 

"The big thing is inside of him; it reaches out and touches 
you when you look in his eyes and when he moves his hands. 
It hits you again when you hear his voice. There are three 
words that come to me as I think of him; they are: Power, 
Vitality and Kindness. I think that he has a mind as strong 
as our best pair of oxen, and that God is driving it. He said 
little, and our minister could have said it as well as he did. 
He has a good-natured face, a bit weathered, with a pock- 
mark here and there — not handsome. His straight nose is a 
shade thick and large. His deep-set, blue-grey eyes are wide 
apart, and they look down into you. His brownish hair, 
brushed back and powdered and falling in a queue is a comely 
detail. His mouth is a trifle too large and firm when closed. 
Yet when he stood up, straight as an arrow, and smiled at us, 
he was magnificent; it's a big word, not carelessly chosen. He 
wore his riding boots. His blue and buff uniform with 
golden epaulettes and buttons was spotless and well fitted. 
From shoe to ruffles every detail in his dress was admirable. 
Still it was not his look or his manners, genteel as they were, 
that reduced me to a sense of smallness. It was the man 



under it all. I felt as I did the day I looked up at the big 
mountain in New Hampshire, uncomfortably little. He has 
doubled my faith in our cause and in our ultimate victory." 

Let us peek for a moment behind the curtain of history and 
see for ourselves what that army looked like which George 
Washington led to victory; only a hero in character and a 
genius in strategy could have successfully undertaken such 
a task. Turning again to that same diary we read: 

"The spirit of our Company is for friendship, not for war. 
Stern discipline excites a degree of resentment. The men ad- 
dress their officers as if they were all having a noon hour in 
the hay field. Even the captain is 'Amos' to every private. 
It surely is the most remarkable army the world has seen — 
a fair of good-natured gossiping, homesick, peace-loving 
pioneers, spread out over the hills and valleys. A disorgan- 
ized mass of ill-clad, poorly armed soldiers, with no knowledge 
of what is expected of fighting men. Many of them do not 
know the difference between an officer and a broomstick. The 
New England troops feel that all men are equal, even in a 
regiment; that a uniform cannot create a caste. So there 
is little order, government or discipline among them. We 
have only raw material — a mound of ore to be fused and 
slagged and shaped into useful iron. 

"The air is full of the shouted orders: 'Half-cock your fire- 
locks! Handle your cartridge! Prime your cartridge! Shut 
your pans! Return your rammers! Poise your fire-locks! Cock 
your fire-locks! Present your fire-locks!' Eighteen motions 
are needed in loading, aiming and discharging this weapon. 
The fire-lock is your friend when it is loaded, but the world 
can come to an end while you are loading it!" 

A few pages further on we read in the same diary: 
'The big chief was here 'bout ten minutes ago,' " said 
one of the soldiers, meaning George Washington. 'He and a 
squad o' cavalry; been riding round the camp. My God, Sir! 
he's colder than an iron bar on a winter morning, like most 
o' them Southern officers. Been shiverin' ever since he was 
here. I was kind o' riled; spoke to him friendly like — not 
thinking — same as if I was to hum. Forgot I was in the 
army. "Nice mornin'," says I, "Salute, sir," says he, cross 
as a bear; an' me gettin' no pay since I got here.' ' 

It was truly a gigantic task to undertake with such mate- 
rial; but George Washington with his strong belief in divine 
guidance stood his ground and led his army to victory. To 
quote his own words: "The determinations of Providence are 
always wise, often unscrutable; and though its decrees appear 
to bear hard upon us at times, they are nevertheless meant for 
gracious purposes." 

Washington was first in war, but he was also first in peace; 
but one who was unwilling to patch up an inglorious peace. 
Peace must ever be a reaching out in friendship toward our 
fellow-man regardless of race or creed; a lasting peace must 
be built up upon the principles of justice and human liberty. 

Let me close by quoting Washington's own words — words 
which though spoken one hundred and fifty years ago are 
repeated today with greater emphasis than ever for all the 
world to hear and take to heart. Listen: "My first wish is 
to see this plague to mankind [war] banished from off the 
earth, and the sons and daughters of this world employed in 
more pleasing and innocent amusements, than in preparing 
implements and exercising them for the destruction of man- 
kind." 

American and German Songs 

At the end of Reverend Mr. Bruce's address the 
entire audience sang "America," the melody of 
which, being used for a well known German song, 
was familiar to all the Germans present. 

With this, the first or "official" part of the pro- 



148 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



gram was completed, and after a short intermis- 
sion the second half of the evening's entertainment 
was opened as the orchestra played Sousa's "Stars 
and Stripes Forever." The orchestral selection was 
followed by an interesting feature consisting of a 
group of well known and typical American songs 
by a male quartet called the Utah Boys. The mem- 
bers of this group, M. A. Ashton, H. B. Summer- 
hays, H. B. Sharp, and D. E. Tolman, were repre- 
sentatives of the Church of Jesus Christ of Latter 
Day Saints, and Mr. Haeberle mentioned particu- 
larly the fact that they had traveled from distant 
parts of Germany to take part on the program. 
Mr. Tolman, who also played a voilin solo, came a 
distance of 540 miles to appear on this and the pro- 
gram given earlier in the week by the Albert Thea- 
ter. The newspapers of Dresden commented es- 
pecially on this feature of the program, and praised 
also the other Americans who took part. 

Mrs. Kate McBride, long a resident of Dresden, 
sang a group of American songs, the orchestra 
played a typical American composition, and 
"Yankee Doodle" was played as a flute solo by Fritz 
Rucker, noted flutist of the State Opera. Mrs. 
Elsa Wieber-Brack, an American with the State 



Opera, then pleased the audience with several so- 
prano solos, and the program was ended with an- 
other composition of Sousa, "Liberty Bell." The 
remainder of the evening was spent in dancing. 

The celebration resulted in such a "spontaneous 
outburst of friendship and good will," wrote Con- 
sul General Haeberle, "that a movement was started 
immediately upon the termination of the program 
to cable greetings to President Hoover, and a num- 
ber of prominent German participants approached 
the Mayor, Dr. Kulz, after his return from Berlin 
and asked him to send the following telegram on 
behalf of those present: 

TO THE PRESIDENT OF THE UNITED STATES, 
WASHINGTON. 

AFTER A CELEBRATION GIVEN BY THE AMERICAN COLONY 
IN HONOR OF THE FIRST PRESIDENT OF YOUR COUNTRY, IN 
WHICH MORE THAN FOUR HUNDRED DRESDEN INHABITANTS, 
INCLUDING REPRESENTATIVES OF CITY AND STATE, PAR- 
TICIPATED, AND WHICH LED TO A SPONTANEOUS EXPRES- 
SION OF FRIENDSHIP BETWEEN AMERICAN AND GERMAN 
CITIZENS, I HAVE THE HONOR TO EXPRESS TO YOUR EXCEL- 
LENCY, AS THE PRESENT HEAD OF THE UNITED STATES, MY 
GRATIFICATION AT THE SUCCESS OF THIS PATRIOTIC CELE- 
BRATION, AND MY HOPE THAT THE TRADITIONAL FRIENDLY 
RELATIONS BETWEEN YOUR COUNTRY AND OUR CITY WILL 
ALWAYS LAST AND EVER DEEPEN. 

IN THE NAME OF THE DRESDEN PARTICIPANTS, 

(SIGNED) OBERBURGERMEISTER DR. KULZ. 




GEORGE WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL RECEPTION IN DRESDEN. The picture shows members of the American 
Colony and their German friends attending the Reception at the Hotel Bellevue on July 4, 1932. Front row, left to right: 
American Consul A. T. Haeberle, Mrs. Altaffer, Miss Cornelia E. Bedford, Mrs. Rudolph Kratina (Members of the Committee on 

Arrangements) and Mrs. Haeberle. 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



149 



Notable Persons Attend 

Among the guests of honor at the celebration 
were, according to Mr. Haeberle, "the foremost as 
well as other high representatives of the various 
Government Departments, the Commander in 
Dresden of the 'Reichswehr' (German Army) , the 
Chief and other high officials of the Police, a rep- 
resentative of the German Chamber of Commerce, 
the president of the Federal Railroads of Saxony, 
and representatives of the press. The University of 
Dresden was represented by Dr. Nagel, one of the 
foremost scientists of Germany." 

The importance with which the celebration was 
viewed by the government of Saxony is shown in 
the fact that it was attended by two members of 
the Cabinet, Dr. Mannsfeld, Secretary of Justice, 
and Dr. Richter, Secretary of the Interior. This 
was a special honor for, according to established 
German precedent, usually only one such official 
represents the cabinet on public occasions of this 
nature. 

The press accounts of the event, which appeared 
in all the leading newspapers of Dresden, only served 
to corroborate Mr. Haeberle 's estimate of it as the 
most notable celebration ever held in the city by a 
foreign colony. "They spoke of the illustrious 
gathering," wrote the Consul General, "that rep- 
resented not only the Saxon officialdom, but also 
art, science, commerce, industry and banking as 
well as the consular corps. They enumerated not 
only the numbers of the first part of the program, 
but also praised the young Americans, the Utah 
Boys, who had come to Dresden to render vocal 
and instrumental selections. They spoke of the ab- 
sorbing interest of the portrait drawn by Reverend 
Edward M. Bruce in his address on George Wash- 
ington. They criticised favorably the singing of 
Mrs. McBride and Mrs. Wieber-Brack, and spoke 
of the program as having been of genuine artistic 
value." 

The final program of this series, given during 
"George Washington Week," was presented on 
March 2 by the Humboldt Club of Dresden, an or- 
ganization numbering among its members scholars 
and intellectual leaders of the city. The program 
was featured by a lecture by Dr. Carl Wittke, pro- 
fessor of history at the State University of Ohio, 
who was travelling in Germany on a lecture tour 
under the auspices of the Carl Schurz Society. 
Many government officials, members of the con- 



sular corps, and other prominent people of Dres- 
den attended the meeting. The lecture was fol- 
lowed by a social evening and the event formed a 
valuable addition to the other festivities in Dres- 
den dedicated to the memory of George Wash- 
ington. 

Dresden Holds Ceremonies on July Fourth 
The celebrations in Dresden were continued on 
July 4 under even more difficult conditions than 
existed at the opening of the Bicentennial Year. 
Several American families had left the city, and the 
adverse economic situation was exerting a greater 
pressure than ever on many of those remaining. 
Despite all this, however, it was determined that 
the anniversary of America's Declaration of Inde- 
pendence should not be allowed to pass without 
proper recognition on the part of the American 
colony in Dresden. Being also a suitable occasion 
for further commemoration of George Washing- 
ton's birth, a program dedicated to his memory was 
prepared. 

Under the direction of a special committee con- 
sisting of Mrs. Maurice W. Altaff er, chairman, Mrs. 
Rudolf Kratina and Miss Cornelia E. Bedford, a 
Bicentennial reception and musical tea at the beau- 
tiful Bellevue Hotel overlooking the River Elbe, 
were planned as Fourth of July festivities; and the 
celebration, wrote Consul General Haeberle on 
July 20, 1932, "notwithstanding the great handi- 
cap referred to above, proved to be most worthy 
of the George Washington Bicentennial Year." 

More than a hundred Americans and their friends 
were present to participate in the celebration. 
Among those in attendance were people of various 
nationalities and members of the consular corps 
in Dresden. Throughout the entire program an 
informal and a wholly friendly spirit prevailed. 

American Consul Presides 

Consul General Haeberle presided and opened 
the meeting by welcoming the guests and expressing 
his appreciation for the efforts of the committee in 
charge in their preparations for the event. Stating 
that the program was a continuation of the Bicen- 
tennial celebrations begun during "George Wash- 
ington Week," Mr. Haeberle continued: 

We, the citizens of the United States of America, are cele- 
brating today the most significant event in the history of our 
country — the Declaration of our Independence. No future 
event can ever equal that in importance. It matters not how 
many heroic acts we or our descendants may perform on land, 



150 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



on sea, or in the skies; it matters not how many holidays pos- 
terity may incorporate in our political calendar to com- 
memorate glorious deeds and illustrious names; it matters not 
how high we may climb in our fame as a nation, no event 
can ever dim the glory that surrounds the memorable date 
of July 4, 1776. 

This is the reason why the sound of "Liberty Bells," the 
boom of cannon, the bursting of rockets have echoed and 
reechoed through the period of our one hundred and fifty-six 
years of national existence. They are expressions of joy that 
form one of the earliest recollections in our lives and awaken 
memories of our youth. We remember the impatience with 
which we awaited the arrival of the Fourth, and unconsciously 
we long for a peep into the circus tent of our childhood. 

Our immature minds were impressed with the importance 
of the day, and whether or not we recall the details of his- 
tory, we do recall that the birth of our nation was the result, 
not of peaceful negotiation or barter, but of a supreme fear- 
lessness that far outweighed the doubt and despondency of 
the gloomy period of our strife for liberty — a fearlessness and 
endurance that the Gods give to those alone who fight for a 
righteous cause. 

That is the real summary of the story of the Revolution. 
That is the one great thought, the fundamental thought to 
be emphasized in commemorating the names of the founders 
of our Republic. History is replete with examples of bril- 
liant achievements based on selfishness. But triumphant 
careers have terminated in disaster and empires have crumbled 
into dust because they were constructed on self-aggrandize- 
ment. We glory in the fact that the struggle of 1776 was 
a struggle not for self-aggrandizement, but for the God- 
given right of liberty. We glory in the fact that not the 
training of our revolutionary armies won our victories, but 
their fearlessness and endurance — a gift that the Gods have 
given to those alone who fight for a righteous cause. Those 
are the virtues of our armies that we extol, for they alone 
could surmount the difficulties of Valley Forge. 

During the many thousand years of human strife, history 
has never recorded more brilliant military achievements than 
those of Washington and his generals. The Old World mar- 
veled at the daring and consummate strategy of the New. 

To us, however, who approach the Battle Ground of 
American Freedom today, the greatest inspiration of patriot- 
ism comes not from the splendor of arms, but from the con- 
secration of our forefathers to a sacred cause. 

That chapter of our history — our struggle for independ- 
ence — was written to incite future generations to the loftiest 
aspirations conceivable in man. And if knowing and recall- 
ing the ordeals and vicissitudes of that epochal struggle, we 
are not stirred today into a new resolution to emulate the 
virtues of our forefathers who gained for us our independ- 
ence, we fail in our tribute of gratitude. If knowing and re- 
calling all this, we hesitate to place the welfare of our country 
above our personal interests, we are preparing our nation for 
its decline. 

The blood of our forefathers placed a sacred obligation upon 
posterity, and each successive generation must liquidate this 
indebtedness anew. Each successive generation must perform 
its task, whatever it may be, for the perpetuation of the fabric 
of American Freedom. 

Have our fathers paid their indebtedness towards our fore- 
fathers? The answer lies in the stars of our flag. They tell 
those who understand their symbolic language an eloquent 
story of national development. From thirteen colonies we 
have grown into a federation of forty-eight states represent- 
ing millions of miles of territorial acquisition. The expansion 
of our frontiers has been accompanied by a relative expansion 
of material and intellectual wealth. 

If we have not exaggerated our greatness, a deeper responsi- 
bility rests upon the present century than upon the past. 



It became the lot of our generation not only to preserve our 
inheritance of high ideals, but also to meet the additional, 
hitherto unknown duties of one of the most restless of all 
periods. 

Our country is involved this year in political conflict. It 
is a legitimate one provided for by our constitution. But the 
issues involved are so serious that we pray that it may be, as 
the constitution intended, an expression of patriotism and 
not selfish partisanship. The present time is fraught with 
dangers that cannot be wholly combatted by political creeds 
or controlled by Government regulations. May we, there- 
fore, during the turbulence of the present day and may our 
fellow-countrymen at home recall the sterling qualities of our 
forefathers and, above all, the wisdom, unselfishness and patri- 
otism that characterized the man whose 200th birthday we 
are celebrating this year; the man whose name is uppermost 
in our thoughts today; George Washington, the man who 
achieved for us our independence and who to this day has 
retained the foremost position in the hearts of his countrymen. 

He has been pronounced the highest type not only of 
American citizen, but also of world citizen, and mindful of 
this fact, we will not fail to find our sphere of activity as 
American citizens residing abroad. We will not hesitate to 
declare our platform of true Americanism as an appeal to all 
our countrymen residing in foreign lands. Our platform 
promises to assist our Government and people in creating a 
new era of inseparable relationship between the various coun- 
tries of the world; it promises that we will fulfill our mission 
as messengers of friendship from home; that we will not be 
hampered by prejudice in our regard for all that is good and 
noble in our fellow citizens of the world; it recognizes the 
difficulties encountered by all Governments in confronting 
new problems, and promises the same unselfish cooperation to 
others in the protection of their rights in our country that we 
receive abroad in the protection of ours; it promises to pro- 
mote Americanism in the larger sense through export and 
import of the best that the commercial, intellectual and 
spiritual world can offer for the benefit of mutual advance- 
ment. 

In brief, may we, may all who are exponents of American 
principles in foreign countries, may our nation continue to 
be guided by the standard of our forefathers. Their stand- 
ard may be followed in every age and place; their standard is 
acceptable and welcomed in the remotest corner of the world. 
For theirs was the Golden Standard of "Man's Inalienable 
Rights, — Life, Liberty, and Pursuit of Happiness." 

Remarks of Judge Welch 

Judge David Welch of New York, an American 
whose frequent visits to Germany made him well 
known among his countrymen there, happened to 
be present in Dresden on this occasion, and Mr. 
Haeberle called upon him to make a few remarks. 
Judge Welch responded with a brief patriotic speech 
in which he referred to the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence as one of the greatest documents ever 
penned by the hand of man. It was the efforts of 
George Washington, he asserted, more than those of 
any other man, which made the Declaration more 
than a mere show of empty words. Judge Welch 
expressed the hope that out of the trying condi- 
tions of affairs at that time, both Germany and 
America would emerge stronger and better 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



151 



equipped to meet the problems of the future. He 
closed his remarks by proposing a toast to the Pres- 
ident of the United States. 

Consul General Haeberle responded with a toast 
to the President of the German Reich, General von 
Hindenburg. 

A very interesting feature of the program was 
supplied by Baron von Nettlebladt, a native of 
Dresden who had resided for some years in the 
United States. The Baron read two original poems, 
one of which described his first fourth of July in 
America and proved especially appealing to the 
audience. Cello solos by Rudolf Kratina, a member 
of the orchestra of the State Opera of Dresden, and 
a reading by Miss Cornelia Bedford contributed to 
the enjoyment of the program. The day's festivi- 
ties were concluded with dancing. 

On the Sunday preceding the Independence Day 
celebration, July 3, a patriotic service was held in 
the American Church of St. John under the direc- 
tion of the rector, Reverend Edward M. Bruce, who 
delivered a patriotic sermon. The American flag 
was displayed in the church, and in addition to 
patriotic songs, special music for the service was 
provided by Gerhard Wiesenhuetter, a prominent 
organist of Dresden. 

Economic Pressure Felt 

The auspicious ceremonies with which the Bi- 
centennial Celebration in Dresden was inaugurated 
will be recalled from what has been said in the fore- 
going pages. If the events which followed were 
less pretentious than the opening programs it was 
not because of any diminution of enthusiasm or any 
lessening of the desire to honor George Washing- 
ton's memory; but rather because of the fact that 
the pressure of the adverse economic conditions pre- 
vailing throughout the world began to be felt more 
and more keenly in Dresden. Indeed, not a few 
Americans found themselves virtually stranded in 
a foreign country, and the plight of some of these 
made it necessary for their more fortunate country- 
men to render assistance wherever possible. 

Owing to these conditions and to the fact that 
some American families in the Dresden consular 
district were actually in need, the closing Bicen- 
tennial ceremonies in Dresden were held in the na- 
ture of a Thanksgiving Dinner which was made 
the occasion to collect money for the assistance of 
these people. It was felt by those in charge, stated 
Consul General Haeberle, that no "worthier way 



could be found to pay a tribute to the memory of 
George Washington than by ministering to the 
poor and needy on a day of general thanksgiving 
and rejoicing." 

Reverend Mr. Bruce, Rector of the American 
Church of St. John in Dresden and a member of 
the Dresden Bicentennial Committee headed the 
committee named to supervise the Thanksgiving 
ceremonies. Associated with him were Mrs. Mau- 
rice W. Altaffer, Mrs. Rudolf Kratina, Mrs. Her- 
bert Gutschow, Mrs. Gottfried Herpst and Mrs. 
Jordan Natscheff. 

Thanksgiving Day Dinner 

The Thanksgiving Day dinner was held in the 
Bellevue Hotel which was especially decorated for 
the occasion with American flags. In addition to 
the Americans present, there were a number of 
German friends and members of other foreign col- 
onies in the city, as well as consular representatives 
of several different nations. The most informal 
and friendly spirit prevailed during the celebration 
of this typically American festive day. 

Reverend Mr. Bruce was the only speaker on this 
occasion, and his brief remarks were entirely in 
keeping with the occasion. Identifying the dinner 
as the official closing event of the Bicentennial 
Year, the Rector asserted his belief that wherever 
George Washington's name is known, people had 
been bettered during 1932 by having their atten- 
tion called to his courage, integrity and other vir- 
tues which made him one of history's greatest fig- 
ures. The tributes to Washington's memory which 
he had witnessed in Dresden, said Dr. Bruce, had 
been most gratifying to him, as he knew they had 
been to his countrymen, as evidence of the deep and 
abiding friendship existing between Germany and 
America. After a short review of part of George 
Washington's official life, the speaker ended by ex- 
pressing the hope that greater cooperation among 
all peoples would speedily bring about a return to 
more stable economic conditions throughout the 
world. 

The "Star Spangled Banner" was sung at the 
conclusion of the dinner, and the rest of the eve- 
ning was spent in dancing. 

A very interesting feature in connection with the 
closing ceremonies in Dresden were the religious 
services conducted in the more than sixty branches 
of the German-Austrian Missions of the Church of 
Jesus Christ of Latter Day Saints. The program, 



152 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



which was presented on November 27, 1932, fea- 
tured an address prepared especially for the occa- 
sion by Consul General Haeberle at the invitation 
of Dr. Oliver H. Budge, President of the Mission. 
Other numbers on the program were a reading, "To 
the Honor of George Washington," the patriotic 
anthem, "America," sung by a quartet, an address, 
"George Washington the Man," and another read- 
ing, "George Washington's Message to Us." 

Street Named After Washington 

As a permanent mark of Dresden's esteem and 
admiration for George Washington is the street, 
destined to become the main thoroughfare through 
the rapidly growing industrial section of the city, 
which was named in honor of the great American 
President. Dr. Kulz, Lord Mayor of Dresden, and 
his associates in the municipal government, selected 
the new street for this honor rather than renaming 
an older one in the belief that such action would 
more fittingly express the sentiments of the city 
and its people. 

Washington Street starts from the new Kaditzer 
Bridge over the River Elbe, and forms an impor- 
tant connecting link in the direct international 
highway system leading from Berlin through Dres- 
den to the capitals of Czechoslovakia and Austria. 
It is 131 feet wide and will feature a promenade in 
the center, slightly raised above the street surface, 
with trees and shrubbery on each side. Special 
lanes will be provided to accommodate motor ve- 
hicles, bicycles and pedestrians so that all traffic 
may move with as great speed and safety as pos- 
sible. Combining utility and beauty George 
Washington Street in Dresden will ever remain a 
fitting tribute to the memory of America's great 
leader, and a memento of the celebrations in his 
honor during the Bicentennial Year. 

Celebration at Frankfort 

The largest assemblage of Americans ever seen in 
Frankfort-on-Main, historic birthplace of the im- 
mortal Goethe, gathered to honor the memory of 
George Washington on the Two Hundredth Anni- 
versary of his birth, in the largest banquet hall of 
the famous Palmengarten. Nearly 200 persons, in- 
cluding eminent Germans, members of the Con- 
sular Corps in Frankfort, and friends from other 
countries, were in attendance. A cordial spirit 
pervaded the entire celebration. The event was 



one of the most memorable functions ever held by 
a foreign colony in Frankfort. 

The Americans in Frankfort were joined in the 
celebration by many of their compatriots in other 
parts of the district, who came from Wiesbaden, 
Russelsheim and Mainz. A retired officer of the 
United States Cavalry who had fought Indians 
many years before on the Western plains of 
America, made a long and difficult journey with his 
wife from their home in a snow-bound village in 
the Odenwald to take part in the celebration. 

United States Consul General W. L. Lowrie pre- 
sided at the celebration, and in a brief opening 
speech welcomed the guests to the banquet in honor 
of America's first President. Mr. Lowrie explained 
the purpose of the commemoration and told of the 
world-wide proportions it had assumed. Every 
American citizen, he said, was to be given the op- 
portunity to honor in some manner the memory of 
George Washington during the Bicentennial Year. 
Quoting eulogies on the first President by Abra- 
ham Lincoln and Calvin Coolidge, the Consul Gen- 
eral closed his remarks by bidding the guests to the 
feast. 

At the conclusion of the banquet Dr. Landmann, 
Mayor of Frankfort, delivered an eloquent speech 
on the close relations long existing between his city 
and the United States. Similarities between Pres- 
ident von Hindenburg and George Washington 
were referred to by the speaker who pointed out 
that both gave up old monarchial attachments to 
join the forces of democracy. Dr. Landmann was, 
according to Mr. Lowrie, "generous and compli- 
mentary in his address, which made an excellent 
impression." 

The British Consul General in Frankfort, Mr. 
Bosanquet, next spoke briefly, considering for the 
most part the cordial relations and proverbial 
friendship between England and the United States. 
George Washington's British ancestry was specifi- 
cally cited by the speaker who said that all Eng- 
lishmen were proud of this fact. 

Professor Louis R. Grote of the von Noorden- 
Klinik, an American by descent, was the speaker 
of the evening. Dr. Grote began by saying that 
the vision of George Washington the General, the 
Statesman and the true American, was "open to 
everybody"; but despite this fact the speaker ex- 
pressed his belief that the average person was ac- 
quainted only with the barest outlines of Wash- 
ington's life. One of America's chief contribu- 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



153 



tions to the world, asserted the professor, was her 
conception of the true meaning of liberty and its 
practical application in daily life. The same con- 
ception of liberty was held alike by Washington 
and Goethe as the antithesis of that adhered to by 
"superficial people who identify liberty with the 
release of barriers of all kinds — freedom from bur- 
dens, from duty and from labor." 

"It will never be possible," stated Dr. Grote, "to 
conceive George Washington as a pathetic, heroic 
figure, whose big gesture has whipped up the pas- 
sion of a nation for a moment only. If one seeks, 
however, for the prototype of a self-denying, basi- 
cally modest man, bent only upon fulfillment of 
duty, his name will always arise. 

"Washington has become to the world the sym- 
bol of a will towards a duty, which is remarkably 
embodied in the American people of today." 

The evening's program was concluded with ap- 
propriate music by one of Frankfort's leading or- 
chestras, and was followed by dancing. 

Special decorations for the occasion gave the ban- 
quet hall an exceedingly attractive appearance with 
German and American flags appropriately dis- 
played. A picture of George Washington attracted 
much attention, occupying as it did a prominent 
place in the hall. 

Included among the guests of honor were the 
Mayor of Frankfort and Mrs. Landmann, City 
Councilor Dr. Michel, Dr. and Mrs. Louis Grote, 
and the foreign consular officers in Frankfort with 
their wives. Twenty American students at the 
University of Frankfort were also guests of the 
committee. 

The Frankfort Bicentennial Committee in 
charge of the celebration consisted of: Consul Gen- 
eral W. L. Lowrie, chairman; Charles N. Powers; 
Dr. S. S. McFarlane; B. W. Randolph; and Edwin 
Van D'Elden. 

Darmstadt Names Square for Washington 

The next celebration within the consular district 
presided over by Consul General Lowrie, took place 
July 25 in Darmstadt, capital of Hesse-Darmstadt, 
when the prominent square in front of the Or- 
pheum Theater was renamed "Washington Platz" 
in honor of George Washington. Darmstadt, ac- 
cording to Mr. Lowrie, "has a population of about 
90,000, ranks among the finest of the smaller Ger- 
man capitals, and has long been a center of art and 
industry." 



Considerable pride was shown by the people of 
Darmstadt in the fact that theirs was the second 
city in Germany to name a square in honor of 
George Washington, the first having been named 
in Berlin, capital of the German Republic. 

On the morning of the dedicatory ceremonies a 
large crowd filled the square which was to be 
named in honor of Washington. American, Ger- 
man, Hessian, and Darmstadt flags all waved from 
tall flagpoles. The program began with music by 
the municipal band under the direction of Kapell- 
meister Schlupp. The male chorus of the Darm- 
stadt Singing-Association, under the leadership of 
Director Etzold, sang the German song, "Wo gen 
Himmel Eichen rauschen." 

Among the guests of honor were Consul Gen- 
eral and Mrs. Lowrie, representatives of the State 
and Municipal authorities, and members of the 
Beethoven Tour from New York City. Mayor 
Muller welcomed the guests in the opening speech, 
saying: 

Not only the American people celebrated the two hun- 
dredth anniversary of George Washington's birthday in Feb- 
ruary of this year. The whole world took notice of it. And 
the reason was certainly not just a courtesy to the American 
people. It was much more a desire to honor the memory of 
this heroic man, whose qualities and deeds as a soldier, states- 
man and as a man were a brilliant example for the whole 
world. I believe that now we Germans, in this moment in 
the history of our people which has led us into a deep, uneven 
valley and therefore have great need for real leaders, we Ger- 
mans can find inspiration here from a person who personifies 
the ideal of man. His ardent desire for freedom inspired and 
enabled him under the most difficult circumstances to throw 
off a heavy yoke, to become free from a better organized, and 
much better armed, opponent, the British power, which un- 
fortunately operated with bought German mercenary troops. 
I will use this opportunity to emphasize that the Hession 
troops which fought together with the English army against 
the young American nation were not members of our Hes- 
sian State, but of the former Kurhessen. On the other 
hand, the chief of Washington's general staff was a former 
German officer, the well known General von Steuben, whose 
aid to American independence is well recognized in the United 
States. Washington was not only a victorious military leader 
against superior forces, but he was also a conspicuous states- 
man and politician who understood how to hold the gains 
with energy, tact and wisdom, and to judge the strength, 
opposition and possibilities of the young state and thus he laid 
the foundation for the powerful federation of states which 
now plays a large and important role in the affairs of the 
world. 

When we determined to honor this great man, it was not 
only because of the admiration and respect for a man, who 
by his example belongs to the whole world, but the especially 
close and friendly relations which connect us with our Ameri- 
can countrymen. This year's visit of the Beethoven Choir of 
New York gives us a welcome opportunity to emphasize the 
old bands of friendship and to strengthen them by the in- 
auguration of this lovely place in the memory of a man who 
is dear and valuable to all of us. 



154 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



I heartily greet our amiable guests from New York in 
the name of our city. I especially greet the Consul General 
of the United States, Mr. Lowrie, and the American in charge 
of the Opel Works Russelsheim, Mr. Paul Buergin, who to- 
gether with their ladies have honored this celebration. I also 
greet our Darmstadt guests, especially the representatives of 
the State Government and municipal authorities with their 
ladies. 

I therefore name this German place in honor of the great 
American Independence hero and I ask you to give this Ger- 
man honor a celebration note by singing the first verse of our 
Deutschlandlied. 

Brief remarks were made by the representative 
of the State President and Mr. Strauss, head of the 
Beethoven Tour. The program was concluded with 
music by the Darmstadt Choir and the municipal 
orchestra. 



opening remarks announced that a prominent 
street in the city would be renamed in honor of 
Washington. The speaker paid glowing tribute to 
George Washington as a man patriotic enough to 
sacrifice his own personal wishes for the good of 
his country, and likened President von Hindenburg 
to America's first President. Dr. Petersen also 
called attention to the fact that during George 
Washington's administration the first consul of the 
United States was appointed to Hamburg, and re- 
ferred to the friendly relations which have ever 
since existed between that city and the country of 
George Washington. 

As the principal speaker of the occasion, Dr. 




LISTER MULLEB- 
DELIVERING ADDRESS. 






CITY OF DARMSTADT DEDICATES WASHINGTON PLATZ AT PUBLIC CEREMONY. 



Following the program a luncheon was served at 
the Hotel zur Traube at which the Americans 
were guests of honor, and brief but impressive 
speeches by Mayor Miiller, Consul General Lowrie, 
and Mr. Strauss enlivened the gathering. 

Hamburg Honors George Washington 

The Senate of Hamburg arranged a celebration 
in the city hall of Hamburg which took place on 
Washington's birthday. The large assembly hall at 
the Rathaus was well filled with especially invited 
guests including the entire consular corps of Ham- 
burg, civic heads of the city, other officials, and 
citizens. 

Dr. Carl Petersen, chief Burgomaster of Ham- 
burg, presided at the celebration, and during his 



Adolph Rein, head of the Colonial and Overseas 
Section of the Historical College of the University 
of Hamburg, was next introduced by Dr. Petersen. 
Dr. Rein's address on the life of George Washing- 
ton was broadcast and according to the report of 
United States Consul General John E. Kehl, was 
exceptionally well received. 

That the celebration proved of considerable in- 
terest in Hamburg is shown by the fact that the 
leading hotels of the city were all appropriately 
decorated on Washington's birthday. The offices 
of the United States Steamship Lines and the Ham- 
burg-American Steamship Line prepared window 
displays featuring portraits of George Washing- 
ton and flags of the United States and Germany. 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



155 



In honor of the occasion, all the liners in port that 
day were also appropriately decorated. 

Banquet at Hotel Atlantic 

The main feature of the day's activities was a 
banquet and ball held that evening in the Hotel 
Atlantic under the auspices of the American 
George Washington Bicentennial Committee in 




1 1 ■■■ ' - 



STREET IN HAMBURG NAMED FOR WASHINGTON. 

Dr. Carl Petersen, chief burgomaster, announced the 

naming of this street in honor of the great american 

at the Bicentennial ceremony in 1932. 

Hamburg. The affair was attended by the highest 
city officials and representatives of the leading cir- 
cles of Hamburg. Of this banquet Mr. Kehl wrote 
the United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission on February 2 5 : 

From German and other non-American sources expressions 
of commendation were numerous, even to the extent of de- 
claring the affair to have been the largest and most successful 
held in Hamburg by foreigners. The German participation, 
including as it did the highest officials and the best-known 
civilians, was most gratifying. 

The American Bicentennial Committee for Ham- 
burg, which was in charge of the banquet and other 
Bicentennial features, was headed by Consul Gen- 
eral Kehl and consisted of the following members: 
John J. Meily; A. C. Landis; N. T. Lawrence; Dr. 
A. Mendelssohn-Bartholdy; and John G. Sawall. 
An honorary committee consisting of officials, edu- 
cators, and statesmen of Hamburg, was also ap- 
pointed by Mr. Kehl. 

Under the joint auspices of the Society of Friends 
of the United States in Hamburg, the Institute of 
Foreign Politics, and the Bicentennial Committee, 



the next Bicentennial Celebration in Hamburg took 
place on March 8. This feature was a lecture on 
George Washington and the Foreign Policies of the 
United States delivered by Dr. Carl Wittke of Ohio 
State University at the University of Hamburg. 
It was reported that the lecture was well attended 
and favorably received. Following the lecture a 
dinner was given at the Hotel Alsterhof , which was 
attended by leading members of the American col- 
ony, professors, and students of Hamburg Uni- 
versity, and officers of the Institute of Foreign 
Politics. 

"It was," wrote Mr. Kehl, "a very pleasant and an 
interesting evening." 

Thanksgiving Day Program 

Although it was not possible to organize a Bi- 
centennial Celebration for July 4, the Hamburg 
committee planned and carried out an excellent 
program for Thanksgiving Day which was an ap- 
propriate ending to the year of festivities. As was 
the case in the many other cities throughout the 
world where Americans were residing, the Thanks- 
giving dinner in Hamburg was a typically Ameri- 
can celebration. There were 150 persons in at- 
tendance, including the officials of the city as well 
as other eminent Germans and other nationals. The 
American colony was present in a body. 

The dinner was given in the Hotel Vier Jahres- 
zeiten, the leading hostelry in Hamburg, and con- 
sisted of the usual turkey with cranberry sauce, 
sweet potatoes and pumpkin pie. Dr. Ruscheweyh, 
president of the city council, proposed a toast to 
the President of the United States, and United 
States Consul General John E. Kehl proposed a 
toast to the President of the German Reich. The 
speaker of the day was Charles B. Miller, a member 
of the American Club of Hamburg, whose inter- 
esting oration was interspersed with frequent and 
appropriate reference to George Washington. Mr. 
Miller's speech in full follows: 

Thanksgiving, our most American festival day, is more in- 
digenous than any other, as it antidates the birth of the 
Republic by a century and a half, and has its origin in 
motives which urged the Pilgrims on their journey before 
political independence was conceived. It was, in its inception, 
a devotional exercise, a service of thanksgiving offered by the 
Pilgrims for their first harvest. After the trials of that first 
terrible winter, any harvest at all must have seemed a bounty 
from heaven. Their action was all the more natural as it was 
in consonance with so much of their daily life. As one writer 
has expressed it, the "religious purpose" was the "dominant 
impulse" of the early colonists. It was this purpose which 



156 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



brought them to New England and its maintenance was the 
central feature of their organization for nearly a century. 
The search for geographical isolation, and as much political 
autonomy as they might obtain, were only means to this end. 
The Deity was a member of every household, and a constant 
companion in the life and thoughts of every person. 

With the changes in political and social conditions, or more 
fundamentally, the changes in the motives which inspired the 
population, the religious element was maintained, though later 
without the preliminary fasting. The custom was prevalent 
in other than the New England states but not always observed 
on the same day, nor in the same period of the year. It was 
not always a feast in thanks for some benefit received, but 
might take the form of fasting and prayers to avert some 
threatened calamity. The Colonial Governors had always set 
aside a day to celebrate a military victory, or as a day of 
mourning for a catastrophe, and with the outbreak of the 
Revolution such occasions became more frequent. 

On November 1, 1777, we have the first approach to a 
National Thanksgiving Day Proclamation. It designated De- 
cember 18 of that year as the occasion, and it is significant 
that in the language of the proclamation, "It is recommended 
to the Legislatures or Executive Powers of these United 
States, to set aside Thursday the 18th day of December next, 
for solemn thanksgiving and praise." The proclamation 
was signed by Henry Laurens, as president of the Continental 
Congress. Although the issuing of the proclamation was left 
to the States, the celebration was unified. It was halfway 
toward assuming a national significance. 

It is seldom that a custom such as this continues for over 
three centuries, without owing a considerable obligation to 
the foremost character of that period during which it rises 
from the level of a local observance to the dignity of a na- 
tional ceremony. Such a debt Thanksgiving owes to George 
Washington. It may be of interest to read what Washington 
wrote on the occasion which prompted the proclamation just 
mentioned. On October 18 of that year, being in Worcester 
Township, Pennsylvania, at the time, Washington issued a 
proclamation announcing the surrender of Burgoyne's Army. 
He concludes, "The Chaplains of the Army are to prepare 
short discourses suited to the joyful occasion, and to deliver 
them to their several corps and brigades at five o'clock this 
afternoon." Later, when on the march to Valley Forge, 
Washington ordered the observance of the day previously 
noted. His order issued on December 17, reads: "Tomorrow 
being the day set apart by the Honorable Congress for public 
thanksgiving and praise, and duty calling us devoutly to ex- 
press our grateful acknowledgement to God for the manifold 
blessings he has granted us, the General directs that the Army 
remain in its present quarters and that the Chaplains perform 
divine service with their several corps and brigades, and earn- 
estly exhorts all officers and soldiers whose absence is not 
indispensably necessary, to attend with reverence the 
solemnities of the day." 

This type of proclamation is indicative of Washington's 
character. For him the occasion was definitely a religious 
one, a service of thanksgiving, and the varying fortunes of 
the Continental Army, it is not to be doubted that he would 
regularly express himself in this way. Certainly his letters 
indicate a deep religious nature, and an abiding trust in a 
higher power, such that his conception of thanksgiving would 
be that of a devotional exercise rather than a festival. As 
President in 1789, Washington issued the first National 
Thanksgiving Day Proclamation designating November the 
26th of that year. It is interesting to note that this time there 
was no recommendation that the States assume the responsi- 
bility. The General who had led a ragged half-starved army 
to victory, now as President spoke to the nation. Thanks- 
giving had come of age; it was now a national event. Subse- 
quently presidential proclamations were issued at irregular 



intervals until 1864, when Lincoln named the last Thursday 
in November, which has remained the official date since 
that time. 

Our debt to George Washington is not limited to his 
military achievements. The first steps of the new nation in 
peace were as hazardous as the commitments of the colonies 
in war. The union formed for defense against the enemy 
from without, had to be cemented against dissension from 
within. To the genius of Washington's leadership in this 
period of doubt, the nation will ever be obligated. It is a most 
happy choice which permits us to close the celebration of the 
Bicentennial of his birth on a day when thankfulness may be 
most fittingly acknowledged, a day to which he gave the 
seal of its national character. 

But it is, perhaps, the more social element of the occasion 
which has perpetuated it, and made for its greater popularity. 
The memory of tribulations is dimmed with time, and our 
sense of gratitude that we were able to endure may be sub- 
merged in an interest of the moment. Yet there remain the 
ties of family and kinfolk, the social group, "you all" as they 
say in the South. These ties are ever present and are tight- 
ened not only in adversity but in times of festival. The 
Puritans showed a keen sense of human nature when to the 
religious observance, they added the element of family 
reunion. It is often in a circle of closely-related individuals 
that the intangible values of an ideal, religious or cultural, 
may best be nurtured. 

I feel that it is some such kinship by which we, members 
of a great American family, have been drawn here this eve- 
ning. For many of us the more intimate interests of the home 
are on the other side of the ocean, but residing in a foreign 
land, we may join in this festival on the basis of our larger 
kinship, our nationality, and from the ideals which it repre- 
sents, the memories which it evokes, we may experience a 
greater thankfulness for the advantages which we enjoy, de- 
rive an added courage for the work of reconstruction ahead of 
us, and acknowledge a greater pride in the privileges and 
obligations of our citizenship. 

Bicentennial Events in Leipzig 

The great hall of the Rathaus in Leipzig was 
filled to capacity on February 22, 1932, as 100 
Americans and 600 Germans assembled to com- 
memorate the two hundredth anniversary of 
George Washington's birth in a program presented 
under the auspices of the Bicentennial Committee 
of Leipzig. The assembly room was especially 
decorated for the occasion with the flags of Ger- 
many and America, and the gathering represented 
highest officialdom of Leipzig and the Province of 
Saxony in addition to leaders in the fields of educa- 
tion and commerce. The program was broadcast 
to all parts of central Germany, including the 
Prussian province of Saxony, and the free states of 
Saxony, Thuringia and Anhalt. 

The program was opened with Haydn's Concert 
in D-major, played by the Collegium Musicum of 
the University of Leipzig, a famous musical organ- 
ization of 32 university students, under the direc- 
tion of Dr. Helmut Schultz. Mrs. Valeska Wag- 
ner, an American concert singer, then sang "The 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



157 



Star Spangled Banner" while the audience stood in 
respectful silence. 

United States Consul Ralph C. Busser next de- 
livered a brief speech of welcome, thanking the 
people of Leipzig, on behalf of his compatriots, 
for the cooperation and hospitality always extended 
to Americans who came to the city. The Consul 
reviewed the close relations existing between Leip- 
zig and the United States, and told of the great 
service which Germans had rendered in America 
from the time of the Revolutionary War to the 
present. The historical importance of George 
Washington was emphasized and his greatest work, 
Mr. Busser said, was his constant effort towards 
"the peaceful settlement of international disputes 
and the cultivation of friendly relations with other 
countries." The following is a translation in full 
of Consul Busser's remarks: 

My brief remarks are chiefly to explain the purpose and 
scope of this celebration of the Two Hundredth Anniversary 
of the Birth of George Washington, the first President of 
the United States of America and regarded everywhere as 
the "Father of his Country." 

Under the auspices of the United States George Washington 
Bicentennial Commission, which was created by Congress and 



of which the President of the United States is the honorary 
chairman, anniversary celebrations have been organized in 
every city and town in the United States, also in many cities 
abroad where Americans are residing or sojourning. It is con- 
sidered fitting that we also hold a celebration in Leipzig where 
so many Americans are students at the world-renowned edu- 
cational institutions, especially the University of Leipzig, the 
Conservatory of Music, and the State Academy for Graphic 
Art and Book-making. Large numbers of American business 
men are attracted to Leipzig as the European center of the 
world's fur trade and as the principal seat of the lithographic 
printing and book-making industry of Germany. Visiting 
American wholesale buyers are particularly numerous during 
the Leipzig Spring and Autumn Trade Fairs. 

On behalf of my compatriots who are now here or who 
have taken part in the commercial or cultural life of Leipzig, 
I take this occasion to express heartily our sincere thanks for 
the cooperation and hospitality always extended to Americans 
by the authorities of the Reich, of the Free States of this great 
region, and of the City of Leipzig; by the heads of the educa- 
tional institutions, and also by the citizens of this great city. 
Through the kind cooperation of the Broadcasting Company 
we are able to extend this celebration to all parts of Central 
Germany, including also the Universities of Halle and Jena 
as well as the famous "Bauhaus" (School of Architecture) in 
Dessau, which are likewise attended by young Americans. 
Other famous destinations in Central Germany for traveling 
Americans are the classic city of Weimar with its Goethe, 
Schiller and Liszt memorials, as well as Erfurt, Eisenach and 
Wittenberg — famous for their Martin Luther shrines. 

Thus through the residence and visits of Americans in 
Germany and of Germans in the United States, and the 
exchange of ideas, works and achievements in science, indus- 




GEORGE WASHINGTON 



CELEBRATION AT LEIPZIG. Germans and Americans listening to American Consul Busser 

DELIVERING THE ADDRESS OF WELCOME AT THE ClTY HALL. 



158 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



try, music, literature, the drama and other arts, economic, 
cultural and spiritual ties are formed which lead to a better 
understanding between the peoples of the two countries. 

We are assembled here today to honor the memory of 
Washington not merely for his great military achievements 
during the seven years war for American independence, but 
rather on account of the leading part he took in the making 
of the Federal Constitution and in the building of a united 
nation out of the thirteen states whose divergent policies at 
that time had first to be reconciled. Washington should also 
be honored for his great services while First President of the 
Republic toward the peaceful settlement of international dis- 
putes and in the cultivation of friendly relations with other 
countries. Throughout his distinguished public career Wash- 
ington was never actuated by political ambition or other 
selfish motives, but accepted the most difficult tasks and the 
heaviest burdens — first of the supreme military command, 
and afterwards of the Presidency — only in response to the will 
of the American people and for the sake of his beloved 
country. 

The thoughts of all my countrymen are expressed when I 
refer with gratitude to the splendid services rendered not only 
by General von Steuben and other German officers associated 
with Washington in the organization and campaigns of the 
American Army, but also by that great statesman Carl Schurz 
and other distinguished German-Americans who have con- 
tributed so much to the cultural, political and economic 
welfare and progress of the American people from the Colonial 
era down to the present time. 

It is a special pleasure for me to express my thanks to 
those who spared neither time nor trouble in contributing 
their part to the success of this celebration. Finally I extend 
my heartiest thanks to all of you who have shown by the 
large attendance your sympathetic interest and co-operation 
in honoring the memory of our greatest American statesman. 

Response by Dr. Loeser 

Mayor Ewald Loeser, representing Head Mayor 
Goerdeler who was detained in Berlin on State bus- 
iness, replied to the remarks of Consul Busser by 
asserting that the qualities which George Washing- 
ton so eminently exemplified were the same quali- 
ties needed by the world in 1932. Dr. Loeser spoke 
eloquently, as the following translation of his words 
shows : 

There are a great many reciprocal relations between Ger- 
man history and George Washington. If I do not stress the 
historical memories, it is because I feel the present distress 
in Germany. Now that we Germans are in the midst of our 
hardest struggle for the preservation of our nation, it appears 
to me that the spirit of Washington is near to us Germans, 
or so it should be, at least. 

Are not the qualities, which are lauded as the cardinal 
virtues of Washington's character — unselfishness, wisdom and 
courage — the same as those we need today more than at any 
other time in our history? It was neither ambition nor thirst 
for glory which influenced Washington, for only his sense 
of duty obliged the taciturn, lordly and well-to-do aristocrat 
(who doubtless would have preferred to continue devoting 
himself exclusively to his farms) to accept the office of mili- 
tary commander-in-chief and later on, the Presidency. Never 
was his courage in doubt; but this courage had a certain re- 
finement which I desire to emphasize especially with regard 
to the Germany of today. 

We are able to recognize in Washington how far cautious 



reserve and a cool head, whereby decisions were made only 
after careful consideration, are necessary to overcome the 
gravest dangers to a country. 

Under this clear-headed, cautious, courageous, unselfish and 
wise leadership of Washington, the Americans won their 
freedom from a powerful enemy. By the same qualities they 
built up a united nation. I believe that we Germans of the 
year 1932 can learn a great deal from this man's life. In 
Washington's greatness, which is recognized by Americans 
and Germans alike, I feel the importance of the present cele- 
bration. I trust that this fete will help to increase the mutual 
knowledge of the history and heroes of both countries, and 
thereby the understanding between our peoples in order to 
promote mutual esteem and self-respect, agreement and self- 
support, international cooperation and national character. 

The speaker of the day was Dr. Erich Branden- 
burg, professor of history at the University of Leip- 
zig, the author of several standard works on Ger- 
man political history and one of Europe's most dis- 
tinguished authorities on modern European history. 
In his address, Dr. Brandenburg gave an impressive 
picture of the personality of George Washington 
and his importance against the background of 
American history. The audience was reminded that 
the problems Washington faced during the Revo- 
lutionary War were such as could have been sur- 
mounted by no ordinary man, and America's debt 
to him was increased thereby. Part of the profes- 
sor's interesting discourse has been translated as 
follows : 

Washington was everything but a revolutionary; he was 
an aristocrat, a quiet, earnest and taciturn man, who seldom 
and unwillingly talked in public. When twenty years of age, 
Washington for the first time took part in the historic events 
of his country. He served brilliantly at the time of the 
unfortunate campaign of General Braddock against the 
French. In the year 1774 the Congress of the thirteen States 
assembled in Philadelphia. Washington attended as a dele- 
gate from Virginia and received from Congress in 1775, the 
supreme command of the American army, then already in the 
field against the British at Boston. 

He was immediately confronted with the most difficult of 
problems. He had to conduct a war in an enormous country, 
thinly populated and almost without roads, with an army 
that hardly deserved the name, against a disciplined Euro- 
pean army which was equipped with all the necessary military 
supplies. But he solved this problem by carefully conserving 
his military strength and economizing his small resources. 
Thus Washington was the most suitable commander in the 
situation in which he was placed. 

When with the help of the French the War of Independence 
came to a victorious conclusion for America, Washington was 
unanimously elected first President of the United States which 
had been established through his achievements. As a states- 
man he also succeeded by wise measures in guiding the young 
republic through the first difficult years. Thus Washington 
has become the Father of his Country and to all Americans 
is still the ideal of a true republican. 

At the conclusion of Dr. Brandenburg's remarks 
Mrs. Valeska Wagner sang the ode "Die Allmacht" 
by Franz Schubert, and the Collegium Musicum 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



159 



played the overture from "Claudine von Villa 
bella" by the same composer to bring the com- 
memoration to a fitting close. 

The celebration was organized by the Leipzig 
Bicentennial Committee consisting of Consul Bus- 
ser, chairman; Dr. H. Earle Blunt, Theodore W. 
Knauth, Dr. Samuel A. Nock, and Sidney Rosen- 
thal. Associated with them was an honorary com- 
mittee consisting of 21 distinguished citizens of 
Leipzig, mostly government authorities or heads of 
the leading educational institutions in the city. 

Munich Celebrates Bicentennial 

In the city of Munich, seat of one of Germany's 
great universities, the 200th anniversary of George 
Washington's birth was commemorated on Feb- 
ruary 22, 1932, in a program which, according to 
the munchener stadtzeitung, leading Munich 
newspaper, "was more than an act of courtesy and 
had a deeper meaning than merely that of a gesture 
to the country across the ocean." The celebration 
was held in the "old Rathaus hall" under the aus- 
pices of the Bavarian State Government, the City 
Council of Munich, the American Consulate Gen- 
eral and the Deutsche Akademie. 

"The historic hall," continued the item in the 
paper named above, "was adorned with the Ameri- 
can flag, surrounded by the colors of the old and 
new German Reich, Bavaria and the city of 
Munich. A picture of George Washington, copied 
from the painting in the White House, lent by the 
Municipal Gallery of Art, looked out from the 
laurel surrounding it over the distinguished as- 
sembly in which old political, economic and cul- 
tural circles of Munich were represented." 

The Philharmonic Symphony Orchestra of 
Munich, under the leadership of Adolf Mennerich, 
opened the celebration with an overture from 
Mozart after which six five-minute speeches were 
given by eminent German officials. 

The first speaker was Dr. Giirtner, Bavarian 
State Minister of Justice, representing the Bavarian 
State, who spoke of George Washington as a per- 
sonality whose "light radiates far beyond his home 
country." "In every place where there are people 
who honor human greatness," Dr. Giirtner asserted, 
"they will share in this day. The Bavarian State 
Government congratulates America on its great 
son, of whom it has been truly said that he was 'first 
in war, first in peace and first in the hearts of his 
countrymen.' " 



Mayor Scharnagl's Address 

Dr. Karl Scharnagl, Mayor of Munich, then 
spoke in tribute to the "fine American Colony 
standing in close social and cultural relations with 
Munich and its inhabitants," and said further, 
"whenever we joyfully remember the successful 
cooperation of the American intellectual life with 
our own efforts, we will never forget the great 
leader to whom the United States owes its origin." 

On behalf of the educational institutions of the 
city, Dr. Demoll, rector of the University of 
Munich, extended greetings to the Americans and 
voiced the expectation that in the celebration of 
George Washington's birth anniversary, Germany 
and the United States would be drawn nearer to- 
gether. 

World economy in connection with the name of 
George Washington was considered by Joseph 
Pschorr, president of the Chamber of Industry and 
Commerce. The cordial business relations existing 
between residents of Munich and Americans were 
cited as one of the bonds uniting the United States 
and Germany in international friendliness. 

Interesting personal recollections of visits to 
America, which began in 1880, were then given by 
Dr. Oskar von Miller, founder of the German Mu- 
seum in Munich. Every one who knows Washing- 
ton's country, said the doctor, becomes an admirer 
of America; and every one who knows the Ameri- 
cans becomes the friend of America. 

The reverend Dr. Federick M. Kirkus, pastor of 
the American Church in Munich, spoke briefly of 
the sterling qualities which made George Washing- 
ton one of the greatest figures in world history. 

The speaker of the day was Dr. Carl F. Wittke of 
the history department of the Ohio State Univer- 
sity. Dr. Wittke was in Germany on the invita- 
tion of the Deutsche Akademie to participate in the 
German celebrations of Washington's birth by lec- 
turing in different parts of the country on the life 
of the great American. Giving a summary of the 
professor's address, the munchener stadtzeitung 
said: 

Dr. Wittke drew a wonderfully portrayed picture of the 
historical development of the United States with George 
Washington in the center as the great moral force in the 
American Revolution and peaceful colonization. In thought- 
ful sentences the speaker challenged one to study the history 
of the United States, for a new spiritual horizon seeks to 
encompass the world. If America today is slowly coming to 
the consciousness that it can not live without Europe, the 
same is true of Europe. President Hoover once said that 



160 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



without order in Europe we will never be able to overcome 
our depression. Americans always value "fair play." No 
nation in the world in distress and misery has ever sought 
America's help in vain. America is, however, bound to the 
German people by closest interests. The speaker hoped that 
the celebration would give a happy occasion for mutual study 
of each other, the result of which would be a mirror of the 
truth in which one nation should see the other as it really is. 
The impressive act of thrilling exchange of speeches reached 
its climax in these statements. As one man, the assembly 
arose and, deeply moved, took up the national anthems of 
the two nations, so far separated, so near in their wishes. 

Banquet is Given 

After the celebration in the Rathaus, Munich so- 
ciety and the American Colony betook themselves 
to the Hotel Bayerischer Hof where a sumptuous 
banquet awaited them. The great hall was deco- 
rated appropriately as had been the room in the 
Rathaus, with German and American flags. 

United States Consul General Charles M. Hath- 
away heartily welcomed the numerous guests, 
speaking first in German and then in English. Mr. 
Hathaway said: 

For tonight we have had enough of speaking — hard as it 
is for us to admit that there can ever be enough of such 
friendly words of greeting aand sympathy as we have heard 
at the Rathaus, such eloquent and scholarly discourse as Pro- 
fessor Wittke has given us. Yet there comes a time when we 
can not longer listen, when we remember that though speech 
may be silver, silence is golden, and food more precious than 
diamonds. I shall not then add much to our treasure of 
silver, but rather to our treasure of gold — even more suitable 
in these times of general scarcity of this international golden 
money, silence. 

But I cannot let the occasion pass without expressing for- 
mally and publicly the gratitude and appreciation of the 
American community in Munich and of the American nation 
at home for all that has been done in Munich to make the 
occasion notable: first to the Bavarian State Government for 
their sympathetic cooperation, to the authorities of the city 
of Munich who have carried the main burden of the arrange- 
ments — especially to the Oberburgermeister who has given it 
much personal attention, to the University and the other edu- 
cational authorities who have so effectively cooperated in mak- 
ing the occasion a noteworthy success. 

Last — but not least — I must be allowed a special word of 
appreciation to the Deutsche Akademie which conceived the 
happy idea of bringing an American scholar to Germany to 
deliver a series of lectures on Washington and his times in 
commemoration of this anniversary. Than this, it seems to 
me, no better way can be found, indeed no other means so 
valuable for the end in view, the better understanding of 
American life and character in Germany. I must therefore 
congratulate the Deutsche Akademie heartily on their fruitful 
initiative, and on their happy selection of a lecturer in Pro- 
fessor Wittke, whom it gives us particular pleasure to see 
among us tonight. 

I want also to express my hearty sympathy with the further 
plan of the Akademie to perpetuate this seed corn of inter- 
national comprehension — for comprehension is in the last 
analysis the basis of peace — by the establishment of a perma- 
nent professorship of American history and institutions in 
one of the German Universities — two even if the endowment 
could be had. That is the obstacle, an ample endowment 



must first be found. That notwithstanding the general col- 
lapse of values, which makes the most of us poorer than ever, 
somebody will appear, some specimen perhaps of that fabulous 
European animal, the traditional "rich American," who can 
and will endow these chairs to the permanent gain of both 
nations, I confidently hope. 

And now I raise my glass and ask you to join with me in 
pledging the memory of him whom we call the Father of 
our country, that great symbol of solid character, George 
Washington. 

Tells of American Traits 

Dr. Franz Goldenberger, Bavarian State Minis- 
ter for Religion and Education, responded to the 
remarks of the Consul General in terms of hearty 
friendliness. He pointed out that two of the most 
prominent traits of every American were love of 
country and respect and admiration for George 
Washington. The speaker mentioned with deep 
appreciation the help which Americans had given 
to the promotion of art exhibitions in Munich and 
reminded his audience that the year 1932, anni- 
versary of Washington's birth and of Goethe's 
death, symbolized the lasting friendship between 
Germany and the United States. 

To conclude the program, Dr. Friedrich von 
Muller, President of the Deutsche Akademie, dis- 
cussed the plans of the organization for promoting 
understanding between the two nations. A fitting 
climax to his remarks was reached in his presenta- 
tion of an appointment as corresponding honorary 
member of the Deutsche Akademie to Dr. Wittke. 
Dr. Wittke fittingly responded and the Philhar- 
monic Orchestra played the national anthems of 
Germany and America. 

The lecture tour which Dr. Wittke made under 
the auspices of the Deutsche Akademie was referred 
to by Consul General Hathaway in a communica- 
tion to the United States George Washington Bi- 
centennial Commission as one of the most perma- 
nently effective features of the observance of the 
Bicentennial in Germany. The Consul General re- 
ported that the programs in Munich were marked 
by good feeling and friendliness. 

Munich also joined Berlin, Darmstadt, Dresden, 
and other cities which named or renamed streets 
and squares in honor of George Washington by se- 
lecting a street in the 23rd district of the city, con- 
necting the Nibelungenstrasse and the Steuben- 
platz, to bear the name Washingtonstrasse. 

The Bicentennial Committee for Munich was 
headed by Consul General Hathaway, as chairman, 
and consisted of Ross Parker, Dr. Franz Koempel, 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



161 



Professor Camillo von Klenze, and Dr. Charles E. 
Curry. The Consul General gave due credit, how- 
ever, to the German officials under whose auspices 
the celebration in the Rathaus was held. Writing 
to the United States George Washington Bicenten- 
nial Commission on May 18, 1932, Mr. Hathaway 
said: 

"The prime mover in organizing this meeting was the 
Mayor of Munich, Dr. Karl Scharnagl, but he was ably sec- 
onded by representatives of the Bavarian State Government 
and received the hearty support, so far as I was able to ob- 
serve, of the various elements which took part in the affair." 

It was found impossible by the committee to hold 
further Bicentennial celebrations in Munich, and 
with these splendid observances the commemora- 
tion of George Washington's birth was concluded. 

Stuttgart Founds Memorial Library 

One of the most interesting features of the Bicen- 
tennial Celebration in Germany which, at the same 
time, is expected to prove of lasting value, was car- 
ried out in Stuttgart on Washington's birthday, 
February 22, 1932, when a collection of American 
books forming the nucleus of what is to be known 
as the George Washington Memorial Library was 
presented to the Technische Hochschule in cere- 
monies honoring America's First President. 

This library was the result of the efforts of the 
United States Consul General at Stuttgart, Leon 
Dominian, together with Conrad Bareiss and Dr. 
Erich Rassbach, Americans residing in Stuttgart. 
Robert Bosch, prominent German industrialist of 
Stuttgart, also contributed substantially to the ini- 
tial fund raised for the project. 

The library, as presented to the Stuttgart school 
on Washington's birthday, consisted of 3 50 Amer- 
ican books and $5,000. That sum was later in- 
creased, and Mr. Dominian wrote that it was the 
intention of the committee to add to this so as to 
create an endowment of $100,000. The interest 
from the fund will be used yearly to purchase 
American books and pay the expenses of a librarian. 

"I have the impression," wrote Consul General Dominian 
to the United States George Washington Bicentennial Com- 
mission on February 23, 1932, "that an American library in 
this section of Southern Germany will fill a real want and 
that through its founding the Two Hundredth Anniversary 
of the Birth of George Washington has been celebrated in 
appropriate fashion in this city. . . . There has come into 
being in this city an American institution which will afford 
opportunity for Germans to acquire knowledge of the work 
and achievements of Americans in all branches of human 
activity." 



The selection of this means to honor the memory 
of George Washington was made after Mr. Domin- 
ian and his associates on the Bicentennial committee 
for Stuttgart, formed in May, 1931, had consid- 
ered several alternate proposals, including the send- 
ing of German young men to an American univer- 
sity. The founding of the library, it was decided, 
would be of benefit to a greater number of people 
than any other project suggested. 

Presentation Ceremony 

The ceremony of presentation was held in the 
Technische Hochschule on the morning of Wash- 
ington's birthday, with the rector of the school, 
Dr. Rothmund, presiding. Invitations for the cele- 







GEORGE WASHINGTON 
MEMORIAL LIBRARY 

of the 

TECHNISCHE HOCHSCHUIE 
STUTTGART 

founded on tl)e 22 T>d of February 

1952 

BOOK PLATE USED IN THE BOOKS COMPRISING 
THE GEORGE WASHINGTON MEMORIAL LIBRARY 
OF TECHNISCHE HOCHSCHULE, STUTTGART. This 

LIBRARY WAS FOUNDED IN 1932 AS PART OF STUTTGART'S PAR- 
TICIPATION in the Celebration of the Two Hundredth 
Anniversary of the Birth of George Washington 

bration had been sent out to the Wurttemberg 
State Ministry of Education, officials of the United 
States Consulate, faculty members, and students of 
the Technische Hochschule, and prominent resi- 
dents of Stuttgart. The hall, especially decorated 
for the occasion, was well filled to attest the interest 
which the program awakened in Stuttgart. 

A beautiful reproduction of the Gilbert Stuart 
portrait of George Washington, presented by the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission, was prominently displayed with the 
books comprising the library. 

Dr. Rothmund inaugurated the ceremony with 



162 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



a brief introductory speech in which he stated the 
reason for the gathering and paid tribute to the 
memory of George Washington. The rector said: 

The representatives of the Ministry of Education, as well 
as the Faculty and the delegation of students of the Tech- 
nische Hochschule, have assembled here today with the mem- 
bers of the American Consulate and a few other guests in 
order to give the memory of the great American commander 
and statesman, George Washington, who was born on this 
date two hundred years ago at Bridges Creek on the banks 
of the Potomac, an imperishable abode in our institution. On 
this day the American nation in every part of its country is 
commemorating with a feeling of pride and adoration the 
greatest of its sons, who has been the first in war, the first 
in peace, and the first in the hearts of his fellow-countrymen. 
Those Americans who are at present residing in foreign coun- 
tries are also desirous of seeing the memory of their great 
statesman worthily celebrated abroad. In this connection a 
committee for the two hundredth anniversary was formed 
two years ago in Berlin under the honorary presidency of the 
American Ambassador Sackett. In Stuttgart the committee 
consisted of Consul General Dominian, Dr. Rassbach and our 
honorary Senator, Mr. Bareiss. To the committee in Stuttgart 
we are indebted for the plan of establishing at our institution 
an extensive American library, accessible to the whole country 
and Reich, bearing the name of George Washington, to whose 
memory it is devoted. 

On July 1 of last year we were first informed of this plan 
by members of the committee at a meeting of the Small Sen- 
ate, and today we are permitted to accept the fruits of the 
work which has been done in the meantime to realize this 
plan. 

On behalf of the Senate of the Hochschule I wish to wel- 
come all our guests most heartily and thank them for honor- 
ing us with their presence. It is a great pleasure for us to be 
able to welcome in our midst on this festival day of the 
American nation Consul General Dominian and Mrs. Domin- 
ian and the other members of the festival committee, as well 
as the vice consuls of the American Consulate, whose pres- 
ence at our celebration is highly esteemed. 

Tells of Trip to America 

At the conclusion of this brief address Dr. Roth- 
mund introduced Dr. Paul Sakmann, a member of 
the faculty of the Hochschule who had specialized 
in a study of Emerson and who had visited in the 
United States. Dr. Sakmann gave an interesting 
account of his trip to America and spoke of the 
part played by American citizens of German de- 
scent in various periods of United States history. 
A translation of Dr. Sakmann's speech follows: 

This is not the first time that America has been men- 
tioned in this circle, for not long ago we were told by experts 
of the wonders of American technics which they had studied 
in the United States and especially of the manner in which 
the enormous volumes of traffic are handled by American 
cities. There are also men among us at this time who by 
reason of their education and experience are well qualified to 
speak of the marvelous economic life of the New World and 
the striking development of the machine age there. It is not 
for me, unfamiliar as I am with such subjects, to speak of 
them; it is more suitable that I should be satisfied with won- 
dering at the miracle of them. On the other hand, it would 



be most presumptuous of me to speak exhaustively of my 
own theme: the American and the German mind and their 
points of contact. You will therefore, perhaps, kindly per- 
mit me to give a few personal reminiscences of my trip to 
America in a spirit which I hope will in no wise detract from 
the purpose of our meeting. 

It was six years ago on a serene, sunny day in summer, 
which I shall never forget, that I stood on the bridge over the 
Concord River of which the poet sings: 

"Where once the embattled farmers stood 
And fired the shot heard round the world." 

In this shot which echoed "round the world" the American 
farmers signalled the opening of "the most just and the noblest 
of all revolutions which the world has seen." They opened 
the war of principles out of which George Washington was 
to emerge the victorious hero. "If ever men in arms entered 
on a stainless cause, it was they — it was he." 

Across the river stood the gray ivy-covered parsonage — 
the Old Manse of Hawthorne which Emerson's father had 
built; a spot as sacred to the American mind as the places 
where Goethe and Schiller have lived and worked are to the 
German. Mindful of the saying that whoever would under- 
stand the poet must go to the poet's home or his tomb, I 
turned my steps toward the quietness of Sleepy Hollow, the 
resting place of Ralph Waldo Emerson. To my mind came 
once again the admonitions of the great American philosopher 
to scorn trifles, to take high aims, and to do that which the 
weak heart is afraid to do. I seemed to hear his voice re- 
peating maxims, many of which I have no doubt were in- 
spired by the sublimity of George Washington's character. 

Not far from Concord is the great city of Boston, the 
heart of the great state of Massachusetts, a commonwealth 
which Emerson called the "Germany of the States," because 
with all her factories she is still mindful of her culture, and 
like Germany has maintained a balance between her economic 
and mental life. There are the symbols of educational ad- 
vancement and culture in the elm-shaded, spacious courts of 
Harvard University in nearby Cambridge, the alma mater 
of so many great Americans. There also are symbols of 
political growth such as Faneuil Hall, the historic meeting 
place where so often free speech has inspired brave deeds. 

I journeyed to the west over the prairies, over the plains 
of Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. And if these great plains lack 
the romance and glamor one finds elsewhere, they possess that 
special charm which Emerson found expressed in the word 
"serenity." Westward I went to Wisconsin, and there in 
the university town of Madison, surrounded by hills and 
lakes, I found the palace of a library, the magnificent campus, 
and the shadowy avenues which made me feel content as if 
surrounded by the atmosphere of home. 

But with all these new impressions of a new country, and 
I only name a few, they could never lead entirely away from 
the Old World. Too many ties there are leading back and 
forth and intertwining themselves in indissoluble bonds. Be- 
ginning with Washington himself we find these bonds being 
forged. He spoke of the "loyal Dutch belt" in which he in- 
cluded particularly the "Pennsylvania Dutch" who were in 
reality Germans with an already enviable reputation estab- 
lished in their defense of the colonial frontier. It was this 
type of Germans who formed Washington's bodyguard dur- 
ing most of the war; and twelve of these riders escorted the 
great Virginian to his peaceful home at Mount Vernon after 
his well-performed war service. 

It has been said of one of Napoleon's marshals that he was 
"le bras droit de I'Empereur." Washington had a "right 
arm," also, in the person of the former adjutant of Frederick 
the Great, Baron von Steuben. A great American historian 
has written that the resistance which the provincial troops 
were able to offer to the first military power of Europe was 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



163 



nothing short of a wonder; and the sole explanation of this 
wonder is to be found in the personality of the man who was 
their leader. In the accomplishment of this wonder our own 
von Steuben had an important part — a fact which Washington 
himself appreciated as may be seen from his many expres- 
sions regarding the Baron. It was during the bitter and dis- 
consolate winter at Valley Forge in the third year of the war 
that von Steuben hammered the desperate provincials into a 
well organized army, drilling the troops himself in the snow 
and mud. Later it was the doughty old general who stood in 
command in the American trenches before Yorktown when 
the enemy colors were lowered to the banner with the stripes 
and the stars. 

Nearer to present times than these memories of the his- 
toric past are the ties of American-German friendship found 
in the city of Milwaukee, the most "German city" in the 
United States, the city of Karl Schurz. Karl Schurz it was 
who served as the "right arm" of another American Presi- 
dent, the immortal Emancipator, Abraham Lincoln. The 
most prominent, Karl Schurz was still only one of the more 
than 500,000 native Germans or Americans of German ex- 
traction who fought in this war for the preservation of the 
union. 

What a great number of Germans have gone to the new 
world to become loyal and valuable citizens of the United 
States. Many of them have left their homeland during times 
of distress to acquire modest prosperity in the land of their 
adoption. Under these happier circumstances many of them 
have returned to Germany to visit with relatives and to tell 
wonderful tales of the enchanted land of America. There 
is not a single Swabian village which cannot boast many such 
American cousins. The ocean which separates the two coun- 
tries is deep and wide, but a warm "gulf-stream" flows from 
one to the other — a stream of intermingled blood which has 
poured a rich and valuable element into the "melting-pot" of 
the new nation. 

There are other bonds between Germany and America- — 
bonds of spirit and of a common fate. The poets and leaders 
of thought in the two countries have had much in common; 
and our two nations, perhaps more than any others, have 
passed through the greatest revolution of the Occident at the 
same pace. We have not yet emerged from the revolution, 
this economic and industrial crisis, but we seem to be in the 
final phase. It has us involved in the same problem the rest 
of the world is facing. I do not doubt for a moment that we 
shall emerge from the conflict victorious; but we shall do so 
only through our joint efforts and by a mutual under- 
standing. 

The generous endowment with which our school is being 
presented today is one of those fine manifestations of friend- 
ship and good will which will do more than anything else to 
enhance this mutual understanding. We all know from our 
research experience in our own fields how highly valuable 
are the achievements of the American mind. Perhaps it is 
not too presumptuous to feel that we Germans have also con- 
tributed to the enrichment of American life; and in this in- 
terchange of ideas and experience lies the means of over- 
coming all misunderstanding and dangerous superficial con- 
ceptions. How splendid it is that in the gift of this memorial 
library, dedicated to the memory of America's great leader, 
the future leaders of Germany who will come from this school 
shall have the opportunity of acquiring such valuable knowl- 
edge of American achievements! We are proud of the fact 
that after Boston with its German Museum and Berlin with 
its Amerika-Institut will come Stuttgart with its George 
Washington Memorial Library of the Technische Hochschule. 



American Consul Presents Library 

At the conclusion of Dr. Sakmann's address 
United States Consul General Leon Dominian was 
introduced to make the formal presentation of the 
library to the school. Mr. Dominian told of the 
considerations which had led the Bicentennial Com- 
mittee in Stuttgart, with the cooperation of the 
faculty of the Technische Hochschule, to select this 
means of honoring George Washington's memory 
in the Capital City of the State of Wurttemburg. 
Speaking of Washington himself, Mr. Dominian 
recalled that the great American was an engineer, 
a surveyor by profession — a fact of interest to the 
faculty and students of a technical institution of 
learning. The Consul General said: 

The members of the Stuttgart Committee of the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commission have great 
pleasure in finding that they are able to put into execution 
on this auspicious day the plan which they had conceived 
last summer and which was discussed in the Kleiner Senat of 
the Technische Hochschule on July 1 of last year. As you 
know, the Committee was formed to commemorate in Stutt- 
gart in a fitting manner the Bicentennial of the birth of our 
first president and great statesman — George Washington. 
Among the many projects for an appropriate celebration the 
one that appealed to its members most was to found in this 
city a library which would bear the name of one who is in- 
separably connected with the founding of the first republic 
on the American continent and who because of his eminence 
has been recognized as one of the great figures of history. 

The Committee is grateful to the authorities of the Tech- 
nische Hochschule for its co-operation in providing space 
within its own Library for the books forming part of the 
George Washington Memorial Library, and it is a pleasure to 
think that this Library is to be part of the Library of the 
Technische Hochschule where the Committee feels it will be 
in safe and appropriate custody. 

It is pleasant for me to recall here that in addition to the 
readiness with which the Senate of the Technische Hochschule 
expressed its willingness to accept this Library, the bringing 
together of these works and the laying of the foundation of a 
collection of American books in this city was made possible 
by the generosity of public-spirited citizens, among whom it 
is my pleasant duty to mention the names of my fellow- 
workers on the Committee, Mr. Conrad Bareiss and Dr. Rass- 
bach. I also want to mention Mr. Robert Bosch, a grand 
figure in the industry of this State and a friend of your in- 
stitute, whose generosity and interest were most helpful. 

Above all, I find it gratifying to think that you, Magnifi- 
cent Rector and the members of the Faculty of this institu- 
tion, are in agreement with the idea which the donors of these 
books to the Technische Hochschule had in mind; namely, 
that they were providing a means for the enhancing of the 
friendly relations now existing between Germany and the 
United States. We must consider it of favorable augury that 
both American and German citizens have joined in the found- 
ing of this Library. The books which will form the George 
Washington Memorial Library are intended to give you a 
picture of the United States, of American life, history and 
manifold activity to the end that increasing familiarity with 
my country and the life of its citizens will lead to better 
appreciation of American ideals. We know that this must 
be so because in our own country there is no lack of collec- 



164 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



tions of works on Germany and on Germans through which 
it has been possible for Americans to appreciate the develop- 
ment and the extent of German civilization and German 
progress. 

That this library of American works should be founded on 
the day on which Americans honor the memory of their first 
president and great revolutionary leader and that this collec- 
tion of books should find place in a technical school such as 
the Technische Hochschule must not be considered as a mere 
coincidence but as a connection which is eminently fitting 
since George Washington was by profession an engineer and 
a surveyor. The accounts of his early manhood give details 
of his activity first as a surveyor's assistant and later as a 
surveyor in a country in which colonization and settlement 
of land was going on at a rapid pace. His diaries of that 
period reveal the faith he had in the value of lands extending 
to the West into the heart of the continent. 

I may therefore with propriety dwell today on some of his 
enterprises as an engineer. One of the earliest undertakings 
with which he was connected was a reclamation project of 
the marshes known as the Dismal Swamp to make fit for 
cultivation a large tract of land in southeastern Virginia 
through the building of one or more canals to carry off the 
surplus water. After the close of the Revolutionary War his 
records reveal his connection with the Potomac River Com- 
pany, a public engineering enterprise of considerable impor- 
tance in that day to clear the Potomac River of rocks and 
to build canals and locks around its several falls so as to 
promote navigation in that section. We may remember that 
he lived just before the birth of the machinery period and 
that engineering enterprises which he was interested in both 
as a business man and as engineer were carried on with 
methods which today would be considered very primitive. 
This period was one of canals and roads, and to the develop- 
ment of both he gave considerable impetus. 

It is the characteristic of great men to be universal and 
comprehensive in their thoughts and Washington's great mind 
was no exception to the rule. Those who know him merely 
as a military leader should not overlook the fact that he was 
a patron of education and that, while not trained in any 
university or college, he was a man who constantly turned 
to books for new knowledge. He thus educated and im- 
proved himself throughout life. He had a remarkable library 
and we find the following statement in one of his letters: 
"I conceive that a knowledge of books is the basis on which 
all other knowledge rests." It was his interest in education 
which led him to contribute to the schooling expenses of 
nephews and the sons of many of his friends. The records 
we have of his life reveal that in many instances he had paid 
for the education of young boys, who, he thought, showed 
unusual promise. His interest for education was so great 
that he devoted six pages to the subject in his will. In that 
same will he made provision for schools, colleges and uni- 
versities. These are generally unknown phases of his rich 
and active life which it is appropriate to remember today 
in founding the Library in this city which will bear his name. 

In turning over this Library to the Technische Hochschule 
together with the funds donated for its use and amounting to 
$5,000, as I now have the pleasure to do, Magnificent Rector, 
I may be allowed to read the text of the resolution which was 
adopted by the Stuttgart Committee of the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission: 

"In order to increase friendly relations between the United 
States and Germany, and to commemorate fittingly the Bicen- 
tennial of Washington's birth, the Stuttgart Committee of 
the George Washington Bicentennial Commission, consisting 
of American Consul General Leon Dominian, Dr. Erich Rass- 
bach, and Mr. Conrad Bareiss, decided to found a Library of 
American books in the city of Stuttgart, to be known as the 
George Washington Memorial Library, and to present this 



Library to the Technische Hochschule. In witness whereof 
the members of the committee have affixed hereunto their 
signatures. Done in the city of Stuttgart the 22nd of Feb- 
ruary, 1932." 

There are two points to which I want to make allusion 
before concluding my remarks. One is the hope of the 
founders of this Library that their desire to increase the 
friendly relations between our respective countries will always 
be borne in mind by its administrators. The other is that 
whatever has been done so far must be considered by you as 
a beginning. We are giving life today to a project which 
may eventually deserve more ambitious consideration and 
which, we believe, will provide opportunity for the creation 
of an institution of ampler proportion than the modest col- 
lection of books which I have had the pleasure of presenting 
to the Technische Hochschule in the name of the George 
Washington Bicentennial Commission for the use of its pro- 
fessors and students as well as any one else interested in 
American topics. In order to further the development of 
the Library in the spirit in which it was conceived the Stutt- 
gart Committee of the United States George Washington Bi- 
centennial Commission proposes to resolve itself from now on 
into a Library Committee together with members of the 
Faculty of the Technische Hochschule, and I can only con- 
clude by wishing the best of success to this enterprise which, 
I hope, will remain as a symbol in the city of Stuttgart of 
the friendship between our countries. 

Speech of Acceptance 

Dr. Rothmund accepted, on behalf of the fac- 
ulty and students of the Technische Hochschule, 
the gift of the memorial library. Expressing the 
appreciation of himself and his associates, Dr. 
Rothmund spoke highly of the service rendered by 
Consul General Dominian in pushing the enterprise 
to its conclusion. The speaker referred to George 
Washington's own interest in the education of 
young people, and told of his bequests, enumerated 
in Washington's will, to educational institutions. 
The rector called the attention of the audience to 
the fact that the University of Tubingen, situated 
so near Stuttgart as to be almost a part of the city, 
had that day conferred upon United States Am- 
bassador Sackett the honorary degree of doctor of 
jurisprudence and political science to become one 
of the first German universities thus to honor the 
ambassador. Dr. Rothmund's words have been 
translated as follows: 

The Technische Hochschule expresses through me its sin- 
cerest and warmest thanks to you and the other members of 
the Committee and donors for the generous gift which you 
have just presented to our University with the express pur- 
pose of advancing the friendly relations between the United 
States and Germany, and in this manner to commemorate 
in Wurttemberg the bicentennial anniversary of George 
Washington's birth. At the same time I wish to thank you 
cordially for the friendly words which accompanied the in- 
auguration. They have found a keen response in us. 

It is something unusual for the representatives of a state 
abroad to prepare and consummate the celebration of the mem- 
ory of one of their great men with such zeal and devotion in 



Foreign Participation — Germany 



165 



a foreign country, and it is of especial significance that they 
desire his name also to be perpetuated abroad by means of 
donations. We are filled with the profoundest appreciation 
and the greatest respect for the exemplary faithfulness and 
boundless admiration with which they in this manner pay 
tribute to their greatest statesman, and we may conclude that 
they are placing an exceptional amount of confidence in us 
by instituting such a foundation with its. This foundation 
will be an institution of perpetual value for you and for us 
and therefore carries with it the confident expectation that 
the friendly relations which, since the World War have been 
re-established between our people, will always endure. It is 
likewise an expression of the high esteem in which our Uni- 
versity is held by you. This is the great ideal value which 
we perceive in your donation and as we accept it gratefully 
at your hands we look into the future with you, full of con- 
fidence and trust. We are confident that the economic condi- 
tions in your land as well as in ours will improve in the near 
future and that it will be possible to continue what we have 
begun today. The hope to make our American library an 
institution known and used in all Germany as a medium for 
the knowledge of American institutions and life, science and 
research, aspirations and accomplishments, to be mentioned 
also with pride and pleasure in the United States as a scien- 
tific institution from which keen reciprocal relations will be 
formed between American and German scientists, investiga- 
tors, engineers and economists. We have accepted your plan 
with pleasure and enthusiasm because we see a great end in 
its fulfilment which is worthy of all efforts. We are pleased 
that you are prepared to co-operate in a special committee 
in the further pursuance of this aim, and we hope that the 
Swabian tenacity which we are determined to put into the 
service of this undertaking will be a source of real pleasure 
to you. 

We accept your generous donation with a feeling of pro- 
found gratitude to all donors but also with full realization of 
the responsibility and duties which come to us with it and 
with the determination to cherish and care for the tender 
offspring which we may, through your kindness, hand over 
to our alma mater on the day of George Washington's two 
hundredth birthday so that it will grow and flourish to be 
an honor to the man whose great name it bears. 

I have a second idea in mind which I wish to convey to you 
and all present members of your country in the name of all 
present: your eyes are directed more than ever toward your 
home country on this holiday of the United States. You 
justly expect from us, amongst whom you have so long been 
active, that we share your admiration for your great states- 
man and the happy and lofty feelings which are filling you 
today. In this regard I may assure you that we are feeling 
the necessity of standing at your side today and partaking 
inwardly in your celebration and thus afford you a share of 
that "Native Land" feeling here with us. It is on the basis 
of such sentiments that I ask you to accept our sincerest 
good wishes for the great nation which you represent on this 
memorial day. We are pleased that the University of Tubin- 
gen is among the first German universities to grant Ambas- 
sador Sackett an honorary doctor's degree today and thereby 
express in an outward manner the declaration of the deep 
internal reaction of Swabia to the commemoration day of the 



American people and the respect and esteem for their official 
representatives in Germany. 

You, Consul General, have in your speech been so kind as 
to show, from Washington's life, what he accomplished in en- 
gineering both by personal activity and inspiration; his work 
in draining and cultivating a large swamp region in south- 
eastern Virginia by means of drainage canals, as well as the 
work of making the Potomac and James Rivers navigable, 
which was carried out at his instigation. I may add that this 
undertaking may also be traced back to Washington's great 
interest in science, as mentioned by you. Potomac and James 
shares, which had been presented to him by the legislative 
committee of Virginia, were included in his estate and desig- 
nated by will to be used "in the erection of a University in 
one of the central regions of the United States." 

In considering the life and work of this great man from 
every side we find not only points of similarity but also 
strong parallels to our own times. We are stirred by the 
faithfulness and devotion with which Washington was pre- 
pared to serve his people and fatherland as leader both during 
the most agitated war times and in peace, as long as they 
needed him. Modesty, strictest sincerity and sense of duty, 
tenacity and alertness, diligence, courage and endurance built 
up the great nature of this born leader who in spite of the 
greatest party enmity remained firm at his post and from 
his high moral watch-tower constantly kept in mind and suc- 
cessfully pursued the aim of leading his people to happiness, 
power and prosperity. 

A comparison with our own times and the great concern 
about the successful leading of our people through the im- 
mense dangers help us to recognize more clearly the outlines 
and the luminous appearance of this leader of your nation 
and to unite our great admiration and veneration for him 
with yours. We therefore gladly and confidently join in your 
desire that peaceful and friendly relations may always exist 
between our countries and may further our work begun today 
in honor of George Washington's memory. 

Bust of Washington to be Made 

The presentation of the George Washington 
Memorial Library was favorably received by the 
citizens of Stuttgart, and the press of the city con- 
tained many articles referring to it as a "fine en- 
dowment." Throughout all of Southern Germany 
the gift was favorably commented upon. 

Consul General Dominian advised the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion in a letter dated July 2 5, 1932, that the trus- 
tees of the Memorial Library had decided to have 
a marble bust of George Washington made by a 
talented young sculptor of Stuttgart. The bust 
was to be made of the finest marble and was to be 
given a permanent place of prominence in the 
library. 



166 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 




OPENING BICENTENNIAL CELEBRATION AT TOKYO. The three men in the foreground, left to right, are: 
Mr. W. Cameron Forbes, American Ambassador; Prince Iyesato Tokugawa, President of the Japanese House of Peers, and 
Mr. E. W. Frazar, Chairman of the Executive Committee of the Central George Washington Bicentennial Committee of Japan. 



Japan 




JAPANESE in large numbers joined resi- 
dent Americans in memorable celebra- 
f| tions of the Two Hundredth Anniver- 



sary of the Birth of George Washington 
in Japan. Prince Iyesato Tokugawa, president of 
the House of Peers, and Princess Iyesato Tokugawa, 
served with the American Ambassador, Mr. W. 
Cameron Forbes, and Mrs. Forbes, as honorary pa- 
trons of an elaborate and colorful central celebra- 
tion in the Tokyo and Yokohama district, while 
similar celebrations were being held in many other 
parts of the Empire of the Rising Sun. 

The Japanese celebrations were varied in char- 
acter. There were public meetings, receptions, 
dinners, plays and pageants, special entertainments 
for children, radio addresses, musical programs, es- 
say contests in the Japanese schools, and special edi- 
tions of Japanese newspapers. 

A composite organization, under the title of The 
George Washington Bicentennial Celebration in 



Japan, was organized in Tokyo with E. W. Frazar 
as chairman, R. Kurokawa and William Hirzel as 
vice chairmen, and Richard P. Aiken as secretary 
and treasurer. 

This committee reported in 1931 that it had 
found every American society, organization and 
club "eager to lend its support." 

"American business firms have aided greatly in 
such matters as importation of the various proper- 
ties from the United States and supply of mate- 
rials," declared the committee in a published an- 
nouncement. 

"Individual citizens from practically every sec- 
tion of society have freely offered and given their 
time and help, and most gratifying of all has been 
the generous support and whole-hearted coopera- 
tion of a large group of Japanese, whose participa- 
tion in this celebration has been warmly welcomed 
by the Americans." 

The participating organizations, with their dele- 



Foreign Participation — Japan 



167 



gated representatives, in the Tokyo and Yokohama 
district were as follows: 

American-Japan Society, Y. Iwanaga, Lt. Col. 
J. G. Mcllroy; American Association of Tokyo, 
William Hirzel, Richard P. Aiken, W. R. Farley; 
American Association of Yokohama, E. W. Frazar, 
G. N. Coe, E. J. Dorsz; Columbia Society, J. R. 
Conrad, W. R. Devin, S. J. Albright; American 
Club, Tokyo, C. F. Thomas, J. R. Reifsnider, W. 
K. Fowler, Jr.; American Merchants Association, 
C. F. Thomas, E. L. Pennell, R. B. DeMallie. 

Central Celebration in Tokyo 

The principal celebration in this district was held 
on February 22 at the Hibiya Kokaido, or Public 
Hall, in Tokyo. the japan advertiser, of 
Tokyo, on February 23, published a detailed report 
of this opening celebration. This account which 
was sent to the Department of State by the Amer- 
ican Ambassador as part of his official report, be- 
gan as follows: 

The George Washington Bicentennial, which has been so 
long anticipated by the Tokyo community, was held with 
outstanding success yesterday afternoon and evening at the 
Hibiya Public Hall. 

The patrons, Prince and Princess Iyesato Tokugawa, the 
American Ambassador, Mr. W. Cameron Forbes, and Mrs. 
Waldo Forbes, were all present at the affair, and Mr. E. W. 
Frazar, chairman of the executive committee, to whom the 
success of the affair was due in large measure, was on hand 
to welcome the guests who came to both the afternoon and 
evening performances. 

Many other prominent persons were present, including the 
Belgian Ambassador and Baroness de Bassompierre, General 
Gaishi Nagaoka, Viscountess Berryer, Mrs. Teixeira de 
Mattos, the Misses Mary and Alice Lindley, several others of 
the British Embassy and nearly all the members of the Ameri- 
can Embassy. The American army and navy officers all came 
in full dress uniform, which in combination with the period 
costumes of the women, added much to the picturesqueness 
of the occasion. 

The children, according to the account in the 
japan advertiser, began arriving at 5 o'clock in 
the afternoon and were greeted by ushers in full 
costumes of the eighteenth century. They were 
led through a lobby, strikingly decorated with red, 
white and blue with crossed American and Japa- 
nese flags forming the central note, and downstairs 
to the supper room. 

Supper for the children was served shortly after 
5 o'clock. They were then treated to a series of 
sound picture cartoons in the Little Theatre, which 
is in the basement of Hibiya Hall. The movie pro- 
gram began at 7 o'clock, in the main auditorium. 
This was a picture entitled "George Washington, 



His Life and Times," and was sent to Japan by the 
Eastman Kodak Company, having been especially 
prepared by that organization at the request of the 
United States George Washington Bicentennial 
Commission. The newspaper comments: 

The scenes of the Battle of Lexington, the holding of 
Concord Bridge and of Washington crossing the Delaware 
were especially outstanding, and the entire film was an edu- 
cation to witness. 

Rooms Gayly Decorated 

After the movie program, guests began arriving 
for the evening program. This started with supper 
served in two of the dining rooms, because the 
crowd was too great to be handled in one, as was 
originally planned. The dining rooms were gayly 
decorated, the centerpieces on the tables being com- 
posed of red, white and blue flowers. A special 
table was reserved for the honorary patrons, who 
were seated with the American Counsellor, Mr. 
E. L. Neville; the American Military Attache and 
Mrs. J. G. Mcllroy; Bishop and Mrs. C. S. Reif- 
snider, and others. 

Attractive hand-painted menu cards were found 
on each table, these being the work of Mrs. R. S. 
Bratton, Mrs. Elmer Pennell, and Miss Seko, all 
members of the supper committee, the chairman of 
which was Mrs. E. L. Neville. 

During the supper for the grown-ups, a mari- 
onette show was given for the children in the Little 
Theatre by the Osaka troupe of marionette per- 
formers, who were hired especially for the occasion. 

The evening performance began shortly after 8 
o'clock and was preceded by a short address of wel- 
come from Mr. E. W. Frazar, who called upon 
both the American Ambassador and Prince Toku- 
gawa to say a few words. 

Mr. Frazar, dressed in a Colonial costume of blue 
satin, greeted the guests in the main auditorium, 
acting in his capacity as chairman of the function. 
He began his address by saying that the guests had 
assembled for the American Jimmu Tenno, the two 
hundredth anniversary of the birth of the Father 
and Founder of the United States. He remarked 
upon the fact that cities and towns all over the 
United States were celebrating this anniversary of 
America's great patriot, and that at the suggestion 
of the United States George Washington Bicenten- 
nial Commission, created by Congress, Americans 
abroad were taking part in commemorative cere- 
monies. 



168 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Mr. Frazar said that when the Bicentennial Com- 
mittee was appointed in Tokyo many plans were 
proposed and discussed, and the present one finally 
evolved as being the most typical American cele- 
bration. He spoke of the cooperation of the 
America-Japan Society, without which the cele- 
bration would not have been possible. He then 
mentioned the other American organizations which 
had agreed to cooperate in the enterprise — the 
American Associations of Tokyo and Yokohama, 
the Columbia Society, the American Club, and the 
American Merchants Association. 

He said that the outstanding purpose of the com- 
mittee, formed of members of the six organiza- 
tions, was to have a function which might be a 
memorable one to the children of the community. 
Hence the early hours were decided upon and the 
features of entertainment were those which would 
not only prove enjoyable but educational in re- 
calling the life and times of George Washington. 
The children themselves, said Mr. Frazar, were so 
interested that they decided to cooperate in the en- 
terprise, and thus the American School children 
were giving one of the most delightful features of 
the program, the series of Living Pictures dealing 
with various stages of Washington's career. 



Address of Ambassador Forbes 

Mr. Frazar then called upon the American Am- 
bassador, Mr. W. Cameron Forbes, to say a few 
words. Mr. Forbes spoke as follows: 

Americans the world over are gathering and uniting with 
men of other countries in honoring the foremost and greatest 
American citizen, George Washington. 

We are very happy to welcome our Japanese friends to join 
with us on this occasion, and their presence here is a pleasing 
proof that when it comes to honoring the great qualities of 
head and heart and hand, peoples of all nationalities are of 
one mind. 

George Washington excelled in the possession of many ad- 
mirable qualities. He was simple, skillful, systematic, 
thorough, devoted, courageous, sagacious, faithful, patient, 
indomitable, persistent and patriotic, and all to a superlative 
degree. All of these are qualities we seek in men to whom 
we desire to trust the direction of our affairs. In no one 
person in our history have all these qualities been combined 
to the extent that we find them in Washington. As a simple 
citizen, he loved his home. 

Washington never sought office and refused pay for his 
services as a soldier, taking only enough to satisfy a scrupu- 
lously economical expense account. 

Called to be the first President of his country, he again 
revealed all the qualities which had made him the first citizen, 
and added to his laurels as a soldier, those of a statesman. 

Throughout his life he comported himself with a dignity 
that became his high estate. 

After the American Ambassador's speech, Mr. 
Frazar called upon Prince Tokugawa, the president 




GEORGE WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL PAGEANT IN TOKYO. Left to right: Lieut. J. Robert Sheer, Lieut. Thomas 
Cranford, Mr. Bradford Smith, Miss Julia Shathin, Consul Leo D. Sturgeon, Mrs. Thomas Cranford, Mr. Samuel Walter 
Washington, Secretary of the United States Embassy (Collateral Descendant of George Washington, whom he impersonated 
in the Pageant), Mrs. George Marshall, Mr. James Perkins, Consul General Arthur Garreh (Director of the Pageant), and 

Lieut. Harold Doud. 



Foreign Participation — Japan 



169 



of the America-Japan Society, to address the 
audience. 

Prince Tokugawa said that the Japanese were 
honored to cooperate in the celebration for so great 
a patriot as George Washington. He said that qual- 
ities as great as those possessed by Washington were 
subjects for the admiration of all mankind, and 
could not be limited to one country only. Wash- 
ington, said Prince Tokugawa, stood out as an ex- 
ample of liberty and justice, and he hoped that 
the Bicentennial celebrations would do much to- 
ward the promotion of international friendship. 

Living Pictures by Children 

The first part of the evening's dramatic enter- 
tainment was a series of four living pictures given 
by the children of the American School. The first 
of these dealt with George Washington's youth, in- 
cluding games and songs of the period. The out- 
standing feature was the singing of negro spirituals, 
with a guitar accompaniment by William Yama- 
moto. Some of the children were dressed as ne- 
groes in effective colorful costumes, and they sang 
the songs with true zeal, and also did some clogging 
and tap dancing which drew hearty applause from 
the audience. 

The second picture represented George Wash- 
ington as a lieutenant in the British Army, making 
a treaty with the Indians. This scene began with 
the solemn smoking of the peace pipe which was 
presented to George Washington by the Indian 
chiefs. Realistic war cries and Indian dances closed 
the picture. 

The third picture represented Valley Forge with 
the soldiers clustered around the fire for warmth, 
and a blue-coated sentry marching up and down. 
The lighting for this was extremely effective, and 
the blowing of taps at the end a significant touch. 

The final picture showed Washington as Presi- 
dent, and was a scene on the lawn of Mount Ver- 
non, where a graceful minuet was danced by ladies 
and gentlemen in the picturesque costumes of the 
days of George Washington. 

The japan advertiser said: 

The pictures were all a tremendous success, both as to 
action and grouping, and most of all because of the effective 
and artistic costumes. For these, Miss Marie- Jeanne Brooks 
and her sister, Mrs. Antonin Raymond, deserve great credit. 
Not only were the costumes exactly right for each scene, 
both as to period and harmonious arrangement of color com- 
binations, but they were all made in a most ingenious fashion 
from very inexpensive materials, the appropriation having 



been 200 yen to cover the costuming of 76 children. The 
Colonial soldiers were particularly effective, with their long 
blue coats and black cocked hats, and the girls in the last 
scene were charming in their crinolines, pannieres and ruffles. 

The committee in charge of the American School 
pictures, besides Miss Brooks, were the principal, 
Mr. Charles Mitchell, Mrs. T. D. Walser, Miss Eliza- 
beth Wainwright, Mrs. Bernard Gladieux, Miss 
Editha Stone, and Miss Eloise Cunningham. The 
girls in the clog dancing learned some of their steps 
from Miss B. L. Wilcox at the Y. W. C. A., and 
Miss Editha Stone was responsible for training the 
boys in the Indian war dances. The excellent 
make-up was done by Mr. and Mrs. J. Day Mason, 
and Miss Caroline Schereschewsky, who also made 
up the characters in the historical play. 

The children in the living pictures were: George 
Washington, William Johnson; Martha Washing- 
ton, Felicia Gressitt; Stage Property Agent, Vera 
Scott; officers or soldiers, Murray Cunningham, 
Frederick Gilbert, Edward Horn, Gustav Swanson, 
John Reif snider, Walter Clarke, Robert Perkins; 
ladies, Jean Iglehart, Margaret Walser, Edith Tsun- 
oda, Eva Down, Irene De Graw, Brunnie Rolfe, 
Molla Siwertz, Natasha Yusha, Lucile Clarke, Mar- 
garet Kriete, Frances McCall, Katharine Mcllroy, 
Meta Stirewalt, Sophie Lury, Marguerite Graham; 
children, John Holtom, Elizabeth Iglehart, Robert 
Schmidt, Mary Yamaguchi, Molly Poole, Homer 
Pierce, Oleg Troyanovsky, Trevor Gauntlett, Fran- 
ces Mayer, Elida Bauer, Eleanor Poole, Kenneth 
Linn, Dan Holtom, Elizabeth Jorgensen, Ruth 
Stirewalt; gentlemen, Robert Clark, John Erskine, 
Betrand Kriete, Hubbard Horn, Edwin Iglehart, 
Bernard Miura, George Imai, Harold Zaugg; In- 
dians, Florence Gressitt, Hajime Onushi, Scribner 
McCoy, Haru Matsukata, Hans Kramer, Victor 
Takata, Seiichiro Katsura, Kenneth Tsunodo, Wal- 
ter Scott Chapman, William Fisher, Margaret Moss, 
T. Nakano, Lawrence Durgin, Tadashi Arakawa, 
Gerald Holtom; negroes, Frank Huggins, Irene 
Lord, Garfield Mcllroy, Jacquelin Reifsnider, Wil- 
liam Yamamoto, Betty Pierce, Marion Iglehart, 
Eleanor Childs, Betsy Fisher, Akira Okuyama, Les- 
lie Bratton, Louise Horn, and Wesley Schmidt. 

Japanese Give Cherry Blossom Dance 

The second feature of the evening's dramatic en- 
tertainment was a Japanese performance, Hanami 
Odori, which depicted a cherry blossom dance of 
the period of 200 years ago corresponding to the 



170 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



days of George Washington. This was exquisitely 
staged and performed, the costumes and scenery 
being quite as lovely as many of those in Kabuki 
performances. It was put on by a group of thirty- 
five members of an organization known as the 
Wakaba-kai, which was especially formed for the 
George Washington Bicentennial Celebration, 
under the leadership of Mr. R. Kurokawa, secre- 
tary of the America- Japan Society, who gave in- 
valuable help and cooperation throughout the whole 
enterprise. 

The newspaper report of the play follows: 

The Japanese play started with a series of incidents, all 
cleverly enacted, involving a young couple out flower viewing, 
a monkey and its trainer, a woman proprietor of a sake shop 
and a Samurai. Before the sake shop, the monkey becomes 
restive and jumps against the Samurai, who in turn becomes 
angry and attempts to slay the monkey trainer. He is pre- 
vented by an Otokodate (chivalrous person) and then a geisha 
girl comes to patch up the quarrel. The geisha's attendant, 
becoming intoxicated, bumps into one of a group of footmen 
who appear carrying a palanquin. When the footman becomes 
excited, the noble lord within the palanquin opens the door 
and announces that the day is a festival, and that there should 
be no petty quarreling on such an occasion. So all join to- 
gether in executing a dance under the cherry blossoms, a 
truly gorgeous and unforgettable spectacle which won just 
applause from the enthusiastic audience. 

Washington Play Enthusiastically Received 

The final part of the evening's dramatic enter- 
tainment came with a one-act historical play, 
"Washington Takes the Risk," which was one of 
the printed plays sent to Japan by the United States 
George Washington Bicentennial Commission. It 
deals with an incident at Mount Vernon, when 
Washington makes his momentous decision to stand 
with the Colonies and to assume the command of 
the Continental Army when the call comes. The 
japan advertiser continues: 

It is following a dinner party at the Washington Mount 
Vernon home, that messengers arrive from the North with 
the news of the battle at Lexington, telling Colonel Wash- 
ington that the war is on, that already His Majesty's troops 
have suffered their first defeat at the hands of the Massachu- 
setts rebels. 

The play opens with all the guests seated at a long dining 
table, elegantly costumed according to the days of the late 
eighteenth century. As the conversation waxes political, the 
suggestion is made by Madame Washington that the ladies 
leave the gentlemen, a toast is gracefully drunk to their de- 
parture, and the men settle down to talk of the most poignant 
question of the times — the rebellion which is smouldering in 
the Colonies against the mother country. 

The main parts in the after dinner discussion are taken by 
Colonel Washington, played by Mr. Samuel Walter Washing- 
ton (Secretary of the United States Embassy), and Lord 
Fairfax, played by Mr. J. R. McKenlay. Lord Fairfax is 



indignant at the mention of rebellion and filled with rage 
and disgust over what he considers to be the insane actions 
of the Colonists in the north. Colonel Washington expresses 
his faith and idealism in the new country, in whose future 
he earnestly believes. 

In the midst of the discussion, other guests arrive, Mr. and 
Mrs. George Mason, their little daughter Claire Mason, and 
Mr. Edmund Pendleton. Mason and Pendleton both belong 
to the Virginia delegation of the Continental Congress and 
come to tell Colonel Washington that it is rumored that he 
will be asked to take command of the Continental Armies 
should war with England become a certainty. Previous to 
their negotiations, there is a very pretty scene between Colonel 
Washington and little Claire Mason, whose part is taken by 
Miss Julie Shathin. The little girl rushes into the dining 
room and sits on Washington's knee, and he and the child 
talk together, oblivious of the rest of the gathering until 
Claire is adjured by her father to make her prettiest curtsey 
to the Colonel and not to take any more of his time. 

The table discussion is again interrupted, when Madame 
Washington comes in to say that messengers have arrived 
with portenteous tidings from the North. These messengers 
enter to announce the news of Lexington, to establish the 
fact that war has started "beyond doubt." Guests at the 
table become highly excited, shouting with newly kindled 
patriotism on behalf of the Colonial Army. Washington, 
however, bids them to be silent, saying that the situation is 
too grave for mere noisy demonstrations. 

When a toast is proposed to the Colonial Army, Lord Fair- 
fax starts to withdraw, fairly bursting with anger at what he 
deems an unseemly and traitorous demonstration against His 
Majesty, George III. Madame Washington tactfully suggests, 
however, that all the others withdraw, leaving George Wash- 
ington and Lord Fairfax to settle the dispute alone. 

The scene which follows is both dramatic and moving. 
Fairfax recalls to Washington that he feels like a father to- 
ward him, that he has watched his progress in the new country 
to a position of leadership and distinction, and he implores 
him not to do anything so rash as to accept the command of 
the rebel troops. He further points out that the result is 
bound to be a losing fight in the pursuit of a "phantom 
liberty," and that it means the certain destruction of Mount 
Vernon, grave disaster for Washington's wife, and the igno- 
minious death of a traitor for Washington. He points out 
that Washington is an aristocrat, a descendant of one of the 
best English families, and has no business mixing himself up 
with the rough and ready troops of the rebel army. 

But to all Fairfax's arguments, Washington responds with 
his own firm convictions, which express his faith in the destiny 
of America. He reveals the fact that his hopes and ideals 
are tied up with those of the new and growing country and 
that he cannot condone the continued injustices of England. 
In response to the black future painted by Fairfax in regard 
to the personal disgrace to be suffered, Washington points out 
that results cannot be considered while principles are at stake. 

The entrance of Martha Washington precedes the conclusion 
of the play. Fairfax appeals to her to stop her husband from 
taking such a momentous risk as to throw his lot in with 
that of the Colonists. This fills her with dismay, but she does 
not waver or attempt to dissuade her husband from his de- 
cision. Fairfax starts to leave in high dudgeon, but Wash- 
ington pleads with him for a last sign of friendship, and 
Fairfax agrees to shake hands, conceding that friendship 
between them is stronger than the widely diverging paths 
which they will travel in the future. This dramatic leave- 
taking between Washington and Fairfax, met with a spon- 
taneous burst of applause from the audience. 

The characters in the play all took their parts well, Fairfax 
perhaps standing out more than the others. Mr. McKenlay 
has had wide dramatic experience in Tokyo. The character 



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GEORGE WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL EDITION OF THE YOMIURI SHIMBUN. 
This Tokyo newspaper issued a special illustrated children's edition on February 
21, 1932, devoted largely to George Washington and the Bicentennial Celebration. 






171 



172 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



of Fairfax was well suited to his abilities, and he infused the 
part with fire and life, all of his gestures and by-play bearing 
the marks of a finished actor. 

Washington was excellently played by one of his collateral 
descendants, Mr. Samuel Walter Washington, secretary of 
the American Embassy. Mr. Washington interpreted the part 
in a manner which idealized the revolutionary leader and yet 
there was nothing sentimental or overdone about his perform- 
ance. He achieved in the personality of America's great 
patriot a dignity and simplicity which was most appealing. 
Mr. Washington's voice carries well and his slightly Southern 
accent added all the more realism to the part. 

The part of Martha Washington was most satisfactorily 
taken by Mrs. Mona Tait, who was charming and gracious, 
and imparted a distinct individuality to her role as the wife 
of an aristocrat and the mistress of Mount Vernon. 

Little Miss Julie Shathin, though her part was very slight, 
played it in a most successful fashion. She was delightfully 
natural and appealing in her encounter with Colonel Wash- 
ington, and her quaint crinoline costume was most becoming. 
Her episode well served its purpose of bringing out the kind- 
liness in Washington's otherwise firm and unbending nature. 

Both Fielding Lewis, taken by Mr. William Turner, and 
John Parke Custis, played by Mr. Bradford Smith, were out- 
standing. Both have excellent voices and enthusiasm for the 
Colonial cause was stimulated by their fervent speeches. 

The other characters all played their parts well, and showed 
remarkable stage presence, which they needed to carry off 
the elegant and stately costumes, which might have tended 
to make them look awkward had they been less graceful about 
their entrances and exits. 

The costumes, which came from Hollywood, were all 
elaborate and authentic of the period. The one worn by 
Mr. McKenlay as Lord Fairfax was used by Emil Jannings in 
his picture, the Patriot. It was of old velvet, resplendent 
with gold braid, brass buttons and lace ruffles at the neck 
and wrists. 

Washington was costumed in a suit of rich maroon color, 
with cream lace ruffles and a white wig, and Martha Wash- 
ington wore a ravishing creation of green brocaded silk, 
puffed and ruffled with a soft white lace fichu, matching the 
long trailing ruffles of her half length sleeves. 

The rest of the cast in the play were as follows: Mrs. 
Fielding Lewis, Miss Caroline McMahon; Mrs. John Parke 
Custis, Mrs. George Marshall; George Digges, Lieutenant 
Thomas Cranford; Mrs. George Digges, Mrs. J. R. Wolf; 
Miss Jennifer, Mrs. Thomas Cranford; Ben, the butler, Mr. 
Howard Buffington Titus; George Mason, Mr. L. D. Sturgeon; 
Mrs. George Mason, Mrs. Glenn Babb; Mr. Edmund Pendle- 
ton, Mr. James Perkins; Mr. John Cunningham, Mr. Elmer 
L. Pennell; Jeremiah Townsend, Mr. N. H. Briggs; negro 
servants, Lieutenant J. R. Sherr and Lieutenant Harold Doud. 

The stage manager and director of the play was the Ameri- 
can Consul General, Mr. Arthur Garrels; the assistant stage 
manager, Mr. David Tait; property chairman, Mr. MacFarland 
Hale; mistress of wardrobe, Mrs. Glenn Babb; and chairman 
of lighting, Mr. F. S. Thomas. 

In addition to the patrons, the officers of the Washington 
Bicentennial celebration in Tokyo included, Mr. E. W. 
Frazar, chairman; Mr. R. Kurokawa, vice-chairman; Mr. 
William Hirzel, vice-chairman; and Mr. Richard P. Aikin, 
secretary and treasurer. 

The sub-committees included: general building arrange- 
ments, Mr. R. Kurokawa, chairman, Mr. Y. Iwanaga and 
Lieutenant-Colonel J. G. Mcllroy; George Washington play, 
Consul-General Arthur Garrels and Mr. David S. Tait; Japan- 
ese play, Mr. R. Kurokawa, Mr. Y. Iwanaga and Mr. Y. 
Takeda; children's living pictures, Mr. Charles A. Mitchell 
and Mrs. T. D. Walser; motion pictures, Mr. R. B. DeMallie 
and Mr. Tom D. Cochrane; supper, Mrs. E. L. Neville; 



general technical committee, Consul-General Arthur Garrels, 
stage manager, and Mr. D. D. McGregor, Mr. MacFarland 
Hale, Mrs. Bradford Smith, Mr. F. S. Thomas and Mr. David 
S. Tait; music, Mr. R. F. Moss and Mr. J. R. Conrad; pub- 
licity, Mr. B. W. Fleisher and Mr. Y. Iwanaga; finance, Mr. 
C. F. Thomas and Mr. K. Fukui; program and tickets, Mr. 
W. R. Devin, Mr. S. J. Albright and Mr. Y. Takeda; seating, 
Mr. Halleck A. Butts; decorations, Mrs. Burton Crane; chil- 
dren's games, Lieutenant-Commander Melendy, the Rev. H. C. 
Spackman and Miss B. L. Wilcox. 

Organizations participating in the celebration, together with 
their representatives, were as follows: America-Japan Society, 
Mr. R. Kurokawa, Mr. Y. Iwanaga and Lieutenant-Colonel 
J. G. Mcllroy; American Association of Tokyo, Mr. William 
Hirzel, Mr. Richard P. Aikin and Mr. W. R. Farley; American 
Association of Yokohama, Mr. E. W. Frazar, Mr. G. N. Coe 
and Mr. E. J. Dorsz; Columbia Society, Mr. J. R. Conrad, 
Mr. W. R. Devin and Mr. S. J. Albright; American Club of 
Tokyo, Mr. C. F. Thomas, Mr. J. R. Reifsnider and Mr. W. K. 
Fowler, Jr.; American Merchants Association, Mr. C. F. 
Thomas, Mr. E. L. Pennell and Mr. R. B. DeMallie. 

The committee of the celebration has extended thanks to 
the following for help given in furthering the affair: The 
Japan Advertiser, Asahi Shimbun, Nichi Nichi Shimbun, 
Columbia Phonograph Company, Victor Talking Machine 
Company of Japan, Eastman Kodak Company, Paramount 
Films, Dollar Steamship Lines, Imperial Hotel and Hotel 
New Grand. 




GEORGE WASHINGTON BICENTENNIAL POSTER IN 
TOKYO. The program, in the English and Japanese 
Languages, for the opening celebration in Japan. 

Tokyo Celebration a Big Success 

Mr. Frazar, in a letter to the Honorable Sol 
Bloom, Director of the United States George Wash- 
ington Bicentennial Commission, made these com- 
ments on the celebration in Tokyo: 



Foreign Participation — Japan 



173 



The present is therefore to advise you that a very suc- 
cessful affair was held at the Tokyo Hibiya Kokaido (Muni- 
cipal theatre) on February 22nd, in which six Associations 
connected with the activities of Americans and Japanese in 
this vicinity were concentrated. A reference to the head of 
this letter will show you their names. 

The first event, "Living Pictures of Washington's Life," 
by the children of the American School in Japan was very 
good and I think constitutes the first big public entertainment 
of the kind in Tokyo, in which the children of a foreign 
school have taken part. As there are over twelve nationali- 
ties amongst the children, you will understand how interna- 
tional is its character. The children were most enthusiastic 
making their costumes themselves and carried out their dances 
with grace and colorful effect. 

The second event, "Hanami-Odori," a Japanese Dance, was 
given by our Japanese friends and done in a most correct and 
beautiful old fashioned style, showing life as it existed in the 
capital of Japan at the time when George Washington lived. 

The third event, ""Washington Takes the Risk," was taken 
part in by many members of the American Embassy and other 
Society leaders. The costumes were brought from Hollywood 
and were truly beautiful. You will be interested to learn 
that the principal part of George Washington was taken by 
Mr. S. Walter Washington, Third Secretary of the Embassy, 
who tells me that he is the fifth grand nephew, descendant 
from George "Washington, his ancestral parent being Samuel 
Washington, brother of George. The important part of Lord 
Fairfax was taken by Mr. J. Roy McKenlay, a member of 
the British community, and he proved to be a most finished 
actor beside taking a very keen interest in the play. The 
part of Miss Jennifer was taken by the wife of Lt. Thomas 
Cranford of the Embassy, and I am told she is a direct de- 
scendant of the Pendleton family. 

A large audience attended and the article in the japan 
advertiser of the following day which I send you, together 
with three of the programs, will show you how successful 
it proved to be. I also send three photos. 

In closing may I take this opportunity of expressing the 
thanks of the Committee for the many pamphlets, literature 
and suggested programs which your Commission has provided 
and which we have found invaluable in the work. 

Children's Newspaper Popular 

The Japanese newspaper yomiuri shimbun, of 
Tokyo, on February 21, 1932, published a special 
four-page children's section devoted largely to the 
life of George Washington and the celebration of 
the 200th anniversary of his birth. It was illus- 
trated with pictures of Washington and Wakefield 
in colors. In response to a request for one addi- 
tional copy of this newspaper, Mr. Leo D. Sturgeon, 
the American Consul at Tokyo, wrote to the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion under date of July 27, 1932: 

The request contained in your letter was transmitted to 
this newspaper, which saw fit to publish it. The response 
was immediate and very generous; seventy-six copies reached 
this office either directly or through the "Yomiuri Shimbun." 
In many cases the donated copies from various parts of Japan 
were accompanied by cards and letters expressing admiration 
for the character and life of Washington. Although only one 
additional copy was requested in your letter, 75 copies are 
being forwarded, since it is thought that useful distribution 



may be made of them — perhaps to schools or libraries in the 
United States. . . . 

This incident is one of the most interesting that has come 
to the attention of this office, particularly because of the way 
it demonstrates the unselfish interest shown in the life of 
Washington by people residing in widely separated sections 
of this country. 

Programs in Kobe, Osaka, and Kyoto 

A meeting was held at the American Consulate 
at Kobe January 27, 1931, at which it was decided 
that the various American and American-Japanese 
societies in Kobe, Osaka, and Kyoto would coop- 
erate in the George Washington Bicentennial Cele- 
bration. These societies were the American Asso- 
ciation of Kobe, the Washington Society of Kobe, 
the Japan-America Society of Kobe, the Pan-Pacific 
Club of Osaka, the Pan-Pacific Club of Kyoto, and 
the Japan-American Society of Kwansai. 

A joint committee was appointed and named the 
George Washington Bicentennial Celebration Com- 
mittee, with Consul E. R. Dickover as chairman, 
and Consul Howard Donovan as secretary. As the 
result of plans made at this meeting, tree planting 
ceremonies in honor of Washington were held at 
Osaka, Kobe, and Kyoto, an essay contest on the 
life of Washington was conducted in which Japa- 
nese pupils of the Middle and Girls' Schools in the 
Kobe-Osaka-Kyoto district competed, with appro- 
priate medals for the winners, and motion pictures 
descriptive of the life of Washington were exhibited 
at various times and places throughout the district. 
Funds for these ceremonies were raised by direct 
subscription among American residents and by 
lump sum contributions from some of the societies 
sponsoring the celebrations. 

Radio Address by American Consul 

Consul Dickover announced the opening of the 
celebration in this district in a radio address on the 
life of Washington delivered on February 21, 1932, 
and broadcast from the Osaka Central Broadcast- 
ing Station JOBK as follows: 

Ladies and Gentlemen: Tomorrow, February 22, 1932, is 
the two hundredth anniversary of the birthday of the Father 
of our Country, George Washington, and I have been asked 
by the Osaka Broadcasting Office to tell our Japanese friends 
something of the significance, to the American nation, of this 
day. In order to understand the background of our venera- 
tion of the memory of George Washington, I thought that 
I would first tell you something of his life and work. 

George Washington was born on a plantation on the 
banks of the Potomac River, on February 22, 1732. His 
father was of an old, aristocratic English family, and in 
America carried out, as far as possible, the traditions of an 



174 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



English country gentleman, with negroes to work the planta- 
tion and act as servants in the house. The living conditions 
in Virginia at that time, however, would be considered as 
very primitive to the people of today. There were no rail- 
roads, practically no highways, no telegraphs and almost no 
postal system. The principal means of transportation from 
city to city and from city to plantation was by sailing ves- 
sels. Almost all articles of daily use, such as foods, clothing, 
farming tools and household furniture, were produced and 
manufactured on the plantations. Each plantation was a 
little self-contained world of its own, cut off from the out- 
side world to a degree which would surprise modern 
Americans. 

In this environment George Washington passed his boy- 
hood. The active, outdoor life of the country developed his 
body, so that he grew into a tall, strong young man, six feet 
two inches in height. He received, however, very little school- 
ing, as there were few facilities in America at that time for 
scholarly training. But the problems of the plantation de- 
veloped his mind and his power of decision. He had remark- 
able powers of observation and of self-education, and by 
reading and thinking he eventually became one of the best- 
educated men in America of his time. 

At sixteen years of age George Washington, then a tall, 
strong youth, decided to earn his own living. He studied 
land surveying, and at seventeen years of age, after passing 
an examination, he became the official surveyor of one of the 
Virginia counties. He had to work in the almost untrodden 
wilderness west of the Allegheny Mountains, laying out roads 
and fixing boundaries. Working, eating and sleeping in the 
forests and on the plains, he learned woodcraft and the ways 
of the American Indians — a knowledge which served him well 
in later years. He gradually acquired an excellent knowledge 
of civil engineering, a profession which had a great fascina- 
tion for him. He laid out many roads which later became 
highways, built two barge canals and drained a part of a 
great swamp. He was the first professional civil engineer in 
the colonies which afterwards became the United States of 
America. 

At the age of 20, Washington entered the Virginia militia — 
a volunteer military corps — and received a commission as a 
major. At the age of 21 he was entrusted with a delicate 
and dangerous diplomatic mission to the French army, which 
at that time was endeavoring to occupy the Ohio Valley. The 
next year he led a detachment of the militia against the 
French, but he was badly defeated and had to march back 
home again. Apparently, however, he had a considerable 
amount of military genius, because the next year he was 
commissioned as a colonel and appointed aide to General 
Braddock in the campaign against the French and Indians. 
On this campaign Washington nearly lost his life — by fever, 
not by bullets. After the war he resigned his commission 
and returned to farming and civil engineering, but in the 
war he had acquired a good knowledge of military tactics, 
which stood him in good stead in the war to come. 

In the meantime, George Washington had inherited the 
estate of Mount Vernon. He married Martha Custis, a wealthy 
widow, and for fifteen years he was able to lead the quiet 
life of a gentleman farmer. With his active, keen mind, he 
was never content to continue to do anything in the old ways 
of his fathers, but always endeavored to effect improvements. 
So with his farming. He constantly experimented with dif- 
ferent crops, new fertilizers, and various methods of cultiva- 
tion, and invented new farming implements. He enjoyed 
farming and wrote, later in his life, "agriculture has ever 
been amongst the most favorite amusements of my life, though 
I never possessed much skill in the art. I am led to reflect 
how much more delightful to an undebauched mind is the 
task of making improvements on the earth, than all the vain 
glory which can be acquired from ravaging it by conquest." 



But during this quiet period in Washington's life, while 
he was living the life of a gentleman farmer and a leading 
citizen of the Colony of Virginia, the seeds of rebellion against 
the mother country, Britain, were being sown in the American 
colonies. Dissatisfied with the treatment accorded by the 
British Government, heavily taxed without having any vote 
in determining the taxes, and burning under insults, the people 
of the colonies were calling congresses to discuss the situa- 
tion, and in 1775 Washington was elected a delegate to the 
Second Continental Congress. For the next six years Wash- 
ington was making momentous history. Through his sound 
judgment and power of decision, he soon became a leader of 
the Congress and was elected General and Commander-in- 
Chief of all the armed forces which the United States might 
raise to resist the forces of Great Britain. He was only 43 
years of age at this time, and the fact that such a heavy 
responsibility was placed upon the shoulders of so young a 
man speaks volumes for his native ability. For more than 
six long years Washington, the lover of peaceful agricultural 
pursuits, was compelled to live amid the alarms of war. With- 
out sufficient men to fight the battles for the land he loved 
so well, without money for food and clothing for his troops, 
and oftentimes with little sympathy and support from those 
for whom he was fighting, Washington continued the strug- 
gle. Inured to hardship by his early training, conscious of 
the justice of the cause for which he was fighting, and filled 
with high ideals and noble aspirations which he succeeded in 
conveying to his men, he did not become discouraged but 
carried the struggle to a successful conclusion. In 1781 the 
last of the British forces in the United States surrendered at 
Yorktown. 

As soon as he could settle the affairs of the armies under 
his command, Washington retired again to his home on the 
banks of the Potomac "free from the bustle of a camp," where 
he planned, as he wrote to a friend, to "move gently down 
the stream of time until I sleep with my fathers." But again 
the affairs of state called him away from his beloved Mount 
Vernon. In 1789, after much debate, the thirteen American 
states decided to adopt a republican form of federal govern- 
ment, and unanimously elected Washington as the first Presi- 
dent of the new-born United States of America. During his 
two terms of office he formulated the policies, both domestic 
and foreign, which were to endure for many years. It was a 
time of turmoil, with many new and untried plans of govern- 
ment, and it was Washington's task to lead his country 
through the birth of a government until it had settled down 
into a quiet and orderly routine. With calm and wise de- 
termination, with unbounded patience, and with unswerving 
faith in his cause, he led the nation into those paths of co- 
operation, tempered with rational liberty, which have built up 
the greatness of the American nation. He believed firmly 
that the will of the majority should rule and that military 
preparedness was essential to the continuance of peace in the 
land. He succeeded in harmonizing the conflicting interests 
of the northern and southern states, and opened the vast 
plains of the West for settlement. In foreign relations his 
task was perhaps more difficult than in domestic relations, as 
the newly-born republic had to meet the natural antipathy 
of the older monarchies of Europe. But through his calm 
and prudent attitude and his noble ideals, he succeeded in 
winning the respect and esteem of Europe for the new re- 
public. His most prominent policy toward foreign nations, 
a policy which endured for some hundred and twenty years, 
was that of refusing to enter into entangling alliances with 
any European nation. As he wrote in 1793, "I believe it is 
the sincere wish of United America to have nothing to do 
with the political intrigues, or the squabbles, of European 
nations; but on the contrary, to exchange commodities and 
live in peace and amity with all the inhabitants of the earth." 



Foreign Participation — Japan 



175 



Washington also had a firm conviction that the nations of 
the world were constantly growing more fraternal and that 
they would eventually be united into one great family, with 
universal and lasting peace. 

There is not much more to tell of Washington's life. When 
he retired from the Presidency of the United States in 1797, 
he returned to his life as a gentleman-farmer at Mount Ver- 
non and again took up his old interests. He did not have 
long to enjoy this peaceful life, however, as he died in Decem- 
ber, 1799, a little over two years after retiring from the 
Presidency. 

I have tried to paint you a word-picture of Washington, 
in order that you may understand why it is that we so revere 
the man whom we call the "Father of our Country." I can 
do no better in describing his character and what he means 
to the Americans than to quote the words of Henry Lee, who, 
in writing of Washington after his death, said: 

"Possessing a clear and penetrating mind, a strong and 
sound judgment, calmness and temper for deliberation, with 
invincible firmness and perseverance in resolution maturely 
formed, drawing information from all, acting for himself, 
with incorruptible integrity and unvarying patriotism; his 
own superiority and the public confidence alike marked him 
as the man designed by heaven to lead in the great political 
as well as military events which have distinguished the era of 
his life. 

"First in war, first in peace, and first in the hearts of his 
countrymen, he was second to none in the humble and en- 
dearing scenes of private life: Pious, just, humane, temperate, 
and sincere; uniform, dignified and commanding; his example 
was as edifying to all around him as were the effects of that 
example lasting." 

The Americans have always celebrated Washington's birth- 
day on February 22nd, but as February 22, 1932, is the two 
hundredth anniversary of his birth, it was decided some years 
ago to have a special celebration this year, and Congress ap- 
pointed a special Commission, headed by the President of the 
United States, to make plans for the celebration. This Com- 
mission decided not to have any one large celebration in one 
place, but to carry the celebration to the American people, 
wherever they might be, so that every city, town, village 
and hamlet in the United States might do homage to the 
memory of the man whom we all honor as "First in war, first 
in peace, and first in the hearts of his countrymen." It was 
decided, moreover, not to limit the celebration to the United 
States, but to invite American residents in foreign lands, and 
the people of foreign countries who might be interested, to 
join in the celebrations. 

As I know that many of my Japanese friends would like 
to do honor to the memory of the great American, George 
Washington, I called a meeting of representatives of the Japan- 
America Society of Kansai, the Japan-America Society of 
Kobe, the American Association of Kobe, the Washington 
Society of Kobe, the Pan Pacific Club of Osaka, and the Pan 
Pacific Club of Kyoto, when it was decided to form a joint 
committee for a George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 
in the Kobe-Osaka-Kyoto district. This committee has de- 
cided to celebrate the occasion in several ways. On Febru- 
ary 2 5 th the American Ambassador will visit Osaka and Kobe 
and will plant cherry trees in Sakuranomiya Park in Osaka 
and in the Recreation Ground in Kobe. Cherry trees will 
also be planted at Kyoto on the 22nd. We decided to plant 
cherry trees for two reasons. One is that the cherry tree is 
associated with a well-known story of George Washington's 
boyhood and is therefore a symbol of Washington. The other 
is that the cherry tree is symbolic of the spirit of Japan, and 
it seemed a happy thought to combine the two ideas of the 
cherry tree as an expression of the friendship existing between 
the two nations. 

In addition to the planting of cherry trees, there will be 



essay contests on the subject of Washington in all of the 
middle schools and girls' schools which may care to take part. 
It is hoped that special commemoration medals, supplied by 
the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion, will be available as awards to the winners of the contest 
in each school. We hope that many Japanese boys and girls 
will take part in this contest and, by learning more of the 
man whose memory we honor, will learn better to understand 
the ideals and aspirations which animate the American nation. 
Thank you. 

Trees Planted to Honor Washington 

Tree planting ceremonies in Kobe and Osaka on 
February 25 were reported in the japan adver- 
tiser as follows: 

Kobe, February 2 5 (By a Staff Correspondent). — The 
United States Ambassador, Mr. W. Cameron Forbes, today 
officiated at the planting of the first of a group of 80 cherry 
trees at the Kobe Recreation Grounds, to commemorate the 
two hundredth anniversary of the birth of George Washing- 
ton. Mr. E. R. Dickover, United States Consul in Kobe, 
accompanied the Ambassador, who arrived from Tokyo to- 
gether with Mr. Hiram Bingham, Jr., Third Secretary of the 
Embassy, by the morning train. 

The ceremony was held under somewhat adverse weather 
conditions, snow lying more than three inches in depth, but 
it formed a pretty background for the ceremony, which was 
held at the southwest corner of the Recreation Ground. How- 
ever, the weather kept away many who otherwise undoubt- 
edly would have attended. 

Flags of the United States and Japan formed a canopy over 
a small pedestal from which the Ambassador spoke. Owing 
to the weather, the singing of the American and Japanese 
national anthems, which was to have been done by students 
of the Canadian Academy, was cancelled. 

Among those present were Mayor H. Kurose of Kobe; Mr. 
R. A. May; Mr. F. N. Jonas; Mr. D. G. Young; Mr. H. 
Tamura, president of the Japan-America Society; Dr. Hori; 
Mr. B. W. Brown; Mr. Fred Taylor; Mr. Erie R. Dickover 
and Mr. H. Donovan, both United States Consuls in Kobe, 
and others. 

Before the tree-planting ceremony, Ambassador Forbes ad- 
dressed the gathering as follows: 

"In planting these trees in memory of America's first 
citizen, George Washington, I do so in the hope and expec- 
tation that they will grow to full size and live for many 
years, each year flowering in such a way as to be a beauty 
spot, and bringing pleasure to many generations of Japanese 
citizens of Kobe yet to be born. It is very gratifying to 
Americans to feel that the Japanese people join with their 
brothers overseas in honoring the memory of this great Ameri- 
can. It means that those great qualities for which George 
Washington was celebrated are also admired by the people 
not only in Japan but in the world over, wherever his name 
has come to be revered and wherever solid worth is valued 
and men's achievements are known and their history studied. 

"I am shortly to return to America, and while there, it will 
give me great happiness to tell my friends of this ceremony 
and of the consideration shown to our people by yours; and 
particularly at this time when there are certain to be dif- 
ferences of opinion about some matters of major policy. It 
is pleasant to dwell on things whereon we think alike, as that 
is the best way to strengthen the ties which unite our two 
countries. 

"I hope that the annual flowering of these trees may be a 
symbol of the perennial flowering of the strong ties of na- 
tional interests which unite our two peoples." 



176 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



Mayor Kurose replied briefly and mentioned that the Japan- 
ese people had always respected the name of George Wash- 
ington. He felt that they had in some measure learned of 
honesty from the great statesman's example, and that George 
Washington's association with the cherry tree had always 
been one of the reasons why Japanese remembered him. The 
Mayor felt it was a great honor to have a part in the planting 
of the cherry trees which were to be a standing memorial to 
a great statesman of America, whom Japan held as her friend. 

Mr. Forbes then went through the planting ceremony, 
shoveling part of the earth over the roots of the tree. He 
was followed by Mayor Hirose, Mr. Dickover, Mr. F. M. 
Jonas, Mr. Tamura and Mr. Brown. 

A similar ceremony took place this afternoon at the Sakura- 
no-Miya Park in Osaka. It was attended by officials and 
members of the American- Japan Society of Osaka and many 
others. 

The American Ambassador on February 25 de- 
livered an. address on George Washington at a din- 
ner at Osaka given by the Japan-America Society 
of Kwansai. Motion pictures descriptive of the life 
of Washington were shown after the Ambassa- 
dor's address. 

Consul Speaks at Kyoto 

A cherry tree planting ceremony, at which Con- 
sul Donovan delivered an address, was held at Oka- 
zaki Park at Kyoto, February 22. Mr. Donovan 
said: 

Ladies and Gentlemen: On this 22nd of February, 1932, 
we are celebrating the two hundredth anniversary of the birth 
of George Washington, and are gathered here today to do 
honor to the memory of the man who, through his military 
genius, his wisdom of action, and his high-minded statesman- 
ship, has rightly come to be known as the Father of His 
Country. 

The Americans have always celebrated Washington's birth- 
day on February 22nd, but as February 22, 1932, is the two 
hundredth anniversary of his birth, it was decided some years 
ago to have a special celebration this year, and Congress ap- 
pointed a special Commission, headed by the President of the 
United States, to make plans for the celebration. This Com- 
mission decided not to have any one large celebration in one 
place, but to carry the celebration to the American people, 
wherever they might be, so that every city, town, village and 
hamlet in the United States might do homage to the memory 
of the man whom we all honor as "First in war, first in peace, 
and first in the hearts of his countrymen." It was decided, 
moreover, not to limit the celebrations to the United States, 
but to invite Americans resident in foreign lands and the 
people of foreign countries who might be interested, to join 
in the celebrations. 

The American Associations in the Kansai District, together 
with the Pan-Pacific Club of Kyoto, the Pan-Pacific Club of 
Osaka, the Japan-America Society of Kansai, and the Japan- 
America Society of Kobe, have decided to celebrate the occa- 
sion in several ways. On February 2 5 th the American Am- 
bassador will visit Osaka and Kobe and will plant cherry 
trees in Sakuranomiya Park at Osaka and on the Recreation 
Ground at Kobe. We decided to plant cherry trees for two 
reasons. One is that the cherry tree is associated with a well- 
known story of George Washington's boyhood and is there- 
fore a symbol of Washington. The other is that the cherry 
tree is symbolic of the spirit of Japan, and it seemed a happy 



thought to combine the two ideals of the cherry tree as an 
expression of the friendship existing between the two nations. 

In addition to the planting of cherry trees, there will be 
essay contests on the subject of Washington in all of the 
middle schools and girls' schools which may care to take part. 
It is hoped that special commemoration medals, supplied by 
the George Washington Bicentennial Commission in the 
United States, will be available as awards to the winners of 
the contest in each school. We hope that many Japanese 
boys and girls will take part in this contest and, by learning 
more of the great American whose memory we honor, will 
learn better to understand the ideals and aspirations which 
animate the American nation. 

There has been but little left unsaid in the countless tributes 
to Washington's greatness. I shall, however, read to you an 
extract from an address on Washington delivered by ex- 
President Coolidge on the occasion of the establishment of 
the United States George Washington Bicentennial Commis- 
sion. Mr. Coolidge said: "We all share in the benefits which 
accrued from the independence he won and the free Republic 
he did so much to establish. We need a diligent comprehen- 
sion and understanding of the great principles of government 
which he wrought out, but we shall also secure a wide prac- 
tical advantage if we go beyond this record, already so elo- 
quently expounded, and consider him also as a man of affairs. 
It was in this field that he developed that executive ability 
which he later displayed in the camp and in the council 
chamber. 

"We have seen many soldiers who have left behind them 
little but the memory of their conflicts, but among all the 
victors the power to establish among a great people a form 
of self-government which the test of experience has shown 
will endure was bestowed upon Washington, and Washington 
alone. Many others have been able to destroy. He was able 
to construct. That he had around him many great minds 
does not detract from his glory. His was the directing spirit 
without which there would have been no independence, no 
Union, no Constitution, and no Republic. His ways were 
the ways of truth. He built for eternity. His influence 
grows. His stature increases with the increasing years. In 
wisdom of action, in purity of character, he stands alone. 
We can not yet estimate him. We can only indicate our 
reverence for him and thank the Divine Providence which 
sent him to serve and inspire his fellow men." 

This ceremony today, in which the people of two great 
nations join, is one of thousands which will be held through- 
cut the world in commemoration of this, the two hundredth 
anniversary of the birth of Washington. Let us hope that 
all who participate in these ceremonies will work for the 
development of international understanding, and of inter- 
national sympathy, remembering that these must be based on 
the fullest realization of those ideals of loyalty and sane, far- 
sighted patriotism which are the most important possessions 
of clear-thinking men and women in every nation. On this 
self-development, coupled with sympathetic understanding, 
rests the peace of the world. Let us hope that in the planting 
of this tree, so symbolical of the national spirit of Japan and 
of the man whose memory we are honoring today, we may 
further develop the spirit of mutual understanding and friend- 
ship between Japan and the United States. 

Japanese School Contests 

The most important activity in connection with 
the George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 
in the Kwansai district, according to a report of 
Consul Donovan, was an essay contest arranged for 
the public and private schools. This was announced 



Foreign Participation — Japan 



177 



by Consul Donovan in an address delivered on May 
28, 1932, at Osaka before a large gathering. He 
said: 

I assure you that it gives me a great deal of pleasure to 
address so large a gathering of members of the Japan-America 
Society of Kansai, the Pan-Pacific Club of Osaka, and teachers 
and students of the middle schools of this district on an 
occasion which so highly honors the memory of our great 
statesman, citizen, and soldier, George Washington. 

The tributes paid to the memory of Washington in Japan 
on the occasion of the two hundredth anniversary of his birth 
are a source of gratification to all Americans, indicating as 
they do the admiration of the Japanese people for those quali- 
ties with which his name will forever be associated in his 
own country. 

The various Japan-America Societies in the Kansai district 
established a joint committee early this year, known as the 
George Washington Bicentennial Committee, with the idea 
of arranging appropriate ceremonies at various times through- 
out the year 1932 in honor of Washington's birth. You are, 
of course, acquainted with the activities of the committee, 
the most important of which is the essay contest arranged 
for the public and private middle school? in the Kansai dis- 
trict. The object of this contest is to encourage among 
Japanese students the study of the life and character of 
George Washington in the hope that many Japanese boys and 
girls, by learning more of the great American whose memory 
we honor, will learn better to understand the ideals and 
aspirations which animate the American nation. 

George Washington was born on February 22, 1732, on a 
plantation situated on the banks of the Potomac River not 
far from the city which now bears his name. His father 
came of old, aristocratic English stock and led, so far as was 
possible in America at that time, the life of an English coun- 
try gentleman. Conditions of life, as compared with those 
existing today, were primitive. There were no railroads, no 
telegraphs, practically no highways, and almost no postal sys- 
tem. Sailing vessels which traversed the seacoast and the 
rivers were the chief means of transportation, while away 
from the rivers and the seacoast pack animals were the chief 
means of transport. Articles of daily use, such as foods, 
clothing, tools, and household furniture, were made on the 
plantation, chiefly by negro slaves. Each plantation was a 
self-contained unit of its own and had but little contact with 
the outside world. Hunting, riding, and fishing were the 
principal amusements. 

George Washington's boyhood differed but little from that 
of other sons of good families in Virginia. Educational op- 
portunities were limited in Virginia in those days but Wash- 
ington received as much schooling as could be obtained in 
the district in which he lived. The active outdoor life 
developed his body and he grew into a tall, strong young man, 
six feet two inches in height. As a student Washington was 
industrious and made the most of his limited opportunities, 
aided at the same time by remarkable powers of observation 
and self-reliance. 

At the age of sixteen Washington studied land surveying, 
a profession highly esteemed in the American colonies at that 
time. At the age of seventeen he passd the required exami- 
nation and bcame an official surveyor for one of the counties 
in the State of Virginia. For three years Washington worked 
in the pathless wilderness of the Allegheny Mountains, laying 
out roads, mapping boundaries, and performing the numerous 
tasks required of him. Washington was one of the first civil 
engineers in the colonies and much of the work which he did 
in the laying out of roads is still in existence, while the 
accuracy of his land surveys has never been questioned, and 
they still serve as the boundary lines of many counties in 



Virginia. The three years Washington spent as a surveyor 
were years of hard work, replete with danger from hostile 
Indians, and in this, his first achievement, we see evidence of 
those qualities of industry, perseverance, courage, and keen 
observation which were to stand him in such good stead in 
the years to come. 

At the age of twenty Washington entered the militia of 
the State of Virginia — a volunteer military corps — and re- 
ceived a commission as major. A year later, in 175 3, Wash- 
ington was entrusted with a dangerous and delicate mission 
to the French headquarters in the Ohio country. To deliver 
this message it was necessary to travel through 300 miles of 
trackless wilderness, beset with savage Indians. One or two 
other men had essayed the journey but had turned back before 
reaching their destination. Washington set out on the same 
day that the Governor's orders reached him and accomplished 
the journey in record time. 

In the acceptance of this mission we see one of Washing- 
ton's outstanding characteristics, which was his desire to be 
different from other men, not in fundamental character, but 
always within the conventional pattern. What he wanted 
was to be different by being on a higher level. This may be 
called vanity, but it is vanity with a creative force, a quality 
which so often goes with strong characters. 

Another feature of Washington's character was his matter- 
of-fact coolness in the presence of danger. On the return 
journey to Virginia, after he had delivered his message to the 
French commander, he was deserted by his Indian guides and 
the heavy snows made it necessary to abandon his horses and 
to continue through the mountains on foot. The situation 
was perilous to the utmost degree but Washington devoted 
only one sentence to it in his official report to the Governor. 

In 175 5 Washington accompanied General Braddock on his 
expedition against Fort Duquesne and nearly lost his life 
through fever. His fearlessness and military skill were dis- 
played in his covering of the retreat of Braddock's army, 
which was utterly routed by the French and Indians. Wash- 
ington had four horses shot from under him in this engage- 
ment. For three years more Washington remained in military 
service, during which time he commanded the Virginia troops 
on the frontier. In 175 8 he retired to his estate at Mount 
Vernon, married, and for fifteen years led the life of a country 
gentleman. He was keenly interested in agriculture and de- 
voted much time and effort in the improvement of his crops, 
in the invention of new farming implements, and in improving 
methods of cultivation. 

But during this quiet period of Washington's life, while he 
was living the life of a country gentleman and at the same 
time taking an active part in civic affairs, the seeds of rebel- 
lion against Great Britain were being sown in America. It is 
unnecessary for the purposes of this brief address to discuss 
the events leading up to the Revolutionary War since Wash- 
ington played but a minor part in them. However, in 1775 
he was elected a delegate to the Second Continental Congress, 
where by reason of his sound judgment and power of decision 
he soon became a leader of the Congress and was elected 
Commander-in-Chief of all the armed forces which the United 
States might raise to resist the armies of Great Britain. Wash- 
ington was only forty-three years of age at that time and 
the fact that such a heavy responsibility was placed upon the 
shoulders of so young a man speaks volumes for his native 
ability. 

It was during the six years from 1775 to 1781 that Wash- 
ington, as Commander-in-Chief of the American armies, made 
his name immortal. Without sufficient troops, often without 
money to buy food and ammunition for his army, and at 
times without the whole-hearted support of the people for 
whom he was fighting, Washington persevered and brought 
the war to a successful conclusion. While we must not 



178 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



minimize the part played by other patriots in the Revolution 
it is not too much to say that without Washington's breadth 
of vision, perseverance, high ideals, and military skill, there 
would have been no American nation. Another character- 
istic of Washington which belongs only to the truly great 
was his magnanimity. At one of the most critical periods of 
the war several of his officers, misled by a dissatisfied adven- 
turer named Conway, conspired to have him removed from 
his post as Commander-in-Chief. Washington took no action 
against the conspirators and the plot collapsed of its own 
weight. In later years as President Washington appointed 
some of these men to high positions in the government, realiz- 
ing as he did that they were men of high character and ability 
who had been merely led astray at a critical moment when 
only the strongest willed could maintain a balanced judgment. 

At the close of the war Washington retired to his estate 
at Mount Vernon where he hoped to spend the rest of his 
years in peace and quiet. But in 1789 the Colonies decided 
to establish a Federal Government, and Washington was the 
unanimous choice of the people as the first President of the 
United States. It was here that his great constructive abili- 
ties shone most brightly. The problems of the new republic 
were many and pressing. There were conflicting claims of 
the various colonies to be settled, many of which were jealous 
of the prerogatives of the Federal Government. Questions 
of currency, coinage, taxation, and all of the multitudinous 
details of a new state were thrust upon Washington, all of 
which he met with a breadth of vision, soundness of judgment, 
and a spirit of conciliation which rarely, if ever, have been 
equalled. 

But perhaps his greatest contribution to the American 
nation was his well-defined policy with respect to foreign 
affairs, a question of paramount importance to a new and 
struggling nation which encountered the natural antipathy of 
the older monarchies of Europe. Efforts were made to involve 



the newly established nation in the wars and intrigues of 
Europe, all of which were met by Washington with such 
foresight, tact, and prudence that he not only succeeded in 
avoiding these entanglements but at the same time won the 
respect and admiration of Europe for the United States. 

Washington retired from the Presidency in 1797, honored 
and respected by the American people. There is but little 
more to be said about his life. The next two years he lived 
quietly at Mount Vernon, where he died in 1799, a little 
more than two years after he retired from the Presidency. 

I have endeavored to give you some idea of Washington's 
life and work in order that you may understand and appreci- 
ate why he ranks above all in the estimation of his country- 
men. Perhaps the best explanation, and one which will help 
you to understand why Washington is revered by all Ameri- 
cans as the father of his country, is found in the words of 
Calvin Coolidge, who in his oration on Washington at the 
time of the establishment of the George Washington Bicen- 
tennial Commission, said: 

"We have seen many soldiers who have left behind them 
little but the memory of their conflicts, but among all the 
victors the power to establish among a great people a form 
of self-government which the test of experience has shown 
will endure was bestowed upon Washington, and Washington 
alone. Many others have been able to destroy. He was able 
to construct. That he had around him many great minds 
does not detract from his glory. His was the directing spirit 
without which there would have been no independence, no 
Union, no Constitution, and no Republic. His ways were 
the ways of truth. He built for eternity. His influence 
grows. His stature increases with the increasing years. In 
wisdom of action, in purity of character, he stands alone. 
We can not yet estimate him. We can only indicate our 
reverence for him and thank the Divine Providence which 
sent him to serve and inspire his fellow men." 




PARTICIPANTS IN NAGASAKI CELEBRATION. Seated in front on the floor, Mr. Krider; seated in front row, 
left to right, Mrs. Bruner, Mrs. Bruns, Miss Taylor, Mrs. Hitchock, Miss Couch, Miss Altman, Miss Smith, Mrs. Hoekje; 
standing, left to right, Dr. Scott, Miss Hagan, Miss Peckham, Miss Curry, Mr. Hoekje, Miss Place, Miss Sharpe, Mr. Bruns, Mrs. 
Krider, Mr. Bruner, Mr. MacAlpine, Mr. Hitchock (American Consul), Mrs. Gerrish, Mr. Mason, Miss Shirk, Miss Moore, 

Captain Martin, Miss Ashbaugh. 



Foreign Participation — Japan 



179 




AMERICAN COLONIAL MINUET AT NAGASAKI. Left to right (all ladies) Misses Sharpe 

Hagen, Moore, Mrs. Krider, Miss Smith. 



Couch, Curry, Altman, 



In a letter to the Secretary of State from Kobe, 
November 30, 1932, Mr. Donovan reported: 

Medals were awarded in November to fifty-seven prize 
winners in an essay contest on the subject of the life of George 
Washington. The participants were students of the various 
middle schools and girls' schools in the Kobe-Osaka district, 
institutions which correspond to high schools in the United 
States. 

Nagasaki Celebrations 

At Nagasaki the observance of the George 
Washington Bicentennial began on February 22. 
That evening the members of the American Asso- 
ciation of Nagasaki gathered at the home of the 
Kwassui Teachers, each member in costume to make 
it as nearly as possible like an evening of the Amer- 
ican Colonial period. They were both actors and 
audience in what might have been entitled "A 
Birthday Party for General Washington." 

A Nagasaki dispatch to the japan advertiser, 
of Tokyo, February 23, says: 

The large drawing room with its fireplace of Colonial type 
was a perfect setting. The numerous lighted candles and the 
flags, with the thirteen stars of the first flag, added to the 
illusion of a sudden reversal in time. 



. The guests as they arrived were greeted at the door by a 
brisk colored butler (Mr. Krider) and a no less impressive 
colored mammy (Mrs. Mason). Upon entering the drawing 
room the guests heard themselves announced with names of 
Revolutionary memory. Whether they remembered their 
history perfectly or not, and the names fastened upon them, 
they at least gave the impression of fully valuing their dig- 
nities. A most stately assemblage had gathered when the 
guests of honor, General Washington (Mr. Bruner, American 
vice consul) and Mrs. Washington (Mrs. H. B. Hitchcock) 
were announced. 

As the president of the association Captain Truman M. 
Martin was host and master of ceremonies at the festivities 
that followed. The dinner was, as nearly as a close study of 
history could make it, a purely Virginia dinner of the era 
and was as much appreciated as dinners in those days seem 
to have been. 

After the dinner the guests stepped out of character to 
sit down and listen to an interesting summary of the life of 
Washington given by the Rev. Willis G. Hoekje. The chief 
incidents of the story were illustrated by living pictures, 
posed by different members. There followed a short program 
of vocal and instrumental music, introducing songs and tunes 
of Colonial and post-Revolutionary days. 

After the music a minuet was danced, which seemed more 
than anything else to bring a sense of the courtly manners 
in the unhurried times when the Father of his Country lived. 
All of the guests joined in the rest of the dances, the Virginia 
Reel and the other oldtime steps which have never died in 
spite of the years and the advanced tempo of modern days. 

The association is indebted to the ladies of the American 
community for a delightful evening with an atmosphere re- 



180 



George Washington Bicentennial Celebration 



producing Revolutionary times. The initiative of Captain 
Martin is also to be remembered in getting arrangements 
made in time to give the party on its proper date. 

The committee of the American Association in 
charge of the George Washington Bicentennial 
Celebration in Nagasaki consisted of Mrs. Henry 
B. Hitchcock, chairman; Mrs. Walter W. Krider, 
Miss Caroline S. Peckham, and Captain Truman M. 
Martin. 

Captain Martin forwarded to the Commission in 
Washington an account of the Bicentennial Cele- 
bration at Nagasaki on May 14 prepared by Mrs. 
Krider, as follows: 

The second Bicentennial Celebration of the American As- 
sociation of Nagasaki was a George Washington Tea, with 
members and children in costume, held in the garden of the 
American consulate on May 14, 1932. As the program was 
given by the seven American children of Nagasaki, the other 
foreign children of the city and friends were guests of the 
association. 

The program consisted of two short plays depicting episodes 
in the life of Washington, the dancing of the stately minuet 
and a tree-planting ceremony of unusual interest. 

While planning for the new garden of the American con- 
sulate, beech, walnut and magnolia seeds had been received 
directly from Mount Vernon. They were planted in the 
garden and by the time the Bicentennial plans were matured, 
the beech had become a fine young sapling. Captain Tru- 
man M. Martin, the president of the association, dedicated and 
named the tree, while the children, pulling red, white and 
blue streamers, opened a large white paper balloon and re- 
leased the branches of the "Washington Beech." May it 
stand for years as a living record of the Bicentennial spirit of 
the American Association of Nagasaki! 

Special mention is due the consul, Mr. Henry H. Hitch- 
cock, and to Mrs. Hitchcock; for it was their careful planning 
that made possible the successful carrying out of these pro- 
grams in Nagasaki. 

Events at Nagoya 

Mr. J. Holbrook Chapman, American Consul at 
Nagoya, reported to the State Department the fol- 
lowing events in his Consular District in connec- 
tion with the George Washington Bicentennial 
Celebration: 

February 21. — A George Washington commemo- 
rative service was held at St. John's Church Higa- 
shi Kataha, at 3.45 p. m. It was attended by about 
60 local resident Americans and others. The spe- 
cial George Washington sermon was delivered by 
the Reverend R. E. McAlpine, D. D., who is the 
American longest resident in Nagoya. 

February 22. — The American Consul and Mrs. 
Chapman gave a reception at the Nagoya Cham- 
ber of Commerce and Industry from 4 p. m. to 
6 p. m. About 100 persons were present including 



the Governor of Aichi Prefecture, the Mayor of 
Nagoya, the Commanding General of the 3rd 
Army Division and his staff, the Director of the 
Nagoya Railway Bureau, the Chief Judges of the 
Nagoya Courts, the officials of the Chamber of 
Commerce, various prominent industrial and bus- 
iness men of the city, and members of the Ameri- 
can, British and other foreign colonies. 

In a letter to the United States George Washing- 
ton Bicentennial Commission November 29, 1932, 
Mr. Chapman said: 

Although circumstances did not permit the small colony 
of Americans residing in Nagoya to realize any Bicentennial 
commemorative events other than those already reported to 
you through the Department of State, I have pleasure in 
informing you that the reading of President Washington's 
first Thanksgiving Day Proclamation, as contained in Presi- 
dent Hoover's Proclamation for 1932, was a special and 
impressive feature of the annual Thanksgiving Day church 
service which was held here on November 24, 1932. The 
service was conducted by the Reverend Arthur C. Knudten. 
There was an attendance of about 40 persons. I had the 
honor of reading the President's Proclamation. 

Ambassador Tells of Cherry Trees 

The Japanese Ambassador, Mr. Katsuji Debuchi, 
wrote an article for a special Bicentennial edition of 
the Washington times, May 30, 1932, in which 
he gave the history of the famous Japanese cherry 
trees in Washington, D. C. The Japanese Embassy 
also inserted the following announcement in this 
newspaper: 

Japan Is Proud to Join 

In Celebration of the 

Memory of 

GEORGE WASHINGTON 

Ambassador Debuchi's article follows: 

It gives me great pleasure to participate in the United 
States George Washington Bicentennial celebration. On this 
auspicious occasion, I am happy to say a few words concern- 
ing the history of the Japanese cherry trees here in Potomac 
Park. 

It was in 1909 that the late Miss Eliza Ruhamah Scidmore, 
sister of the late Mr. George Hawthorne Scidmore, long 
American consul general in Yokohama, conceived the idea 
of bringing cherry trees from Japan and planting them in 
Potomac Park, the cost to be met by private contributions. 

Mrs. Taft, then the First Lady of the Land, who had visited 
Japan several times on her way to and from the Philippines, 
and had seen the Japanese cherry blossoms, in all their glory, 
heard of Miss Scidmore's plan and became an enthusiastic 
supporter. 

When the news of this movement reached Japan, the city 
of Tokyo took keen interest in it and offered to donate 2,000 
trees to the city of Washington as a token of the deep affec- 



Foreign Participation — Japan 



181 




CHILDREN AT BICENTENNIAL PARTY OF THE AMERICAN ASSOCIATION, NAGASAKI, JAPAN. 



tion cherished by the Japanese people for the people of the 
United States. 

The 2,000 cherry trees reached Seattle on the Japanese 
steamer Kaga Main on December 10, 1909. But on arrival 
and examination at Washington, the trees, to the great dis- 
appointment of all, were found infected with various tree 
diseases and had to be entirely destroyed. 

The Americans concerned were deeply grieved over this 
misfortune, and in January, 1910, the Hon. Philander C. 
Knox, then Secretary of State, expressed to Baron (now 
Count) Yasuya Uchida, the Japanese ambassador, the keen 
sense of regret of the Government of the United States and 
of the District of Columbia that this unfortunate measure 
had to be taken in the case of such a handsome gift and one 
so greatly appreciated by the authorities and people of the 
city of Washington. 

He particularly recognized, in expressing his profound re- 
gret, the fact that the municipality of Tokyo selected old 
trees which were well known to be the most artistic in shape 
and the most brilliant in blossom, and that these, the finest 
and most valuable, were also, in the nature of things, trees 
most likely to be victims of various diseases and insects. 

Baron Uchida immediately wrote to his government sug- 
gesting that the city of Tokyo be asked to send another con- 
signment, this time taking the necessary precaution to keep 
the trees free from disease. Not only did the city accept this 
suggestion but it sent 3,000 carefully inspected trees to 
replace the previous ill-fated shipment of 2,000. 

The preparation of so many young trees for trans-Pacific 
shipment in wholesome condition required considerable time. 
However, in February, 1912, the 3,000 trees reached Wash- 
ington and passed the inspection of the authorities. 

On March 27, the ceremony of official planting was per- 
formed by Mrs. Taft and Viscountess Chinda, wife of Am- 
bassador Chinda, who had succeeded Baron Uchida. The site 
chosen for this function was a spot near the Tidal Basin some 
hundred yards to the west of the statue of John Paul Jones. 

The ceremony was simple and was witnessed by a small 



group including Miss Eliza R. Scidmore, who originated the 
idea of beautifying Potomac Park with Japanese cherry trees, 
and Col. Spencer Cosby, the superintendent of public build- 
ings and grounds. This done, the rest of the 3,000 trees were 
immediately planted along the Tidal Basin and the Potomac. 

The spot where the ceremony of official planting took place 
long remained in obscurity, as there was nothing to indicate 
the historic scene. Regretting this, Col. Ulysses S. Grant, 3d, 
Director of Public Buildings and Public Parks of the National 
Capital, thoughtfully placed on that spot